進階搜尋


   電子論文尚未授權公開,紙本請查館藏目錄
(※如查詢不到或館藏狀況顯示「閉架不公開」,表示該本論文不在書庫,無法取用。)
系統識別號 U0026-2705201614235000
論文名稱(中文) 線上寵物玩家之沉浸經驗與友伴關係之研究
論文名稱(英文) Flow Experience and Companionship for Online Pet Players.
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 工業設計學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Industrial Design
學年度 104
學期 2
出版年 105
研究生(中文) 李佳穎
研究生(英文) Elena Carolina Li
學號 P38981021
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 129頁
口試委員 指導教授-陸定邦
口試委員-劉說芳
口試委員-曾元琦
口試委員-張育銘
召集委員-陳建雄
口試委員-陳重任
中文關鍵字 動機  沉浸  友伴關係  線上寵物  線上遊戲 
英文關鍵字 motivation  flow  companionship  online pet  online game 
學科別分類
中文摘要 由於玩家透過遊戲互動與線上遊戲中的角色建立關係,因此許多玩家與遊戲角色建立了友伴關係。為了與遊戲角色建立長期的互動關係,玩家必須願意持續玩樂遊戲。其中,遊戲動機是影響玩家選擇玩樂何種遊戲的關鍵因素;沉浸經驗則是影響玩家願意持續玩樂遊戲的重要因素。然而,線上遊戲中的遊戲動機、沉浸經驗與友伴關係三者間之關係、以及沉浸經驗是否影響玩家與遊戲角色的友伴關係皆尚未有研究深入探討。因此,對遊戲設計者而言,難以透過遊戲設計有效連結與運用遊戲動機、沉浸經驗與友伴關係三者間的關係。本研究目的以線上寵物遊戲為研究對象,透過問卷調查、運用遊戲動機量表、沉浸經驗量表與人工寵物友伴關係三個量表探討三項因素間的關係,做為遊戲策略與設計的參考。

本研究根據216份有效問卷,得到以下重要發現:(1)在線上寵物遊戲中,玩家的遊戲動機主要為「成就」與「沉浸」兩種;相較於成就動機,沉浸動機更能有效提昇玩家的沉浸經驗,以及玩家與遊戲角色間的友伴關係。(2)比起僅有單一遊戲動機之玩家,同時具有成就與沉浸兩種動機之玩家,更能提昇遊戲時的沉浸經驗,以及鞏固與遊戲角色的友伴關係。(3)對重視獲得沉浸經驗的玩家而言,高沉浸經驗能顯著幫助玩家與線上寵物建立高友伴關係;低沉浸經驗則可能導致玩家與線上寵物建立低友伴關係。(4)對重視與線上寵物友伴關係的玩家而言,高友伴關係能顯著幫助玩家獲得高沉浸經驗;低友伴關係則顯著導致低沉浸經驗。(5)在沉浸經驗與友伴關係兩者的因素中,專注力與愉悅感兩者間顯著有正向關係、遠距臨場感/失去自我意識則顯著與滿足感有顯著正向關係。

根據上述研究結果,透過適當地連結遊戲動機、沉浸經驗與友伴關係三者間的關係,能鼓勵玩家持續玩樂線上寵物遊戲、擴展遊戲市場;亦能幫助遊戲研發者將相關研究結果運用至其他線上遊戲與人工友伴的研發與設計。
英文摘要 In many online games, players develop a relationship with their game roles or avatars through playing. Some players even develop a companionship with their game roles or avatars. For developing such companionships, players must continue playing online games. Motivation crucially influences the willingness to play online games. The flow experience is a crucial factor that requires a player’s continual playing of a game. However, the relationship among game motivation, flow experience, and companionship is unclear; whether a flow experience affects players’ companionship with their game role is also unclear. Therefore, it is difficult to design an online game for players that effectively connects the game motivation, flow experience and companionship. The purpose of this study is to choose online pet games as study samples, and this study used a game motivation scale, flow experience scale, and the Companionship Scale of Artificial Pets to identify the relationship among game motivation, flow experience, and companionship, and the relationship between flow and companionship levels.

In this study, 216 valid questionnaires were collected, and the results demonstrated that (1) game motivation for online pet game players was primarily immersion and achievement, compared with achievement motivation, immersion motivation had a greater influence on flow experience and the development of player companionship with online pets. (2) Players with immersion and achievement motivation had a substantially enhanced flow experience and companionship with their online pets. (3) A high flow experience enhances a player’s companionship with their online pet, whereas a low flow experience results in low level of companionship. (4) A high level of companionship increases the flow experience, and a low level of companionship results in a low flow experience. (5) The factors of concentration and enjoyment as well as telepresence/loss of self-consciousness and satisfaction had a significantly positive relationship.

According to the results of this study, improvement in the relationship between game motivation, flow and companionship can encourage more players to acquire online pet games and, through an increase in game marketing, designers can amass more resources to assist in developing more online games or artificial companions.
論文目次 ABSTRACT IN CHINESE i
ABSTRACT ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS iv
LIST OF TABLES vi
LIST OF FIGURES viii
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Research Goals 4
1.3 Research Framework 5
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 7
2.1 Artificial Pets 7
2.1.1 Definition and Classification 7
2.1.2 Evolution of Artificial Pets 11
2.2 Online Pets 17
2.3 Game Motivation 22
2.4 Flow 26
2.4.1 Flow Theory 26
2.4.2 Flow Experience and Factors 28
2.4.3 Relevant Scales of Flow 33
2.5 Companionship 36
2.5.1 Establish a Companionship 36
2.5.2 Relevant Scales of Companionship 38
2.6 Summary 42
CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 44
3.1 Hypotheses 44
3.2 Experiment Design 48
3.2.1 Questionnaire Design 50
3.2.2 Questionnaire Validity Test 54
3.2.3 Analysis Method 55
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 60
4.1 Descriptive Statistical Analysis 60
4.2 Questionnaire Reliability and Validity 61
4.3 Effect of Game Motivation on Flow Experience and Companionship 62
4.4 The Relationship of Flow Experience Level and Companionship Level 66
4.5 The Relationship of Flow Experience Factors and Companionship Factors 70
4.6 Discussions 80
4.6.1 Effects of Game Motivations 80
4.6.2 Factors of Flow Experience and Companionship 81
4.6.3 Relationship of Flow experience and Companionship 81
4.6.4 The Relationships of Flow Factors and Companionship Factors 83
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS 85
5.1 Major Findings 85
5.2 Contributions 87
5.3 Future Studies 88
REFERENCES 90
Appendix A THE EVOLUTION OF ARTIFICIAL PETS 104
Appendix B THE GAME MOTIVATION AND FLOW EXPERIENCE SCALE FOR ONLINE PET PLAYERS 111
Appendix C THE COMPANIONAHIP SCALE FOR ONLINE PET PLAYERS 116
參考文獻 A.P.P.A. (American Pet Products Association) (2008). Industry Statistics and Trends: Pet Ownership. American Pet Products Association Inc., CT. Retrieved January 13, 2012, from http://americanpetproducts.org/press_industrytrends.asp.
Allen, K., Blascovich, J., & Mendes, W. B. (2002). Cardiovascular reactivity in the presence of pets, friends, and spouses: the truth about cats and dogs. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64(5), 727-739.
Altschuler, E. L. (2008). Play with online virtual pets as a method to improve mirror neuron and real world functioning in autistic children. Med. Hypotheses, 70, 748-749.
AppData. (2012). App. leaderboard. Retrieved February 18, 2012, from http://www.appdata.com/.
Aguiar, N. R. & Taylor, M. (2015). Children's concepts of the social affordances of a virtual dog and a stuffed dog. Cognitive Development,34, 16-27.
Arkow, P. & Dow, S. (1984). The ties that do not bind: A study of human-animal bonds that fail. In R. K. Anderson, B. L. Hart & L. A. Hart (Eds.), The pet connection: Its influence on our health and quality of life (pp. 348-354): Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Askew, H. R. (1996). Treatments of behaviour problems in dog and cat: A guide for the small animal veterinarian. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
Banks, J. D., & Bowman, N. D. (2013, October). Close intimate playthings? Understanding player-avatar relationships as a function of attachment, agency, and intimacy. Paper to be presented at the annual meeting of Association of Internet Researchers, Denver.
Bartle, R. (1996). Hearts, clubs, diamonds, spades: Players who suit MUDs. Journal of Online Environments, 1(1).
Bekoff, M. (1998). Encyclopedia of animal rights and animal welfare. USA: Greenwood Press.
Belk, R. W. (1996). Metaphoric relationships with pets. Society and Animals, 4(2), 121-145.
Benyon, D. & Mival, O. (2008). Landscaping personification technologies: From interactions to relationships. In Mary Czerwinski, Arnold M. Lund, Desney S. Tan, editors, Extended Abstracts Proceedings of the 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI 2008, Florence, Italy, pp. 3657-3662, ACM, 2008.
Beverland, M. B., Farrelly, F., & Lim, E. A. C. (2008) Exploring the dark side of pet ownership: status- and control-based pet consumption. Journal of Business Research, 61, 490–496.
Bickmore, T. W., Caruso, L., Clough-Gorr, K., & Heeren, T. (2005). “It’s just like you talk to a friend” relational agents for older adults. Interacting with Computers, 17(6), 711-735.
Bloch, L. R. & Lemish, D. (1999). Disposable love: the rise and fall of a virtual pet. New Media & Society, 1(3), 283-303.
Bukowski, W. M. & Hoza, B. (1989). Popularity and friendship: Issues in theory, measurement, and outcome. In T. J. Berndt & G. W. Ladd (Eds.), Peer relationships in child development. Wiley series on personality processes. (pp. 15-45). New York: John Wiley.
Bratton, S. & Ray, D. (2000). What the research shows about play therapy. International Journal of Play Therapy, 9(1), 47-88.
Brown, E. & Cairns, P. (2004). A grounded investigation of game immersion. Paper presented at the CHI'04 extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems.
Brown, S. E. & Katcher, A. H. (2001). Pet attachment and dissociation. Society and Animals, 9(1), 25-41.
Brown, S. -E. (2004). The human-animal bond and self psychology: Toward a new understanding. Society and Animals, 12(1), 67-86.
Campenni, C. E. (1999). Gender stereotyping of children’s toys: A comparison of parents and nonparents. Sex Roles, 40(1/2), 121-138.
Cavanaugh, L. A., Leonard, H. A., & Scammon, D. L. (2008). A tail of two personalities: How canine companions shape relationships and well-being. Journal of Business Research, 61(5), 469-479.
Chang, C. -C. (2013). Examining users’ intention to continue using social network games: A flow experience perspective. Telematics and Informatics, 30(4), 311-321.
Chang, M. K. & Law, S. P. M. (2008). Factor structure for Young's Internet Addiction Test: A confirmatory study. Computers in Human Behavior, 24, 2597-2619.
Chen, H. (2000). Exploring Web users' on-line optimal flow experiences. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, School of Information Studies, Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University.
Chen, H. (2006). Flow on the net-detecting Web users' positive affects and their flow states. Computers in Human Behavior, 22(2), 221-233.
Cheng, C. –T., Yang, Y. –T., Baltes, J., & Wong, C. –C. (2011). An Interactive-Learning System for Pet Robots. IFAC Proceedings Volumes, 44(1), 12686-12691(18th IFAC World Congress).
Chiou, H. (2006). Quantitative research and statistical analysis in social & behavioral sciences. Wunan Publishing, Taipei, Taiwan.
Chiou, H. (2008). Quantitative research method II: Statistical principles and analytic techniques. Yeh Yeh Book Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan.
Choi, D. & Kim, J. (2004). Why people continue to play online games: In search of critical design factors to increase customer loyalty to online contents. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 7(1), 11-24.
Chou, T. J. & Ting, C. C. (2003). The role of flow experience in cyber-game addiction. Cyber Psychology and Behavior, 6, 663-675.
Cross, G. S. (1999). Kids' stuff: Toys and the changing world of American childhood. Cambridge, Mass : Harvard University Press.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Beyond boredom and anxiety. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of Optimal Experience. New York: Harpers Perennial.
Cutumisu, M., Szafron, D., Schaeffer, J., Mcnaughton, M., Roy, T., Onuczko, C., & Carbonaro, M. (2006). Generating ambient behaviors in computer role-playing games. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 21(5), 19-27.
Decuir, J. D., Kozuki, T., Matsuda, V., & Piazza, J. (2004). A friendly face in robotics: Sony’s AIBO entertainment robot as an educational tool. ACM Computers in Entertainment, 2, 14.
Dindar , M. & Akbulut. Y. (2015). Role of self-efficacy and social appearance anxiety on gaming motivations of MMOFPS players. Computers & Education, 81, 26-34.
Ducheneaut, N., Yee, N., Nickell, E., & Moore, R. J. (2006). “Alone together?”: Exploring the social dynamics of massively multiplayer online games. In Proceedings of ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2006), Montreal; Canada. NY: ACM; 2006; 407-416
Finneran, C. M. & Zhang, P. (2005). Flow in computer-mediated environments: Promises and challenge. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 15, 82-101.
Fournier, J., Gaudreau, P., Demontrond-Behr, P., Visioli, J., Forrest, J., & Jackson, S. A. (2007). French translation of the Flow State Scale-2: Factor structure, cross-cultural invariance, and associations with goal attainment. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 8, 897-916.
Friedmann, E., Thomas, S. A., & Eddy, T. J. (2000). Companion animals and Human Health: Physical and cardiovascular influences. In L. P. Anthony, S. P. Elizabeth & J. A. Serpell (Eds.), Companion animals and us (pp. 125-142): New York: Cambridge University Press.
Fujita, M., Kitano, H., & Kageyama, K. (1999). A reconfigurable robot platform. Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 29, 119-132.
Ghani, J. A. (1995). Flow in Human Computer Interactions: Test of a Model. In Carey, J. (Ed.), Human factors in information systems: Emerging theoretical bases (pp. 291-311), New Jersey: Ablex. Publishing Corp.
Glassy, D. & Romano, J. (2003). Selecting appropriate toys for young children: The Pediatrician’s role. Pediatrics, 111(4), 911-913.
Griffiths, M. (1998). Internet addiction: Does it really exist?, In J. Gackenbach (Ed.), Psychology and the Internet : Intrapersonal, interpersonal, and transpersonal implications, New York: Academic Press, 61-75.
Griffiths, M. D., Davies, M. N. O. & Chappell, D. (2004). Demographic factors and playing variables in online computer gaming. Cyberpsychology and Behavior, 7(4), 479-487.
Guay, F., Chanal, J., Ratelle, C. F., Marsh, H. W., Larose, S., & Boivin, M. (2010). Intrinsic, identified, and controlled types of motivation for school subjects in young elementary school children. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(4), 711–735.
Hennessy, M. B., Williams, M. T., Miller, D. D., Douglas, C. W., & Voith, V. L. (1998). Influence of male and female petters on plasma cortisol and behaviour: can human interaction reduce the stress of dogs in a public animal shelter? Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 61, 63-77.
Hirschman, E. (1994). Consumers and their animal companions. Journal of Consumer Research, 20, 616-632.
Hoffman, D. L. & Novak T. P. (1996). Marketing in hypermedia computer-mediated environments: Conceptual foundations. Journal of Marketing, 60(3), 50-68.
Holbrook, M. & Woodside, A. (2008). Animal companions, consumption experiences, and the marketing of pets: Transcending boundaries in the animal–human distinction. Journal of Business Research, 61(5), 377-381.
Hsu, C. -L. & Lu, H. -P. (2004). Why do people play on-line games? An extended TAM with social influences and flow experience. Information & Management, 41(7), 853-868.
Hu, H. -F. & Sung, H. -C. (2014). A Nursing Experience of Using a Robot-assisted Therapy for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of an Institutionalized Older Adult with Dementia. The Journal of Long-Term Care, 16(1), 91-102.
Hu, H. -F., Wang, C. -H., Chang, S. -M., Huang, H. -C., Lai, Z. -Y., & Sung, H. -C. (2014). Preliminary study on the effects of robot-assisted therapy on depression and agitated behaviors among older people with dementia. VGH Nursing, 31(4), 379-387.
Hu, T. -W. & Lin, K. -W. (2015). Emotional design research on electronic pets for senior citizens. Journal of Design Environment, 16, 21-42.
Huang, H. -M. (2002). Identity on the Network. Journal of Cyber Culture and Information Society, 2, 226-228.
Hunicke, R., LeBlanc, M., & Zubeck, R. (2004), MDA: A formal approach to game design and game research. In the Proceedings of the AAAI Workshop on Challenges in Game AI, vol. 4. (San Jose).
Hussain, Z., Williams, G. A., & Griffiths, M. D. (2015). An exploratory study of the association between online gaming addiction and enjoyment motivations for playing massively multiplayer online role-playing games. Computers in Human Behavior, 50, 221-230.
Isbister, K. (2006). Better game characters by design: A psychological approach. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.
Jackson, S. A. & Eklund, R. C. (2002). Assessing flow in physical activity: The Flow State Scale-2 and Dispositional Flow Scale-2. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 24, 133-150.
Jackson, S. A., & Marsh, H. W. (1996). Development and validation of a scale to measure optimal experience: The Flow State Scale. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 18, 17-35.
Jackson, S. A., Martin, A. J., & Eklund, R. C. (2008). Long and Short Measures of Flow: Examining Construct Validity of the FSS-2, DFS-2 and New Brief Counterparts. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 30, 561-587.
Jin, C. -H. (2014). The role of users’ motivations in generating social capital building and subjective well-being: The case of social network games. Computers in Human Behavior, 39, 29-38.
Kanoh, H. (2008). Do virtual pets have positive effects on human beings. Child Research Net. Retrieved January 8, 2013, from http://www.childresearch.net/papers/digital/
2008_01_09.html
Kaplan, F. (2000). Free creatures: The role of uselessness in the design of artificial pets. In Christaller, T., Indiveri, G., and Poigne, A. (eds) In Proceedings of the 1st Edutainment Robotics Workshop, pp. 45-47. Sankt Augustin, Germany.
Katcher, A. H. & Beck, A. M. (1988). Health and caring for living things. In Rowan, A. N. (Ed). Animals and people sharing the world (pp. 53-73), Hanover, New Hampshire: University Press of New England.
Kawabata, M., Mallett, C. J., & Jackson. S. A. (2008). The Flow State Scale-2 and Dispositional Flow Scale-2: Examination of factorial validity and reliability for Japanese adults. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 9(4), 465-485.
Kerepesi, A., Kubinyi, E., Jonsson, G. K., Magnusson, M. S., & Miklo´si, A´. (2006). Behavioral comparison of human-animal (dog) and human-robot (AIBO) interactions. Behavioural Processes, 73, 92-99.
Kidd, A. H. & Kidd, R. M. (1989). Factors in adults' attitudes toward pets. Psychological Reports, 65(3), 903-910.
Kiili, K. (2005). Content creation challenges and flow experience in educational games: The IT-Emperor case. The Internet and Higher Education, 8(3), 183-198.
Kim, T. & Biocca, F. (1997), Telepresence via television: Two dimensions of telepresence may have different connections to memory and persuasion. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 3(2), Article first published online: 23 JUN 2006.
Klein, L. R. (2003). Creating virtual product experiences: The role of telepresence. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 17(1), 41-55, Available online 13 November 2009.
Koo, D. M. (2009). The moderating role of locus of control on the links between experiential motives and intention to play online games. Computers in Human Behavior, 25(2), 466-474.
Kriglstein, S. & Wallner, G. (2005). HOMIE: An artificial companion for elderly people. In Proceedings of the CHI ’05 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 2094-2098, ACM New York, NY, USA.
Kubinyi, E. (2004). Social behaviour of dogs encountering AIBO, an animal-like robot in a neutral and in a feeding situation. Behavioural Processes, 65(3), 231-239.
Kusahara, M. (2001). The art of creating subjective reality: an analysis of Japanese digital pets. Leonardo, 34, 299-302.
Lai, E. R. (2011). Motivation: A Literature review. Pearson’s Research Reports. Retrieved May 16th, 2016, from http://images.pearsonassessments.com/images/tmrs/
Motivation_Review_final.pdf
Lawson, S. & Chesney, T. (2007a). The impact of owner age on companionship with virtual pets. In Proceedings of the 15th Eur. Conf. Information Systems (ECIS 2007), pp. 1922-1928. St. Galen, Switzerland.
Lawson, S. & Chesney, T. (2007b). Virtual pets: Great for the games industry but what’s really in it for the owners? In Proceedings of the 19thWomen in Games 2007, Newport,Wales.
Lawson, S. & Chesney, T. (2007c). Virtual pets and electronic companions: An agenda for interdisciplinary research. In Proceedings of the AISB’07Artificial and Ambient Intelligence, Newcastle University, pp. 147-151. Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, UK.
Lawson, S. & Chesney, T. (2008). Learning to care for a real pet whilst interacting with a virtual one- The educational value of games like Nintendogs. The Proceedings of the AISB 2008 Symposium on The Reign of Catz & Dogz: The second AISB symposium on the role of virtual creatures in a computerised society, University of Aberdeen.
Lazzaro, N. (2007). Why We Play: Affect and the Fun of Games: Designing Emotions for Games, Entertainment Interfaces and Interactive Tools. In A. Sears and J. A. Sears (Eds.), The human-computer interaction handbook: Fundamentals, evolving techniques, and emerging applications. (pp. 679-700): Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, New Jersey, 2nd Edition.
Lee, C. -I., Tseng, J. -M. & Huang, T.-W. (2007). A study in children's recognition of parents' roles through on-line petting games. The Journal of Guidance and Counseling, 29(2), 1-14.
Lee, E. T. (1998). Network games and related services. Instructional Technology and Media, 37, 41-54.
Li, J. -S. (2016). Exercise is no longer alone, virtual pets with you! Retrieved April 10th, 2016, from http://udn.com/news/story/7266/1535044-運動不再孤單-虛擬寵物陪你!
Li, P. -Y. (1999). Interpersonal theory, Testing and Counselling, 152, 3152-3156. (In Chinese: 李佩怡,(1999),人際關係理論,測驗與輔導,152期,頁3152-3156。)
Libin, E. & Libin, A. (2003). New diagnostic tool for robotic psychology and robotherapy studies. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 6, 369-374.
Lim, S. & Reeves, B. (2009). Being in the Game: Effects of Avatar Choice and Point of View on Psychophysiological Responses During Play. Media Psychology, 12(4), 348-370.
Lin, C. -Y., Hung, W. -H., Fang, K., & Tu, C.-C. (2015). Understanding players’ achievement values from MMORPGs: An exploratory study. Internet Research, 25, 829-851.
Livingstone, D. (2006). Turing’s test and believable AI in games. ACM Computers in Entertainment, 4(1).
Luh, D. -B. & Li, E. C. (2011). From real to virtual pets: The evolution of artificial companions as pet. In Proceedings of IASDR 2011 the 4th World Conference on Design Research, pp. 1-12 (CD format).
Luh, D. -B., Li, E. C., & Dai, C. -C (2016). Game Factors Influencing Players to Continue Playing Online Pets. IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games, In press, Accepted on 15, April, 2016
Luh, D. -B., Li, E. C., & Kao. Y. -J. (2015). The development of a companionship scale for artificial pets. Interacting with Computers, 27(2), 189-201.
Marsh, H. W. & Jackson, S. A. (1999). Flow experiences in sport: Construct validation of multidimensional, hierarchical state and trait responses. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 343-371.
Melson, G. F., Kahn, P. H., Beck, A. & Friedman, B. (2009). Robotic pets in human lives: implications for the human–animal bond and for human relationships with personified technologies. Journal of Social Issues, 65(3), 545-567.
Mival, O. & Benyon, D. (2007). Introducing the companions project: Intelligent, persistent, personalized interfaces to the Internet. In Proceeding of the 21st British HCI GroupAnnual Conference on HCI 2007: HCI...but not as we know it - Volume 2, BCS HCI 2007, pp. 193–194. University of Lancaster, United Kingdom.
Mival, O., Cringean, S., & Benyon, D. (2004). Personification Technologies: Developing artificial companions for older people. Paper presented at the ACM CHI 2004 Fringe session.
Mosteller, J. (2008). Animal-companion extremes and underlying consumer themes. Journal of Business Research, 61(5), 512-521.
Murray, A. (2011). Montessori elementary philosophy reflects current motivation theories. Montessori Life, 23(1), 22-33.
My Fishbowl. (2009). About My Fishbowl. Retrieved February 2th, 2014, from http://www.neopets.com/petcentral.phtml
Nambo, H., Kimura, H. & Hirose, S. (2009). Implementation of owner distinction function for therapeutic pet robots. Electrical Engineering in Japan, 169(1), 20-27.
Neopets. (2013). Neopets Website. Retrieved November 7th, 2013, from http://www.neopets.com/petcentral.phtml
Ng, Y. Y., Khong, C. W., & Thwaites, H. (2012). A review of affective design towards video games. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 51, 687-691.
Novak, T. P., Hoffman, D. L. & Yung, Y. -F. (2000). Measuring the customer experience in online environments: A structural modeling approach. Marketing Science, 19(1), 22–42.
Odendaal, J. S. J. & Lehmann, S. M. C. (2000). The role of phenylethylamine during positive human–dog interaction. ACTA Veterinaria, 69(3), 183-188.
Oulasvirta, A. & Blom. J. (2008). Motivations in personalisation behaviour. Interacting with Computers. 20(1), 1-16.
Pattnalk, J. (2004). On behalf of their animal friends. Childhood Education, Winter 2004/2005, 95-100.
Pepe, A. A., Ellis, L. U., Sims, V. K., & Chin, M. G. (2008). Go, dog, go: Maze training AIBO vs. a live dog, an exploratory study. Anthrozoos, 21, 71-83.
Pet Society. (2009). About Pet Society. Retrieved February 2th, 2014, from https://www.facebook.com/petsociety?fref=ts
Plowman, L. & Luckin R. (2004). Interactivity, interfaces, and smart toys. IEEE Computer, 37(2), 98-100.
Rau, P.-L, Peng, S. -Y., & Yang, C. -C. (2006). Time distortion for expert and novice online game players. Cyberpsychology and Behavior, 9(4), 396-403.
Raupp, C. D. (1999). Treasuring, trashing or terrorizing: adult outcomes of childhood socialization about companion animals. Society and Animals, 7(2), 141-159.
Rigby, C. S., Deci, E. L., Patrick, B. C., & Ryan, R. M. (1992). Beyond the intrinsic-extrinsic dichotomy: Self-determination in motivation and learning. Motivation and Emotion, 16(3), 165-185.
Robin, M. & ten Bensel, R. (1985). Pets and the socialization of children. In M. B. Sussman (Ed.), Pets and the family. (pp. 63-78): New York: Haworth.
Romano, D. M. & Wong, A. K. L. (2004). Personality model of a social character. In: 18th British HCI Group Annual Conference, Leeds Metropolitan University, UK.
Rouse, R. (2001). Game design: Theory and practice (2nd edition). Plano, TX: Wordware.
Ryan, R. M. & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 54-67.
Sanders, C. R. (1990). The animal "other": Self-definition, social identity and companion animals. Advances in Consumer Research, 17, 662-668.
Serpell, J. A. (1988). Pet-keeping in Non-Western societies: Some popular misconceptions. In Rowan, A. N. (Ed). Animals and people sharing the world (pp. 33-53), Hanover: University Press of New England.
Sherry, J. L. (2004). Flow and media enjoyment. Communication Theory, 14(4), pp. 328-347.
Skadberg, Y. X. & Kimmel, J. R. (2004). Visitors’ flow experience while browsing a web site: Its measurement, contributing factors and consequences. Computers in Human Behavior, 20(3), 403-422.
Snodgrass J. G., Francois Dengah H. J. 2nd, Lacy M. G., & Fagan, J. (2013) A formal anthropological view of motivation models of problematic MMO play: Achievement, social, and immersion factors in the context of culture. Transcultural Psychiatry, 50(2), 235-262.
Strand, E. B. (2004). Interparental conflict and youth maladjustment: the buffering effects of pets. Stress, Trauma, and Crisis: An International Journal, 7(3), 151-168.
Sweester, P. & Wyeth, P. (2005). Game Flow: A model for evaluating player enjoyment in games. ACM Computers in Entertainment, 3(3), Article 3A.
Tamura, T., Yonemitsu, S., Itoh, A., Okawa, D., Kawakami, A., Higashi, Y., Fujimoto, T., & Nakajima, K. (2004). Is an entertainment robot useful in the care of elderly people with severe dementia? Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 59, 83-85.
Thompson, M., Nordin, A. I., & Cairns, P. (2012). Effect of touch-screen size on game immersion. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 26th Annual BCS Interaction Specialist Group Conference on People and Computers.
Trepte, S. & Reinecke, L. (2010). Avatar creation and video game enjoyment: Effects of life-satisfaction, game competitiveness, and identification with the avatar. Journal of Media Psychology, 22(4), 171-184.
Turkle, S. (2007). Authenticity in the age of digital companions. Interaction Studies, 8(3), 501-517.
Vasalou, A. & Joinson, A. N. (2009). Me, myself, and I: The role of interactional context on self-presentation through avatars. Computers in Human Behavior, 25(2), 510-520.
Victor, C. (2008). Virtual pets: Why are virtual pets so popular. All about Cats & Dogs. Retrieved January 13, 2012, from http://pets.simplycatsy.info/2008/03/virtual-pets-why-are-virtual-pets-so.html
Voiskounsky, A. E., Mitina, O. V., & Avetisova, A. A. (2004). Playing online games: Flow experience. PsychNology Journal, 2(3), 259- 281.
Wallis, A. (2006,). Q&A: Ubisoft's Petz Executive Producer Tony Van. Retrieved January 16, 2011, from http://www.gamasutra.com/php-bin/news_index.php?story=11736
Wan, C. S., & Chiou, W. B. (2006). Psychological motives and online games addiction: A test of flow theory and humanistic needs theory for Taiwanese adolescents. Cyberpsychology and Behavior, 9(3), 317-324
Wang, W. -T. & Chang, W. -H. (2009). Virtual goods and electronic commerce. Science Development, 442, 6-11.
Weibel, D. & Wissmath, B. (2011). Immersion in computer games: The role of spatial presence and flow. International Journal of Computer Games Technology, Volume 2011, Article ID 282345, 14 pages.
Weibel, D., Wissmath, B., Habegger, S., Steiner, Y., and Groner, R. (2008). Playing online games against computer- vs. human-controlled opponents: Effects on presence, flow, and enjoyment. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(5), 2274-2291.
Woodward, L. E. & Bauer, A. L. (2007). People and their pets: A relational perspective on interpersonal complementarity and attachment in companion animal owners. Society and Animals, 15(2), 169-189.
Wu, M.-T. (2008). The last generation plays Tamagotchi, Now the Otaku cares Meromero on the Internet. Retrieved January 18, 2012, from http://mag.udn.com/mag/digital/storypage.jsp?f_ART_ID=145823
Wu, Y. -H., Fassert, C. & Rigaud, A. -S. (2012). Designing robots for the elderly: Appearance issue and beyond. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 54(1), 121-126.
Yang, C. -C. & Chen, H. (2006). Challenges to the online flow research: A review from prospective of validity. Journal of Cyber Culture and Information Society, 11, 145-176.
Yang, S. -M. (2006). The hottest virtual pet Website: Neopets. Retrieved July 21, 2012, from http://www.ectimes.org.tw/Shownews.aspx?id=8239
Yee, N. (2006). Motivations for play in online games. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 9, 772-775.
Yi. S. (2010). Reliable gait planning and control for miniaturized quadruped robot pet. Mechatronics, 20(4), 485-495.
Yokoyama, A., Ribi, F. N., & Turner, D. C. (2004). A comparison of Japanese and Swiss children’s behavior toward a pet robot. Paper presented at the International Conference on Human-Animal Interactions.
Zanetta Dauriat, F., Zermatten, A., Billieux, J., Thorens, G., Bondolfi, G., Zullino, D., & Khazaal, Y. (2011). Motivations to play specifically predict excessive involvement in massively multiplayer online role-playing games: Evidence from an online survey. European Addiction Research, 17(4), 185-189.
Zasloff, R.L. (1996) Measuring attachment to companion animals: A dog is not a cat is not a bird. Applied Animal Behavior Science, 47(1), 43-48.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2021-07-07起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw