||STUDY ON INTEGRATED EVALUATION METHODOLOGY FOR AQUACULTURE LAKES PRESERVATION IN INDONESIA
||Department of Hydraulics & Ocean Engineering
||Robby Yussac Tallar
aquaculture lakes index
integrated evaluation methodology
The relationship between land use and water quality was complex and likely to be site-specific, and more work was required to quantify this. This paper first reviewed the water quality status using three WQI methods, and analyzed by using Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis (CA) to reduce data of some water quality parameters, as well as to group the various waterbodies based on their water quality characteristics. It thus presented a comprehensive assessment of watershed and waterbody conditions in Depok Area, and their relationship with each other. An Aquaculture Water Quality Index (AWQI) was developed for use in an aquacultural context. The selected water quality parameters were representing the integration of physico-chemical and microbiological properties of aquaculture lakes. The AWQI developed in this work can be used as an effective, low-cost water quality monitoring program for developing countries. Because AWQI emphasized the simplicity and understandability as it must communicate to decision makers and the experts. Waterscape lakes also considered in this study because they played an important role in understanding aesthetic value of lakes. The current study implemented an enhanced visual quality assessment method by using a video-questionnaire to assess the aesthetic value of multi-purpose lakes in Depok Area, Indonesia, based on the perceptions of respondents. The results showed that the video-questionnaire method was quite efficient, easy to use, and understandable in identifying and measuring aesthetic value in relation to perceptions of bio-physical attributes. The final purpose was to design a conceptual framework of integrated evaluation methodology for aquaculture lakes preservation in Indonesia.
TABLE OF CONTENTS iv
LIST OF TABLES vi
LIST OF FIGURES ix
LIST OF ACRONYMS x
CHAPTER 1. Introduction 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Objectives 1
1.3 Data source 2
1.4 Structure of dissertation 3
1.5 Contribution of the study 4
CHAPTER 2. Literature Reviews 5
2.1 The evolution of WQI 5
2.2 STORET index 6
2.3 An overview of West Java Water Sustainability Index (WJWSI) 8
CHAPTER 3. Materials and Methods 15
3.1 Description of study area 15
3.2 Source materials and methodology 16
3.2.1 The AHP approach 19
3.2.2 Respondents 23
3.2.3 The process of data collection 24
3.2.4 Statistical analysis 26
CHAPTER 4. Results and Discussions 27
4.1 Results and discussions from step one of the research 27
4.2 Results and discussions from step two of the research 40
4.2.1 A snapshot of aquaculture conditions in Indonesia 40
4.2.2 A comparative results of applying WQI at four aquaculture lakes 42
4.2.3 Assessment results of four aquaculture lakes 44
4.2.4 The process of the AWQI 48
4.3 Results and discussions from step three of the research 56
4.3.1 Perceptions of the direct and indirect respondents 56
4.3.2 The relationships among bio-phsical attributes 65
4.3.3 The prospects of further development of integrated lakes management and policy 68
CHAPTER 5. Summary 70
5.1 Conclusions 70
5.2 Synthesizing A Conceptual Framework of Integrated Evaluation Methodology 74
5.3 Future research 77
Abbas Alkarkhi, F. M., N. Ismail & A. M. Easa (2008) Assessment of arsenic and heavy metal contents in cockles (Anadara granosa) using multivariate statistical techniques. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 150, 783-789.
Abeysinghe, D. H., Shanableh, A., & Rigden, B. (1996). Biofilters for water reuse in aquaculture. Water Science and Technology, 34(11), 253-260.
Acar, C., B. C. Kurdoglu, O. Kurdoglu & H. Acar (2006) Public preferences for visual quality and management in the Kackar Mountains National Park (Turkey). International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, 13, 499-512.
Al-Bassam, A. M., & Ai-Rumikhani, Y. A. (2003). Integrated hydrochemical method of water quality assessment for irrigation in arid areas: application to the Jilh aquifer, Saudi Arabia. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 36(4), 345-356.
Al-Harbi, A. H. (2003). Faecal coliforms in pond water, sediments and hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus in Saudi Arabia. Aquaculture Research, 34, 517-524.
Anderson, L. E., Manning, R. E., Monz, C. A., & Goonan, K. A. (2012). Indicators and standards of quality for paddling on Lake Champlain. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 38, 150-156.
Arriaza, M., J. F. Canas-Ortega, J. A. Canas-Madueno & P. Ruiz-Aviles (2004) Assessing the visual quality of rural landscapes. Landscape and Urban Planning, 69, 115-125.
Benitez, J., Delgado-Galvan, X., Izquierdo, J., & Perez-Garcia, R. (2011). Achieving matrix consistency in AHP through linearization. [Article]. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 35(9), 4449-4457.
Blasco, E., J. González-Olabarria, P. Rodriguéz-Veiga, T. Pukkala, O. Kolehmainen & M. Palahí (2009) Predicting scenic beauty of forest stands in Catalonia (North-east Spain). Journal of Forestry Research, 20, 73-78.
Boothby, J. (1997) Pond conservation: towards a delineation of pondscape. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 7, 127-132.
Bordalo, A. A., Nilsumranchit, W., & Chalermwat, K. (2001). Water quality and uses of the Bangpakong River (Eastern Thailand). Water Research, 35(15), 3635-3642.
Bordalo, A. A., Teixeira, R., & Wiebe, W. J. (2006). A water quality index applied to an international shared river basin: The case of the douro river. Environmental Management, 38(6), 910-920.
Borne, K. E., Fassman-Beck, E. A., & Tanner, C. C. (2014). Floating Treatment Wetland influences on the fate of metals in road runoff retention ponds. Water Research, 48(0), 430-442.
Bosma, R. H., & Verdegem, M. C. J. (2011). Sustainable aquaculture in ponds: Principles, practices and limits. Livestock Science, 139(1-2), 58-68.
Bouza-Deano, R., Ternero-Rodriguez, M., & Fernandez-Espinosa, A. J. (2008). Trend study and assessment of surface water quality in the Ebro River (Spain). Journal of Hydrology, 361(3-4), 227-239.
Bulut, Z. & H. Yilmaz (2009) Determination of waterscape beauties through visual quality assessment method. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 154, 459-468.
Canas, I., E. Ayuga & F. Ayuga (2009) A contribution to the assessment of scenic quality of landscapes based on preferences expressed by the public. Land Use Policy, 26, 1173-1181.
Chakraborty, S., & Dey, S. (2006). Design of an analytic-hierarchy-process-based expert system for non-traditional machining process selection. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 31(5-6), 490-500.
Chaves, H. M. L., & Alipaz, S. (2007). An integrated indicator based on basin hydrology, environment, life, and policy: The watershed sustainability index. Water Resources Management, 21(5), 883-895.
Cho, K. H., Kang, J. H., Ki, S. J., Park, Y., Cha, S. M., & Kim, J. H. (2009). Determination of the optimal parameters in regression models for the prediction of chlorophyll-a: A case study of the Yeongsan Reservoir, Korea. Science of the Total Environment, 407(8), 2536-2545.
Clow, D., Peavler, R., Roche, J., Panorska, A., Thomas, J., & Smith, S. (2011). Assessing possible visitor-use impacts on water quality in Yosemite National Park, California. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 183(1-4), 197-215.
Chowdhury, M.B.R., Muniruzzaman, M., & Uddin, M.N. (1989). Study on the intestinal bacterial flora of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Bangladesh Journal of Aquaculture, 11, 65-70.
Cottet, M., H. Piégay & G. Bornette (2013) Does human perception of wetland aesthetics and healthiness relate to ecological functioning? Journal of Environmental Management, 128, 1012-1022.
D'Antonio, A., C. Monz, P. Newman, S. Lawson & D. Taff (2013) Enhancing the utility of visitor impact assessment in parks and protected areas: A combined social-ecological approach. Journal of Environmental Management, 124, 72-81.
Daniel, T. C. (2001) Whither scenic beauty? Visual landscape quality assessment in the 21st century. Landscape and Urban Planning, 54, 267-281.
de Donno A., Montagna M.T., de Rinaldis A., Zonno V., Gabutti G. (2002). Microbiological parameters in brackish water pond used for extensive and semi-intensive fish-culture: Acquatina. Water Air Soil Pollution 134 (1-4), 205-214.
Deng, X. Z., Zhao, Y. H., Wu, F., Lin, Y. Z., Lu, Q., & Dai, J. (2011). Analysis of the trade-off between economic growth and the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorus emissions in the Poyang Lake Watershed, China. Ecological Modelling, 222(2), 330-336.
Dsikowitzky, L., Nordhaus, I., Jennerjahn, T. C., Khrycheva, P., Sivatharshan, Y., Yuwono, E., & Schwarzbauer, J., (2011). Anthropogenic organic contaminants in water, sediments and benthic organisms of the mangrove-fringed Segara Anakan Lagoon, Java, Indonesia. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 62(4), 851-862.
Djuangsih, N. (1993). Understanding the state of river basin management from an environmental toxicology perspective: an example from water pollution at Citarum river basin, West Java, Indonesia. Science of the Total Environment, 134, Supplement 1(0), 283-292.
Dramstad, W. E., M. S. Tveit, W. J. Fjellstad & G. L. A. Fry (2006) Relationships between visual landscape preferences and map-based indicators of landscape structure. Landscape and Urban Planning, 78, 465-474.
Effendie, I., Nirmala, K., Saputra, U. H., Sudrajat, S. O., Zairin, M., & Kurokura, H. (2005). Water quality fluctuations under floating net cages for fish culture in Lake Cirata and its impact on fish survival. Fisheries Science, 71(5), 972-977.
Falkenmark, M., Rockstrom, J., & Karlberg, L. (2009). Present and future water requirements for feeding humanity. Food Security, 1(1), 59-69.
Ferreira, N. C., Bonetti, C., & Seiffert, W. Q. (2011). Hydrological and Water Quality Indices as management tools in marine shrimp culture. Aquaculture, 318(3-4), 425-433.
Fitzpatrick, M. L., Long, D. T., & Pijanowski, B. C. (2007). Exploring the effects of urban and agricultural land use on surface water chemistry, across a regional watershed, using multivariate statistics. Applied Geochemistry, 22(8), 1825-1840.
Frances, J., Nowak, B. F., & Allan, G. L., (2000). Effects of ammonia on juvenile silver perch (Bidyanus bidyanus). Aquaculture, 183(1-2), 95-103.
Garizi, A. Z., Sheikh, V., & Sadoddin, A. (2011). Assessment of seasonal variations of chemical characteristics in surface water using multivariate statistical methods. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 8(3), 581-592.
Garcia-Marin, P., Cabaco, S., Hernandez, I., Vergara, J. J., Silva, J., & Santos, R. (2013). Multi-metric index based on the seagrass Zostera noltii (ZoNI) for ecological quality assessment of coastal and estuarine systems in SW Iberian Peninsula. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 68(1-2), 46-54.
Gharibi, H., Sowlat, M. H., Mahvi, A. H., Mahmoudzadeh, H., Arabalibeik, H., Keshavarz, M., et al. (2012). Development of a dairy cattle drinking water quality index (DCWQI) based on fuzzy inference systems. Ecological Indicators, 20, 228-237.
Goss, M., & Richards, C. (2008). Development of a risk-based index for source water protection planning, which supports the reduction of pathogens from agricultural activity entering water resources. Journal of Environmental Management, 87(4), 623-632.
Guimaraes, L. T., & Magrini, A. (2008). A proposal of indicators for sustainable development in the management of river basins. Water Resources Management, 22(9), 1191-1202.
Haider, W. & L. Hunt (2002) Visual aesthetic quality of northern Ontario's forested shorelines. Environmental Management, 29, 324-334.
Hands, D. E. & R. D. Brown (2002) Enhancing visual preference of ecological rehabilitation sites. Landscape and Urban Planning, 58, 57-70.
Hayati, E., Majnounian, B., Abdi, E., Sessions, J., & Makhdoum, M. (2013). An expert-based approach to forest road network planning by combining Delphi and spatial multi-criteria evaluation. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185(2), 1767-1776.
Ho, W. (2008). Integrated analytic hierarchy process and its applications - A literature review. European Journal of Operational Research, 186(1), 211-228.
Horton, R. K. (1965). An index number system for rating water quality. Journal of Water Pollution Control Federation, 37, 300–306.
Huang, W., Yano, S., Zhang, J. M., & Wang, Y. R. (2013). Application of analytic hierarchy process in selecting a biological indicator for a river flow restoration. Ecological Indicators, 25, 180-183.
Iojă, C. I., L. Rozylowicz, M. Pătroescu, M. R. Niţă & G. O. Vânau (2011) Dog walkers’ vs. other park visitors’ perceptions: The importance of planning sustainable urban parks in Bucharest, Romania. Landscape and Urban Planning, 103, 74-82.
Johnes, P., Moss, B., & Phillips, G. (1996). The determination of total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations in freshwaters from land use, stock headage and population data: Testing of a model for use in conservation and water quality management. Freshwater Biology, 36(2), 451-473.
Jonnalagadda, S. B., & Mhere, G. (2001). Water quality of the Odzi River in the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe. Water Research, 35(10), 2371-2376.
Junge, X., P. Lindemann-Matthies, M. Hunziker & B. Schüpbach (2011) Aesthetic preferences of non-farmers and farmers for different land-use types and proportions of ecological compensation areas in the Swiss lowlands. Biological Conservation, 144, 1430-1440.
Juwana, I., Muttil, N., & Perera, B. J. C. (2012). Indicator-based water sustainability assessment - A review. Science of the Total Environment, 438, 357-371.
Juwana, I., Perera, B. J. C., & Muttil, N. (2010). A water sustainability index for West Java. Part 1: developing the conceptual framework. Water Science and Technology, 62(7), 1629-1640.
Kainulainen, T., Leskinen, P., Korhonen, P., Haara, A., & Hujala, T. (2009). A statistical approach to assessing interval scale preferences in discrete choice problems. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 60(2), 252-258.
Kalisch, D. & A. Klaphake (2007) Visitors' satisfaction and perception of crowding in a German National Park: a case study on the island of Hallig Hooge. For. Snow Landsc. Res, 81.
Kang, J. H., Lee, S. W., Cho, K. H., Ki, S. J., Cha, S. M., & Kim, J. H. (2010). Linking land-use type and stream water quality using spatial data of fecal indicator bacteria and heavy metals in the Yeongsan river basin. Water Research, 44(14), 4143-4157.
Kannel, P. R., Lee, S., Lee, Y. S., Kanel, S. R., & Khan, S. P. (2007). Application of water quality indices and dissolved oxygen as indicators for river water classification and urban impact assessment. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 132(1-3), 93-110.
Kamizoulis, G., & Saliba, L. (2004). Development of coastal recreational water quality standards in the mediterranean. Environment International, 30(6), 841-854.
Karbassi, A. R., Hosseini, F. M. M., Baghvand, A., & Nazariha, M. (2011). Development of Water Quality Index (WQI) for Gorganrood River. International Journal of Environmental Research, 5(4), 1041-1046.
Kim, S. O., B. Shelby & M. Needham (2014). Effects of Facility Developments and Encounter Levels on Perceptions of Settings, Crowding, and Norms in a Korean Park. Environmental Management, 53, 441-453.
Lafortezza, R., R. C. Corry, G. Sanesi & R. D. Brown (2008). Visual preference and ecological assessments for designed alternative brownfield rehabilitations. Journal of Environmental Management, 89, 257-269.
Leung, C., Huang Y., & Pancorbo O., (1990). Bacterial flora associated with a Nigerian freshwater fish culture. Journal of Aquaculture in the Tropics, 5, 87-90.
Li, M., Wu, Y. J., Yu, Z. L., Sheng, G. P., & Yu, H. Q. (2007). Nitrogen removal from eutrophic water by floating-bed-grown water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) with ion implantation. Water Research, 41(14), 3152-3158.
Li, S. Y., Gu, S., Tan, X., & Zhang, Q. F. (2009). Water quality in the upper Han River basin, China: The impacts of land use/land cover in riparian buffer zone. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 165(1-3), 317-324.
Liou, S. M., Lo, S. L., & Wang, S. H. (2004). A generalized water quality index for Taiwan. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 96(1-3), 35-52.
Loucks, D. P. (2000). Sustainable water resources management. Water International, 25(1), 3-10.
Lynch, J., Fox, L. J., Owen Jr, J. S., & Sample, D. J. (2015). Evaluation of commercial floating treatment wetland technologies for nutrient remediation of stormwater. Ecological Engineering, 75(0), 61-69.
MacKay, H. M., Roux, D. J., Ashton, P. J., vanVliet, H. R., & Jooste, S. (1995). The development of South African water quality guidelines for the natural aquatic environment. Water Science and Technology, 32(5-6), 293-299.
Manahan, S.E., (2000). Environmental Chemistry, 7th ed. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton.
Mandal, S. C., Hasan, M., Rahman, M. S., Manik, M. H., Mahmud, Z. H., & Islam, M. D. S. (2009). Coliform Bacteria in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus of Shrimp-Gher, Pond and Fish Market. World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences, 1(3): 160-166.
Marino, F. J., Martinezmanzanares, E., Morinigo, M. A., & Borrego, J. J. (1995). Applicability of the Recreational Water-Quality Standard Guidelines. Water Science and Technology, 31(5-6), 27-31.
Mathew, T. (1989) MANOVA in the multivariate components of variance model. Journal of Multivariate Analysis, 29, 30-38.
McDaniel, N. K., Sugiura, S. H., Kehler, T., Fletcher, J. W., Coloso, R. M., Weis, P., et al. (2005). Dissolved oxygen and dietary phosphorus modulate utilization and effluent partitioning of phosphorus in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) aquaculture. Environmental Pollution, 138(2), 350-357.
Meitner, M. J. (2004) Scenic beauty of river views in the Grand Canyon: relating perceptual judgments to locations. Landscape and Urban Planning, 68, 3-13.
Miserendino, M. L., Casaux, R., Archangelsky, M., Di Prinzio, C. Y., Brand, C., & Kutschker, A. M. (2011). Assessing land-use effects on water quality, in-stream habitat, riparian ecosystems and biodiversity in Patagonian northwest streams. Science of the Total Environment, 409(3), 612-624.
Mohebbi, M. R., Saeedi, R., Montazeri, A., Azam Vaghefi, K., Labbafi, S., Oktaie, S., et al. (2013). Assessment of water quality in groundwater resources of Iran using a modified drinking water quality index (DWQI). Ecological Indicators, 30(0), 28-34.
Mouri, G., Takizawa, S., & Oki, T. (2011). Spatial and temporal variation in nutrient parameters in stream water in a rural-urban catchment, Shikoku, Japan: Effects of land cover and human impact. Journal of Environmental Management, 92(7), 1837-1848.
Mulholland, P. J., Houser, J. N., & Maloney, K. O. (2005). Stream diurnal dissolved oxygen profiles as indicators of in-stream metabolism and disturbance effects: Fort Benning as a case study. Ecological Indicators, 5(3), 243-252.
Mungkung, R., Aubin, J., Prihadi, T. H., Slembrouck, J., van der Werf, H. M. G., & Legendre, M. (2013). Life Cycle Assessment for environmentally sustainable aquaculture management: a case study of combined aquaculture systems for carp and tilapia. Journal of Cleaner Production, 57(0), 249-256
Naigaga, I., Kaiser, H., Muller, W. J., Ojok, L., Mbabazi, D., Magezi, G., et al. (2011). Fish as bioindicators in aquatic environmental pollution assessment: A case study in Lake Victoria wetlands, Uganda. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 36(14–15), 918-928.
Nagels, J. W., Davies-Colley, R. J., & Smith, D. G. (2001). A water quality index for contact recreation in New Zealand. Water Science and Technology, 43(5), 285-292.
Neto, J. M., Barroso, D. V., & Barría, P. (2013). Seagrass Quality Index (SQI), a Water Framework Directive compliant tool for the assessment of transitional and coastal intertidal areas. Ecological Indicators, 30(0), 130-137.
Niemi, R.M. (1985). Fecal indicator bacteria at freshwater rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) farms. Publications of the Water Research Institute, National Board of Waters, Finland, No. 64.
Niemi, G. J., J. R. Kelly & N. P. Danz (2007) Environmental indicators for the coastal region of the north American great lakes: Introduction and prospectus. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 33, 1-12.
Ntengwe, F. W., & Edema, M. O. (2008). Physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of water for fish production using small ponds. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 33(8–13), 701-707.
Özgüner, H. (2011) Cultural Differences in Attitudes towards Urban Parks and Green Spaces. Landscape Research, 36, 599-620.
Oney, B., Shapiro, A., & Wegmann, M. (2011). Evolution of water quality around the Island of Borneo during the last 8-years. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 7(0), 200-205.
Ooshaksaraie, L., Basri, N. E. A., Abu Bakar, A., & Maulud, K. N. A. (2012). RP(3)CA: An expert system applied in stormwater management plan for construction sites in Malaysia. Expert Systems with Applications, 39(3), 3692-3701.
Ouyang, Y. (2005). Evaluation of river water quality monitoring stations by principal component analysis. Water Research, 39(12), 2621-2635.
Paterson, M. J., Podemski, C. L., Wesson, L. J., & Dupuis, A. P. (2011). The effects of an experimental freshwater cage aquaculture operation on Mysis diluviana. Journal of Plankton Research, 33(1), 25-36.
Pawitan, H., & Haryani, G. S. (2011). Water resources, sustainability and societal livelihoods in Indonesia. Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology, 11(3–4), 231-243.
Pettebone, D., P. Newman, S. R. Lawson, L. Hunt, C. Monz & J. Zwiefka (2011) Estimating visitors’ travel mode choices along the Bear Lake Road in Rocky Mountain National Park. Journal of Transport Geography, 19, 1210-1221.
Pesce, S. F., & Wunderlin, D. A. (2000). Use of water quality indices to verify the impact of Cordoba City (Argentina) on Suquia River. Water Research, 34(11), 2915-2926.
Pitcher, T. J., & Preikshot, D. (2001). RAPFISH: a rapid appraisal technique to evaluate the sustainability status of fisheries. Fisheries Research, 49(3), 255-270.
Purcell, A. T. & R. J. Lamb (1998) Preference and naturalness: An ecological approach. Landscape and Urban Planning, 42, 57-66.
Rahman, I. M. M., Islam, M. M., Hossain, M. M., Hossain, M. S., Begum, Z. A., Chowdhury, D. A., et al. (2011). Stagnant surface water bodies (SSWBs) as an alternative water resource for the Chittagong metropolitan area of Bangladesh: physicochemical characterization in terms of water quality indices. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 173(1-4), 669-684.
Ramesh, S., Sukumaran, N., Murugesan, A. G., & Rajan, M. P. (2010). An innovative approach of Drinking Water Quality Index-A case study from Southern Tamil Nadu, India. Ecological Indicators, 10(4), 857-868.
Ratnaningsih D. (2010). Implementasi metode Storet terhadap data kualitas air sungai di Indonesia [Implementation of STORET Method for Water Quality Parameters in Indonesia Rivers]. Ecolab, 4(1),1-54.
Remen, M., Imsland, A. K., Stefansson, S. O., Jonassen, T. M., & Foss, A., (2008). Interactive effects of ammonia and oxygen on growth and physiological status of juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Aquaculture, 274(2-4), 292-299.
Ren, W., Zhong, Y., Meligrana, J., Anderson, B., Watt, W. E., Chen, J., et al. (2003). Urbanization, land use, and water quality in Shanghai: 1947–1996. Environment International, 29(5), 649-659.
Reza, M. I. H., Abdullah, S. A., Nor, S. B., & Ismail, M. H. (2013). Integrating GIS and expert judgment in a multi-criteria analysis to map and develop a habitat suitability index: A case study of large mammals on the Malayan Peninsula. Ecological Indicators, 34, 149-158.
Richardson, C. J., Flanagan, N. E., Ho, M. C., & Pahl, J. W. (2011). Integrated stream and wetland restoration: A watershed approach to improved water quality on the landscape. Ecological Engineering, 37(1), 25-39.
Rudolph, A., Ahumada, R., & Perez, C. (2002). Dissolved oxygen content as an index of water quality in San Vicente Bay, Chile (36 degrees 45 ' S). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 78(1), 89-100.
Saaty, T. L. (2001). The seven pillars of the analytic hierarchy process. Multiple Criteria Decision Making in the New Millennium, 507, 15-37.
Saaty, T. L., Peniwati, K., & Shang, J. S. (2007). The analytic hierarchy process and human resource allocation: Half the story. [Article; Proceedings Paper]. Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 46(7-8), 1041-1053.
Saaty, T. L., & Vargas, L. G. (1984). Inconsistency and Rank Preservation. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 28(2), 205-214.
Sanchez, E., Colmenarejo, M. F., Vicente, J., Rubio, A., Garcia, M. G., Travieso, L., et al. (2007). Use of the water quality index and dissolved oxygen deficit as simple indicators of watersheds pollution. Ecological Indicators, 7(2), 315-328.
Sarkar, C., & Abbasi, S. A. (2006). QUALIDEX - A new software for generating water quality indice. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 119(1-3), 201-231.
Schoonover, J. E., & Lockaby, B. G. (2006). Land cover impacts on stream nutrients and fecal coliform in the lower Piedmont of West Georgia. Journal of Hydrology, 331(3-4), 371-382.
Scott D.M., Lucas M.C., Wilson R.W. (2005). The effect of high pH on ion balance, nitrogen excretion and behaviour in freshwater fish from an eutrophic lake: A laboratory and field study. Aquatic Toxicology, 73 (1), 31-43.
Seeboonruang, U. (2012). A statistical assessment of the impact of land uses on surface water quality indexes. Journal of Environmental Management, 101, 134-142.
Sevenant, M. & M. Antrop (2011) Landscape Representation Validity: A Comparison between On-site Observations and Photographs with Different Angles of View. Landscape Research, 36, 363-385.
Shewan, J.M. & Hopps G., (1967). The bacteriology of fish spoilage and preservation. Progress in Industries Microbiology (ed. By D.J.D. Hockenhull). Illfe Books, London.
Shrestha, S., Kazama, F., & Newham, L. T. H. (2008). A framework for estimating pollutant export coefficients from long-term in-stream water quality monitoring data. Environmental Modelling & Software, 23(2), 182-194.
Shuhaimi-Othman, M., Lim, E. C., & Mushrifah, I. (2007). Water quality changes in Chini Lake, Pahang, West Malaysia. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 131(1-3), 279-292.
Silva, G. S. d., & Jardim, W. d. F. (2006). Um novo índice de qualidade das águas para proteção da vida aquática aplicado ao Rio Atibaia, região de Campinas/Paulínia-SP. Química Nova, 29, 689-694.
Sim, L. K., & Balamurugan, G. (1991). Urbanization and Urban Water Problems in Southeast-Asia - a Case of Unsustainable Development. Journal of Environmental Management, 32(3), 195-209.
Simoes, F. S., Moreira A. B., Bisinoti M. C., Gimenez S. N., & Yabe, N. S. (2008). Water quality index as a simple indicator of aquaculture effects on aquatic bodies, Ecological Indicators, 8(5), 476–484.
Sipahi, S., & Timor, M. (2010). The analytic hierarchy process and analytic network process: an overview of applications. Management Decision, 48(5-6), 775-808.
Smith, D. G., Cragg, A. M., & Croker, G. F. (1991). Water Clarity Criteria for Bathing Waters Based on User Perception. Journal of Environmental Management, 33(3), 285-299.
Smith, D. G., & Daviescolley, R. J. (1992). Perception of Water Clarity and Color in Terms of Suitability for Recreational Use. Journal of Environmental Management, 36(3), 225-235.
Stevenson, R. J. (2011). A revised framework for coupled human and natural systems, propagating thresholds, and managing environmental problems. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 36(9-11), 342-351.
Sugita, H., Oshima, K., Tamura, M. & Deguchi, Y. (1983). Bacterial flora in the gastrointestine of freshwater fishes in the river. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries, 49, 1387-1395.
Tallar, R. Y., & Suen, J.P. (2015). Aquaculture Water Quality Index: A Low-Cost Index to Accelerate Aquaculture Development in Indonesia. Aquaculture International, 1-18.
Tesfamichael, D., & Pitcher, T. J. (2006). Multidisciplinary evaluation of the sustainability of Red Sea fisheries using Rapfish. Fisheries Research, 78(2-3), 227-235.
Trust, T.J. & Sparrow, R.A.H. (1974). The bacterial flora in the alimentary tract of freshwater salmonid fishes. Canadian Journal ofMicrobiology, 20, 1219-1228.
Tsuzuki, Y. (2006). An index directly indicates land-based pollutant load contributions of domestic wastewater to the water pollution and its application. Science of the Total Environment, 370(2-3), 425-440.
Tveit, M., Å. Ode & G. Fry (2006) Key concepts in a framework for analysing visual landscape character. Landscape Research, 31, 229-255.
Vaidya, O. S., & Kumar, S. (2006). Analytic hierarchy process: An overview of applications. European Journal of Operational Research, 169(1), 1-29.
Vargas, L. G. (1990). An Overview of the Analytic Hierarchy Process and Its Applications. European Journal of Operational Research, 48(1), 2-8.
Viessman, W. (1985). Addressing Social and Environmental-Issues in Water-Resources Planning and Management. Water Resources Bulletin, 21(2), 311-314.
von Essen, L. M., S. C. A. Ferse, M. Glaser & A. Kunzmann (2013) Attitudes and perceptions of villagers toward community-based mariculture in Minahasa, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Ocean & Coastal Management, 73, 101-112.
Wanda, E. M. M., Gulula, L. C., & Phiri, G. (2012). Determination of characteristics and drinking water quality index in Mzuzu City, Northern Malawi. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 50-52, 92-97.
Wang, F., Kang, S. Z., Du, T. S., Li, F. S., & Qiu, R. J. (2011). Determination of comprehensive quality index for tomato and its response to different irrigation treatments. Agricultural Water Management, 98(8), 1228-1238.
Wang, C. Y., Sample, D. J., & Bell, C. (2014). Vegetation effects on floating treatment wetland nutrient removal and harvesting strategies in urban stormwater ponds. Science of the Total Environment, 499(0), 384-393.
Wang, C. Y., Sample, D. J., Day, S. D., & Grizzard, T. J. (2015). Floating treatment wetland nutrient removal through vegetation harvest and observations from a field study. Ecological Engineering, 78(0), 15-26.
Wang, J., L. Zhu, Y. Wang, J. Ju, M. Xie & G. Daut (2010) Comparisons between the chemical compositions of lake water, inflowing river water, and lake sediment in Nam Co, central Tibetan Plateau, China and their controlling mechanisms. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 36, 587-595.
Weinstoerffer, J. & P. Girardin (2000) Assessment of the contribution of land use pattern and intensity to landscape quality: use of a landscape indicator. Ecological Modelling, 130, 95-109.
Wherrett, J. R. (2000) Creating Landscape Preference Models Using Internet Survey Techniques. Landscape Research, 25, 79-96.
Williams, R. J., White, C., Harrow, M. L., & Neal, C. (2000). Temporal and small-scale spatial variations of dissolved oxygen in the Rivers Thames, Pang and Kennet, UK. Science of the Total Environment, 251, 497-510.
Wu, P., & Tan, M. (2012). Challenges for sustainable urbanization: a case study of water shortage and water environment changes in Shandong, China. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 13(0), 919-927.
Wu, M., Huang, S. L., Zang, C. J., Du, S. L., & Scholz, M. (2012). Release of nutrient from fish food and effects on Microcystis aeruginosa growth. Aquaculture Research, 43(10), 1460-1470.
Yamashita, S. (2002) Perception and evaluation of water in landscape: use of Photo-Projective Method to compare child and adult residents’ perceptions of a Japanese river environment. Landscape and Urban Planning, 62, 3-17.
Yao, Y., X. Zhu, Y. Xu, H. Yang, X. Wu, Y. Li & Y. Zhang (2012) Assessing the visual quality of green landscaping in rural residential areas: the case of Changzhou, China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 184, 951-967.
Yeh, N., Yeh, P., & Chang, Y.-H. (2015). Artificial floating islands for environmental improvement. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 47(0), 616-622.
Yoshimizu, M., Kimura, T. & Sakai, M. (1976). Studies on the intestinal microflora of salmonids: 1. The intestinal microflora of fish reared in fresh water and in sea water. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries, 42, 91-99. (English summary).