進階搜尋


   電子論文尚未授權公開,紙本請查館藏目錄
(※如查詢不到或館藏狀況顯示「閉架不公開」,表示該本論文不在書庫,無法取用。)
系統識別號 U0026-2701201508252800
論文名稱(中文) 感官體驗順序決定偏好及購買決策--以嗅覺偏好為例
論文名稱(英文) Order Effects make Preferences and Purchasing Decision--Using Olfactory as an Example
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 經營管理碩士學位學程(AMBA)
系所名稱(英) Advanced Master of Business Administration (AMBA)
學年度 103
學期 1
出版年 104
研究生(中文) 吳坤芳
研究生(英文) Kun-Fang Wu
學號 RD6021057
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 72頁
口試委員 指導教授-蔡惠婷
口試委員-賴孟寬
口試委員-劉佳玲
中文關鍵字 順序效應  熟悉定律  認知反應  嗅覺感官 
英文關鍵字 order effects  familiarity principle  cognitive responses  olfactory 
學科別分類
中文摘要 商品體驗在行銷策略上地位日趨重要,尤其是針對具感官刺激的產品,例如食品、香氛……等,廠商更是鼓勵消費者試吃、試聞後再下購買決策,使購買風險降低。香氛產業的行銷中,試聞更是購買決策之鑰,因嗅覺是人類感官中直覺偏好反應之首,需聞過才知偏好。
本研究以嗅覺偏好為主,探討順序效應對偏好之影響,即在一連串的產品試聞中,不管香味內容為何,消費者是否會偏好第幾個試聞的產品;除了順序效應的探討,針對之前相關研究的缺口,本研究亦探討順序效應之干擾因素--實證出熟悉定律及認知反應干擾順序效應發揮之效果。
本研究以探討嗅覺感官之順序效應為主,共有三個主實驗。實驗一顯示熟悉定律之存在及其對順序效應之影響;實驗二顯示剔除熟悉定律及認知反應等干擾因素,順序效應中之初始效應較近因效應強大;實驗三顯示認知反應之存在及其對順序效應之影響。
以上結論,在學術面企盼對日後順序效應之研究有所參考,干擾因素的實證可使往後順序效應之研究更加精準;實務面上,則期待結論之意涵對產業設定試用順序模型有所幫助,在產品上市時設計出更有效益、增加購買欲望之產品體驗順序。
英文摘要 Marketers are increasingly encouraging consumers to sample sequence of sensory-rich experiential products before making purchase decisions, fragrance industry especially. Experiential products such as perfume and essential oil incline to be rich on olfactory which is link to intuitive responses most directly.
Despite the existence of such research about order effects, it is not clear as to how the interruptions in this study the familiarity principle and cognitive responses influence order effects. Interestingly, this study report different result in terms of order effects of sampling experiential olfactory product. For instance, Biswas et al(2014) found recency effect ,whereby consumer indicated stronger preference for the experiential product sampled last with dissimilar sensory cues, but in this research we found primacy effect with dissimilar sensory cues in absence of interruptions such as familiarity principle and cognitive responses.
We test our hypotheses with the help of three experimental studies. We use fragrant products (essential oil) because these products are high on olfactory aspects. Study 1 shows the existence of familiarity principle and its influences on order effects. Study 2 examines order effects in absence of interruptions and show the primacy effects with dissimilar sensory cues, consumer indicated stronger preference for the experiential product sampled first which contrast sharply with prior researches,. Study 3 shows the existence of cognitive responses and its influences on order effects. In conclusion, in absence of interruptions, when the sensory cues are alien, the primacy effect is stronger than recency effect in olfactory aspect.
A key theoretical contribution of this research is that it prove interruption on order effects and shows a reverse of recent researching finding when we eliminate it. This research also has implication, especially in the field of product testing. Marketers can have more guides and ideas to set up a sequential model of sampling when the product goes to market.
論文目次 目錄
摘要 I
Abstract II
誌謝 III
目錄 IV
表目錄 VI
圖目錄 VIII
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 3
第三節 研究範圍 6
第四節 研究流程 7
第二章 文獻回顧與探討 9
第三章 研究方法 18
第一節 研究架構與研究假設 18
第二節 研究變項之操作性定義與衡量 21
第三節 問卷設計與研究對象 23
第四節 實驗設計 25
第五節 資料蒐集方法 31
第六節 資料分析方法 32
第四章 研究結果 34
第一節 受測者人數及問卷回收狀況 34
第二節 前測問卷分析結果 35
第三節 主實驗研究結果 36
第五章 結論與建議 54
第一節 研究結論 54
第二節 研究貢獻 57
第三節 研究限制 60
第四節 後續研究建議 61
參考文獻 63
附錄:實驗問卷 69
參考文獻 西文部分
1. Atkinson, R. C. and Shiffrin, R.M. (1968), Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes - In K.W. Spence & J.T. Spence,The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, Vol 2.,London: Academic Press,pp.90-116
2. Anja Stohr (1998),“Air-Design: Exploring the Role of Scents in Retail Environments’’, E - European Advances in Consumer Research ,3, pp.126-132.
3. Ackerman,P. L., M. E. Beier, and M. O. Boyle (2005), “Working Memory and Intelligence’’, American Psychological Asoociation,131(1),pp.61-65
4. Antonia Mantonakis, Pauline Rodero, Isabelle Lesschaeve and Reid Hastie(2009), “Order in Choice Effects of Serial Position on Preferences”, Psychological Science,Nov.1,pp.1309-1312
5. Clef ,J. and Herz, R.S.(2001),“The influence of verbal labeling on the perception of odors: Evidence for olfactory illusions?”, Perception, 30, pp.381-391.
6. Carskadon, M., & Herz, R.S. (2004),“Minimal olfactory perception during sleep: Why odor alarms will not work for humans.” ,SLEEP, 27(3),pp.402-405
7. Carlson, Neil R. (2012),Physiology of Behavior(11 edition), Pearson, pp.363- 369.
8. Davelaar, E. J., Goshen-Gottstein, Y., Haarmann, H. J., & and Usher, M. (2005),“The demise of short-term memory revisited: empirical and computational investigation of recency effects”, Psychological,112 Review, 112(1), pp.3-42.
9. Driver,Jon and Toemme Noesselt(2008),“Multisensory Interplay Reveals Crossmodal Influences on’’Sensory-Specific’’ BrainRegions, Neural Responses, and Judgment,”Neuron,57(1),pp.11-23
10. Dipayan Biswas, Dhruv Grewal and Anne Roggeveen(2010), “How the Order of Sampled Experiential Products Affects Choice”, Journal of Marketing Research, XLVII,pp.508-517
11. Dipayan Biswas, Lauren Labrecque and Donald Lehmann (2011), “Seeing first or Smelling first order effects of sensory cues on product evaluations”, American Marketing Association,summer,p.152
12. Dipayan Biswas, Lauren I. Labrecque, Donaid R. Lehmann, & Ereni Markos(2014),“Making Choices while Smelling, Tasting, and Listening: The Role of Sensory (Dis)similarity When Sequentially Sampling Products”, Journal of Marketing,78(1),pp.112-126
13. Eliassen, J.C., Beland, S.L.,Herz, R.S.and T. Souza. (2003), “Neuroimaging evidence for the emotional potency of odor-evoked memory.” Neuropsychologia, 42, pp.371-378
14. Ed O'Brien and Phoebe C. Ellsworth(2012),“Saving the Last for Best: A Positivity Bias for End Experiences”, Psychological Science,23(2),pp.163-165
15. Herz, R.S. (1998),“Are odors the best cues to memory? A cross-modal comparison of associative memory stimuli."”Annals of the New York Academy Sciences, 855, pp.670-674.
16. Herz, R.S. (2000),“Scents of Time.”The Sciences ,July/August,pp. 34-39.
17. Herz, R.S. (2001),“Ah, sweet skunk: Why we like or dislike what we smell.” Cerebrum, 3(4), pp.31-47.
18. Herz, R.S., Beland, S.L. & Hellerstein, M. (2004). “Changing odor hedonic perception through emotional associations in humans.”, International Journal of Comparative Psychology,17,pp.315-338
19. Herz, R.S., Schankler, C. & Beland, S. (2004),“Olfaction, emotion and associative learning: Effects on motivated behavior.”, Motivation and Emotion, 28, pp.363-383.
20. Herz, R.S. (2009),“Aromatherapy facts and fictions: A scientific analysis of olfactory effects on mood, physiology and behavior” International Journal of Neuroscience,119(2),pp.263-290
21. Hanson-Vaux, Grant,Anne-Sylvie Crisnel,and Charles Spence(2013),“Smelling shapes :Crossmodal Corespondences Between Odors and Shapes”, Chemical Sences,38(2),pp.161-166
22. Inzlicht, M.and Herz, R.S. (2002). “Gender differences in response to physical and social signals involved in human mate selection: The importance of smell for women.” Evolution and Human Behavior, 23,pp. 359-364.
23. Kenrick, D. T., Neuberg, S. L.and Cialdini, R. B. (2009),Social psychology, goals in interaction” (5th ed),Boston: Pearson College Div.
24. Krishna, Aradhna (2012),“An Integrative Review of Sensory Marketing: Engaging the Senses to Affect Perception, Judgment and Behavior”, Journal of Comsumer Psychology,22(3),pp.332-351
25. Lehrl, S. and Fischer, B. (1988),“The basic parameters of human information processing: their role in the determination of intelligence.” Personality and individual Differences., 9, pp.883 - 896.
26. Larry D.Compeau, Dhruv Grewal and Kent B. Monroe(1998),“Role of Prior
Affect and Sensory Cues on Consumers’ Affective and Cognitive Responses and Overall Perceptions of Quality” Journal of Business Research,42(3),pp.295-308
27. Lera Boroditsky. (1999) ,“Taste, Smell, and Touch”, Lecture Notes,p.1
28. Linda Tischler (2005),“Smells like Brand Spirit”, Fast Company magazine, http://www.fastcompany.com/53313/smells-brand-spirit
29. Lichtenstein, S.,Slovic, P.(2006),The construction of preference. New York: Cambridge University Press.
30. Leigh Duncan-Durst(2007),“Scent Branding: Smell of Success?”,MarketingPorfs, http://www.marketingprofs.com/7/duncan9.asp
31. Louis, Catherine Saint(2011),“Fragrance Spritzers Hold Their Fire”, Fashion & Style, New York Times,(April 15)
32. Miller, G. (1956)“The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two”, Psychological Review, 63, pp. 81-97
33. Murphy, S. T. and Zajonc, R. B. (1993),“Affect, Cognition and Awareness: Affectivepriming with suboptimal and optimal stimulus”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 723–739.
34. Mantonakis, Antonia, Pauline Rodero, Isabelle Lesschaeve and Reid Hastie(2009),“Oder in Choice:Effects of Serial Position on Preferences”, Psychological Sciences,20(11),pp.1039-1312
35. Nelson Oly Ndubisi & Chiew Tung Moi (2005),“Customers behaviourial responses to sales promotion: the role of fear of losing face”, Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics,17,pp.32-49
36. Nott,Jason(2011),“Why retailers Pay for your Free Samples”, The Street,(Feb.15)
37. Patrick Leimgruber.(2003),Scent Marketing,University St Gallen
38. Schacter, D. L. (1997),Searching for Memory: The Brain, the Mind and the Past(reprint edition) ,NEW YORK,Basic Books
39. Thompson, Richard F.(2009),“ Habituation: A History”, Neurobiology of Learning and Memory,92(2),pp.127-134
40. Totalbeauty Media group(2012) ,“ Get Added to the Shopping Cart”, whitepaper
41. Verhaeghen, P., Cerella, J.and Basak, C. (2004),“A working memory workout: How to change to size of the focus of attention from one to four in ten hours or less” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition , 30, pp.1322-1337
42. Zajonc, R.B.(1980),“Feeling and thinking: Preferences need no inferences” American Psychologist, 35 (2)pp.151–175.
43. Zajonc, R.B.(2001),“Mere Exposure: A Gateway to the Subliminal.” Current Directions in Psychological Science. December, 10 (6), pp.224-227
44. Zaltman,Gerald(2003),How Customers Think: Essential Insights into the Mind of the Markets,Boston: Harvard Business School Press

中文部分
1. Diane Ackerman(2004)(莊安祺譯),氣味、記憶與愛欲:艾克曼的大腦詩篇,台北:時報出版
2. Roger Dooley(2014)(竇永華譯),Brainfluence:100 Ways to persuade and Convince Consumers with Neuromarketing大腦拒絕不了的行銷,台北:大寫出版,pp.54-111
3. 白詩瑜(2012),“嗅出亞洲的香氛風尚”,天下雜誌 506期
4. 陳豐偉(2013),“冷靜6秒鐘,不被大腦杏仁核綁架”,康健雜誌180期
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2020-02-13起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw