||The Failure Mode Analysis and Processing Study of Flash Butt Welding
||Department of Mechanical Engineering
Flash butt welding
Failure mode analysis
閃光對焊(flash butt welding)為電阻焊的其中一種，有別於一般的常見焊接技術，為一種簡單、快速的製程，不需額外的添加焊料並可用於自動化生產，且並不會在焊接時產生大量的有毒煙霧，但由於機台須調整的參數眾多，無法有效地的控制製程品質，因此使應用受到侷限。
為了穩定製程品質找出主要影響的因素，本研究透過了失效模式分析針對公司製程進行調查，以及將焊後失效的樣品外觀與生產參數整理，並透過影像分析軟體ImageJ與本實驗室撰寫的程式協助分析，可歸納出影響樣品的主要參數為：端面形狀、閃焊時間、頂鍛距離。且閃焊製程中通常伴隨大量火花飛濺，增加了焊接溫度量測的難度，因此本研究提出了透過金相組織對照的方式，且搭配模擬與硬度結果相互佐證，能夠粗略的估算出焊接的溫度，用以評估材料是否有效的加熱，且為了避免尺寸效應造成實驗上的誤差，材料規格統一為SAE 8625M使用線徑為19 mm。
總和主要影響之參數可得知共通點為溫度與夾雜物，兩者為造成樣品破壞主因，並由實驗歸納出合格生產條件：總時間在20秒內；預熱能量比例大於50 %；閃焊時間比例小於60 %，以及成功的建立焊接溫度與金相組織關係，在無法準確的量測溫度時能夠作為參數更改的依據，研究中除了理解參數對樣品的影響之外，同時也達到了穩定閃焊製程的效果，樣品皆能符合測試要求且整體良率上升了10 %。
In this study, the effects of process parameters variables on weld quality are being studied for the flash butt welding of SAE 8625M. In order to stabilize the quality of welding process and identify the main influencing factors, using failure mode analysis to investigate the company's process, as well as the sort out the appearance and production parameters of failed samples after welding, and through image analysis software ImageJ and the program written by our laboratory to assist analysis. It can be concluded that the main parameters affect the sample are: interface shapes, flash time, upsetting distances. In addition, the welding process is accompanied by a large number of flash splashing, which increases the difficulty of welding temperature measurement. Therefore, this study proposes a method of metallographic contrast, and the simulation and hardness results are mutually corroborated, which can roughly estimate the welding temperature.
The common points of these influencing parameters are welding temperature and inclusions, both of which are the main causes of sample damage. Besides, the qualified production conditions were summarized by experiments: the total time less than 20 seconds, the preheating energy ratio greater than 50 %, the flash time ratio less than 60 %. And successfully established the relationship between welding temperature and metallographic structure, which can be used when the temperature cannot be accurately measured. Moreover, the study also achieved effect of stabilizing welding process, samples can pass test requirements and the overall yield has increased by 10%.
Extended Abstract III
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 前言 1
1-2 研究動機 4
1-3 研究目標與歷程 5
第二章 文獻回顧 6
2-1 閃光對焊(flash butt welding) 6
2-1-1 閃焊參數之影響 9
2-2 失效模式與效應分析(FMEA) 22
2-2-1 FMEA種類 24
2-3 焊接失效件分析 32
第三章 實驗內容 38
3-1 實驗簡介 38
3-2 實驗流程 39
3-3 實驗方法 40
3-3-1 失效模式分析 40
3-3-2 閃焊後失效件分析 43
3-3-2-1 焊後結果分析 50
3-4 實驗設備 57
第四章 實驗結果與討論 58
4-1 失效模式與閃焊後失效件分析 58
4-1-1 失效模式分析 58
4-1-1-1 RPN結果彙整 60
4-1-2 閃焊後失效件分析 63
4-1-2-1 磁粉探傷後裂痕 63
4-1-2-2 重複施作失敗 69
4-1-3 小結 76
4-2 端面形狀 77
4-3 閃焊時間 94
4-4 頂鍛距離 98
4-5 焊接溫度與金相組織 114
第五章 總結 119
5-1 結論 119
5-2 未來展望 121
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