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系統識別號 U0026-2707201612433100
論文名稱(中文) 小型電動船鋰離子電池管理系統之分析與設計
論文名稱(英文) Analysis and Design of a Lithium-Ion Battery Management System for a Small Electric Boat
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 系統及船舶機電工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Systems and Naval Mechatronic Engineering
學年度 104
學期 2
出版年 105
研究生(中文) 曾宇溢
研究生(英文) Yu-Yi Tseng
學號 P16031193
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 96頁
口試委員 指導教授-李建興
口試委員-王醴
口試委員-王耀諄
口試委員-白富升
中文關鍵字 鋰離子電池  平衡電路  電池剩餘電量  小型電動船 
英文關鍵字 Lithium-ion battery  balance circuit  state of charge  small electric boat 
學科別分類
中文摘要 為了促進鋰離子電池於電動船之應用,本論文使用基於庫倫積分法之擴展式卡爾曼濾波器來實現電池剩餘電量的估測。一套精準的電池剩餘電量估測技術,將可提升電池之可靠性、壽命及性能,此外,也促使電動船於操作過程中,有一個良好的動態行為,甚至是確保電動船運行的可靠性。因此,以一套適當的電池管理機制作為電動船電池系統的主要樞紐,不但可提升電池本身的可靠性,也可讓駕駛者容易地去監控電池狀態。本論文將敘述如何判定鋰離子電池之剩餘電量,同時也驗證基於電池等效電路之擴展式卡爾曼濾波器於充放電行為時的估測效果。
此外,為了符合電動船之高操作電壓,電池必須依靠串聯的方式來達成,但串聯成為電池組後,會有不平衡的問題,甚至這樣的問題可能會因透過並聯方式來提升電池組容量而更加劇烈。由於電池生產的公差、溫度分布不均或是電池老化等問題,這些因素都可能會造成串聯電池組中之個別電池因過充放電而損壞。雖然目前已有許多平衡方式來解決電池組不平衡之問題,本論文提出全域式主動互補平衡方式來避免電池組中個別電池有過充放電的問題產生,而此方式之平衡時間將少於局部式的平衡方法。
英文摘要 To enhance the use of lithium-ion batteries in electric boat applications, an approach for state of charge (SOC) estimation based on the coulomb counting method with an extended Kalman filter (EKF) is evaluated in this thesis. A good estimation of SOC can improve battery’s reliability, longevity and performance. Besides, an accurate estimate of the SOC gurantee a good behavior of the dynamic boat operating conditions and even ensures a reliable running of a pure electric boat in practice. Thus, a proper battery management acts as the main hub for the boat’s electrical system making battery status reliable and easier to monitor from a display at the helm. This thesis will describe how to determine the SOC of lithium-ion batteries and verify charge and discharge phenomena in lithium-ion batteries on the basis of the equivalent circuit diagram and the EKF.
Moreover, batteries such as those used for electric boat applications are made up from long strings of cells in series in order to achieve higher operating voltages are particularly vulnerable. The problems can be compounded if parallel packs of cells are required to achieve the desired capacity or power levels. Because of production tolerances, uneven temperature distribution and differences in the aging characteristics of particular cells, it is possible that individual cells in a series chain could become overstressed leading to premature failure of the cell. Although various methods of cell balancing have been developed to address this problem by equalizing the stress on the cells, this thesis presents a global and active cell balancing scheme to prevent individual cells from becoming overstressed which is less time consuming than in a partial cell balancing.
論文目次 摘 要 i
Extended Abstract ii
致謝 vi
目錄 vii
圖目錄 x
表目錄 xv
符號說明 xvi
第一章 緒論 1
1.1前言 1
1.2研究動機與目的 1
1.3文獻回顧 2
1.4本論文之貢獻 4
1.5本論文之架構 5
第二章 鋰離子電池的簡介 7
2.1二次電池與鋰離子電池之介紹 7
2.2鋰離子電池等效模型之分類 11
2.3單顆鋰離子電池等效電路模型內部參數萃取 14
2.4單顆鋰離子電池等效電路模型之建立與驗證 20
2.5鋰離子電池串並聯等效電路模型之建立與驗證 25
第三章 鋰離子電池平衡電路之分析 31
3.1平衡電路之分類 31
3.2被動式平衡電路 34
3.3局部式主動平衡電路 36
3.4全域式主動平衡電路 38
3.4.1鋰離子電池電壓量測電路 40
3.4.2全域式主動互補平衡電路之平衡機制 42
3.4.3全域式主動互補平衡電路之實驗結果 43
第四章 鋰離子電池內部參數與剩餘電量之估測 49
4.1剩餘電量估測技術之分類 49
4.1.1放電測試法 49
4.1.2開路電壓法 49
4.1.3內阻偵測法 50
4.1.4庫倫積分法 50
4.1.5有載電壓法 51
4.1.6電解液濃度量測法 51
4.1.7查表法 51
4.1.8開路電壓法結合庫倫積分法 51
4.2卡爾曼濾波器介紹 54
4.3擴展式卡爾曼濾波器應用於鋰離子電池估測技術之推導 58
4.4擴展式卡爾曼濾波器參數估測之模擬結果 63
4.5擴展式卡爾曼濾波器應用於串並聯電池組估測之模擬結果 68
第五章 鋰離子電池作為小型電動船動力源之評估 74
5.1電動船之電池種類選用 74
5.2小型電動船之電池系統的評估 77
5.2.1電池配置 77
5.2.2全域式主動互補平衡之應用評估 79
5.2.3擴展式卡爾曼濾波器之應用評估 88
5.2.4改變單顆電池容量對電池組特性之影響 88
5.2.5改變單顆電池容量對電池管理系統之影響 90
第六章 結論與未來展望 92
6.1結論 92
6.2未來展望 92
參考文獻 94
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