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系統識別號 U0026-2707201223560200
論文名稱(中文) 重複油炸過程對食用油品品質及多環芳香烴化合物排放之影響
論文名稱(英文) Impacts of repeated frying processes on food oil qualities and emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 環境醫學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生(中文) 林采蓁
研究生(英文) Tsai-Jhen Lin
學號 S76991013
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 87頁
口試委員 指導教授-蔡朋枝
共同指導教授-廖寶琦
口試委員-李文智
口試委員-吳聰能
口試委員-陳美如
中文關鍵字 食用油  油炸  多環芳香烴化合物  總極性物質含量  酸價值  排放係數 
英文關鍵字 Edible oil  Frying process  Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  Total polar compound  Acid value  Emission Factor 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究探討食用油重複油炸對油品品質與煙道廢氣中多環芳香烴化合物 (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; PAHs) 排放之影響。本研究選取最廣為使用之一種食用油(棕櫚油)及一種食物(馬鈴薯薯條),油溫設定為 180℃進行重覆油炸(每日油炸四小時且連續油炸七天),於油炸設備設有包圍型氣罩,上方置有排油煙機及廢氣排放管道,並以等速採樣系統進行 PAHs 採樣,同時測量油品之總極性物質含量 (total polar compound, TPC)與其酸價值 (acid value, AV)。研究結果發現:(1)重複油炸七天後AV超過我國衛生署食品衛生處訂定之標準值,而TPC於重複油炸第四天即到達國際油品品質規範值。(2)當重複油炸時間增加,其煙道廢氣中Total PAHs排放濃度隨之遞減,但Total BaPeq濃度隨油炸時間增加而增加;油霧滴濃度雖未隨油炸時間增加而增加,油霧滴中Total PAHs含量與油炸時間呈現負相關,而Total BaPeq含量則是與油炸時間呈現正相關,其主要原因為單位油霧滴之MMW PAHs與HMW PAHs含量上升所致。(3)油炸之Total PAHs排放係數隨油炸時間增加而遞減,而Total BaPeq之排放係數隨油炸時間增加而增加,表示油煙中PAHs 之排放係數不應以單一次採樣結果作為推估排放量之依據。(4)油品內之AV與TPC,與PAHs排放係數有良好的線性關係;隨AV或TPC增加,Total PAHs排放係數隨之遞減,Total BaPeq之排放係數則隨之增加。(5)以TPC為油品品質規範下,所推估之Total PAHs排放量高於以AV為油品品質規範推估之結果,但Total Bapeq排放量推估結果則反之。(6)如以我國速食業PAHs排放量推估,在考量連續油炸之影響之情形下,若以油品品質均可符合TPC之規範下,則Total PAHs及Total BaPeq之排放量誤差分別可達-3.4% ~ 6.5 %及-2.04 % ~ 2.99 %;若以AV觀之,則誤差分別為-5.10 % ~ 9.33 %,及-5.14 % ~ 4.63 %。綜合本研究之結果,油品品質優劣與PAHs排放率及排放係數呈現線性關係,欲以排放係數推估模式進行油煙之PAHs排放量推估應考量食用油品質情形;本研究建議可藉由量測油品之持續AV或TPC結果,擇其適當之排放率與排放係數進行烹飪油煙之PAHs排放量初步推估,其中更以TPC作為油品品質檢測工具較能減少油炸產生之油煙中PAHs排放對環境與人類健康之危害。
英文摘要 The aim of this study is to assess the characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from repeated frying processes and impacts arising from the change on frying oil qualities. This study selected the most widely used cooking oil (palm oil) and food (potatoes) for illustration. The frying temperatures were set at 180℃ and the whole frying processes were conducted for 4 hours per day continuously 7 days. The experimental facilities were equipped with an enclosed hood and exhaust stacks. PAH samples were collected isokinetically from the exhaust stacks. Pre- and post frying oil were collected for the measurement of their total polar compounds (TPC) and acid values (AVs). We found that measured AVs were higher than current standard value set by Department of Health in Taiwan after the 7-day repeated frying process, but TPC reached international oil quality standardized value at 4th day of repeated frying period. Although Total PAHs concentrations decreased as the frying time increased, total benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (Total BaPeq) concentrations increased. Results show that the increase in the frying time would not result in increase in the oil mist concentrations. The content of Total PAHs in oil mists decreased as increasing frying time. Because the contents of MMW PAHs and HMW PAHs in oil mists increased with frying time, the content of Total BaPeq in oil mists increased. Emission factors of Total PAHs decreased with increasing frying time, but Emission factors of Total BaPeq increased, implying that one time sampling results should not be used as the basis to estimate the emissions. AVs or TPC of the frying oil appeared the linear regression with emission factor of PAHs. Emission factors of Total PAHs decreased as AVs or TPC increasing while Total BaPeq increased. We found the estimated Total PAHs emissions of choose TPC for oil quality higher than to choose AV for oil quality; but the estimation of Total Bapeq emissions on the contrary. The above results clearly indicate that cooking oil quality show the linear regression relationship with PAHs emission rate and emission factors. Therefore, to use emission factor estimation model evaluate PAHs emissions of oil fume should be considered in the cooking oil quality situation. It is recommended that the emission of Total PAHs can be estimated by continuously checking TPC or AVs of the frying oil during the frying process. TPC is more suitable than AV to be oil quality detection tool that could protect the environment and reduce human health hazards.
論文目次 摘要I
Abstract II
誌謝 III
總目錄 IV
表目錄 VI
圖目錄 VII

第 1 章 研究背景1
1-1 前言1
1-2 研究目的2
1-3 文獻回顧3
1-3-1 油脂之性質3
1-3-2 油脂品質之鑑定與規範4
1-3-3 烹飪產生之PAHs5
1-3-4 烹調產生之化學物質排放情況7
1-3-5 排放係數推估法推估排放量9
第 2 章 研究材料與方法11
2-1 研究架構11
2-2 採樣與分析11
2-2-1 油炸條件11
2-2-2 油品之採樣與分析方法12
2-2-3 油炸之煙道廢氣中PAHs採樣13
2-2-4 PAHs樣本分析18
2-3 品質保證和品質控制21
2-3-1 空白試驗 21
2-3-2 PAHs標準品回收率之準確度與精密度22
2-3-3 PAHs標準品檢量線之建立22
2-3-4 PAHs方法偵測極限之測定23
2-4 煙道廢氣之PAHs 排放率與排放係數推估方法24
第 3 章 結果與討論25
3-1 食用油重複油炸後其油品內之AVs與TPC變化情形25
3-2 食用油重複油炸之煙道廢氣中PAHs排放濃度26
3-2-1 食用油重複油炸之煙道廢氣中氣相之PAHs排放濃度26
3-2-2 食用油重複油炸之煙道廢氣中固相之PAHs排放濃度27
3-2-3 食用油重複油炸之煙道廢氣中油霧滴排放濃度與其PAHs含量28
3-2-4 食用油重複油炸之煙道廢氣中Total PAHs與Total BaP eq排放濃度29
3-3 食用油重複油炸之煙道廢氣PAHs排放率與排放係數31
3-4 重覆油炸後其油品品質與PAHs排放特徵之相關性32
3-4-1 重覆油炸後其油品品質與煙道廢氣內PAHs排放濃度之相關性32
3-4-2 重覆油炸後其油品品質與煙道廢氣內PAHs排放率及排放係數之相關性34
3-5 重複油炸之油煙中PAHs排放量推估結果37
3-5-1 油炸油之TPC為合法之情境37
3-5-2 油炸油之AV為合法之情境38
3-5-3 不同油品品質規範之PAHs排放量比較40
3-5-4 不同PAHs排放源之排放量比較40
第 4 章 結論與建議41
4-1 結論41
4-2 建議43
參考文獻44
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