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系統識別號 U0026-2608201415322200
論文名稱(中文) 不同材料所建構自行車架之有限元素分析
論文名稱(英文) Finite Element Analysis of Bicycle Frame Composed of Different Materials
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 土木工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Civil Engineering
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 艾可博
研究生(英文) Elmer Escobar
學號 N66017172
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 130頁
口試委員 口試委員-吳致平
口試委員-鍾興陽
口試委員-方中
指導教授-胡宣德
中文關鍵字 none 
英文關鍵字 Finite element analysis  bicycle frame  computer aided structural analysis  metal alloys  carbon-epoxy  composite materials. 
學科別分類
中文摘要 none
英文摘要 The finite element analysis has become an important tool for designers and engineers in modern times, since it can be used to analyze any kind of structures, with any shape and material. In this sense, a bicycle frame, which is a simple yet complex structure, can be optimized by taking advantage of the data obtained from a finite element analysis. Specifically referring to the race bicycles, they need to be light, resistant and safe, which generates a problem in many factors of the design process, being one of them the material to be used for the bicycle frame. The material could achieve lightness, safeness, resistance and a good performance for the bicycle. Due to the importance of the above mentioned design factor, this research focuses on analyzing the four most common materials utilized for building bicycles frames.
Many research has been performed in order to evaluate the behavior of certain specific materials in bicycle frames, under specific loading conditions that try to simulate (along with the boundary conditions), the real situations to which a bicycle frame is subjected. These studies, focused in one material or comparing two materials, whether a metal or a composite for example, but none had compared the four most common materials for bicycle frames under the same loading and boundary conditions.
This research is based on some ideas from previous works in design of bicycle frames and material analysis. The approach of this study is to compare the structural behavior in a race bicycle frame of three alloys, namely steel, aluminum, titanium and one composite material, namely carbon-epoxy. The values of maximum deformation, maximum principal stress in the case of metals or compressive/tensile stress in the case of the composite and weight of each frame built from every material were obtained using the finite element analysis software Abaqus. The maximum principal stress to weight ratio for metals, the compressive/tensile stress to weight ratio for composites and the tensile or compressive/maximum principal stress to the strength value of each material were calculated for three standard testing conditions: frontal loading test, torsional test and vertical loading test. The results were compared and discussed, concluding that the optimum material for race bicycles is by far the 8th-ply carbon-epoxy composite.
論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT......I
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS....III
LIST OF FIGURES......VIII
LIST OF TABLES.....XI
CHAPTER 1.
BRIEF HISTORY OF THE BICYCLE.1
1.1. The use of the human power.1
1.2. Three main periods in bicycle history.2
1.3. First Period..2
1.4. Second Period...5
1.5. Third Period...8

CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF DESIGN PROCESS OF A BICYCLE FRAME..10
2.1. Logical Design Process...10
2.1.1 Final use intended for the bicycle.10
2.1.2. Final user target design and geometric parameters of the bicycle frame..10
2.1.3. Materials for the bicycle frame...14
2.1.4. Structural model of the bicycle and failure/design criteria.23
2.1.5. Test bicycle frame..26


CHAPTER 3
PROBLEM DEFINITION...29

CHAPTER 4
CASE STUDY: TESTING OF DIFFERENT MATERIALS IN A RACING BICYCLE FRAME...31
4.1. Bicycle frame 3D model..31
4.2. Bicycle frame materials to be analyzed..32
4.3. Testing Methods..35
4.4. Shell element for finite element analysis.37
4.5. Finite element model.39
4.5.1. Exporting and preparing the model for Abaqus.39
4.5.2. Abaqus final configuration and analysis execution..41
4.5.3. Special considerations and assumptions..43
4.6. Finite element analysis results.44
4.6.1. 4130 Cro-moly (normalized) steel alloy.44
4.6.1.1. Frontal loading test.45
4.6.1.2. Torsional test..46
4.6.1.3. Vertical loading test..47
4.6.2. Aluminum 6061 series alloy.48
4.6.2.1. Frontal loading test.48
4.6.2.2. Torsional test..49
4.6.2.3. Vertical loading test..50
4.6.3. Carbon-epoxy composite material....51
4.6.3.1. Frontal loading test.51
4.6.3.2. Torsional test..53
4.6.3.3. Vertical loading test..54
4.6.4. Ti-6Al-4V (grade 5) titanium alloy...56
4.6.4.1. Frontal loading test.56
4.6.4.2. Torsional test..57
4.6.4.3. Vertical loading test..58
4.7. Analysis of results...59

CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS...69
5.1. Conclusions.....69
5.2. Implications for future research.....71

REFERENCES.....72








LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1. The Draisienne....4
Figure 1.2. First commercial Michaux velocipede....5
Figure 1.3. The ordinary, or high-wheeler....6
Figure 1.4.Starley’s Royal Salvo tricycle.....7
Figure 1.5 Starley’s Coventry lever tricycle...8
Figure 1.6 Starley safety bicycle.....9
Figure 2.1 Bicycle frame geometry nomenclature...11
Figure 2.2 Bicycle frame geometry measurements that affects stability...12
Figure 2.3 Basic types of phase diagrams for titanium alloys...18
Figure 2.4 Matrix and fiber interface.....21
Figure 2.5 a) Flat laminate with unidirectional laminae at 900 to each other..21
b) Cylindrical laminate with one layer of chopped-strand mat and two
unidirectional laminae.....21
Figure 2.6 Forces acting on the frame during an intense sprint...24
Figure 2.7 Design process for a bicycle frame....28
Figure 4.1 Racing bicycle frame geometry....31
Figure 4.2 8-ply carbon-epoxy laminated tube with stacking direction..34
Figure 4.3 Torsional loading test.....36
Figure 4.4 Frontal loading test.....36
Figure 4.5 Vertical loading test....37
Figure 4.6 S3R element......38
Figure 4.7 3D frame model CAD file.....39
Figure 4.8 Finite element model for frontal loading ....40
Figure 4.9 Finite element model for torsional test....40
Figure 4.10 Finite element model for vertical loading test...40
Figure 4.11 Material property card in HyperMesh...41
Figure 4.12 Local coordinate system for boundary conditions...42
Figure 4.13 Local material coordinate system for fiber direction...43
Figure 4.14 Deformation criteria for the bicycle frame....43
Figure 4.15 Cro-moly, deformation (mm), frontal loading test..45
Figure 4.16 Cro-moly, Max. Principal stress, MPa, frontal loading test...45
Figure 4.17 Cro-moly, deformation (mm), torsional test....46
Figure 4.18 Cro-moly, Max. Principal stress, MPa, torsional test..46
Figure 4.19 Cro-moly, deformation (mm), Vertical loading test..47
Figure 4.20 Cro-moly, Max. Principal stress, MPa, Vertical loading test..47
Figure 4.21 Aluminum, deformation (mm), frontal loading test..48
Figure 4.22 Aluminum, Max. Principal stress, MPa, frontal loading test..48
Figure 4.23 Aluminum, deformation (mm), torsional test....49
Figure 4.24 Aluminum, Max. Principal stress, MPa, torsional test..49
Figure 4.25 Aluminum, deformation (mm), Vertical loading test..50
Figure 4.26 Aluminum, Max. Principal stress, MPa, Vertical loading test..50
Figure 4.27 Carbon-epoxy, deformation (mm), frontal loading test...52
Figure 4.28 Carbon-epoxy, S11, ply-2, MPa, frontal loading test...52
Figure 4.29 Carbon-epoxy Deformation (mm), rigidity test...53
Figure 4.30 Carbon-epoxy, S11, ply-1, MPa, rigidity test...54
Figure 4.31.Carbon-epoxy, Deformation (mm), Vertical loading test..55
Figure 4.32 Carbon-epoxy, S11, ply-2, MPa, vertical loading test..55
Figure 4.33. Titanium, Deformation (mm), frontal loading test..56
Figure 4.34. Titanium Max. Principal stress MPa, frontal loading test...57
Figure 4.35. Titanium, Deformation (mm), torsional test....57
Figure 4.36. Titanium Max. Principal stress MPa, torsional test...58
Figure 4.37. Titanium, Deformation (mm), Vertical loading test..58
Figure 4.38. Titanium Max. Principal stress MPa, Vertical loading test..59
Figure 4.39. Weight of each frames....60
Figure 4.40. Deformation of each frame, frontal loading test...61
Figure 4.41. Stress of each frame, frontal loading test....61
Figure 4.42. Stress/weight ratio, frontal loading test....61
Figure 4.43. Strength/stress ratio, frontal loading test....61
Figure 4.44. Deformation of each frame, torsional test...63
Figure 4.45. Stress of each frame, torsional test....63
Figure 4.46. Stress/weight ratio, torsional test....63
Figure 4.47. Strength/stress ratio, torsional test....63
Figure 4.48. Deformation of each frame, vertical loading test....66
Figure 4.49 Stress of each frame, vertical loading test....66
Figure 4.50. Stress/weight ratio, vertical loading test...66
Figure 4.51. Strength/weight ratio, vertical loading test...66

LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1 Generic iron-based metals....15
Table 2.2 Generic aluminum-based metals....16
Table 2.3. Generic titanium-based metals....18
Table 2.4 Broad classification of composite materials...20
Table 2.5 Classification of micro-composite materials....22
Table 4.1 Main dimensions of bicycle frame...31
Table 4.2 Material properties of 4130 Cro-Moly (normalized) steel alloy..32
Table 4.3 Material properties of Aluminum 6061 series alloy...33
Table 4.4 Material properties of Carbon-Epoxy...33
Table 4.5 Material properties of Ti-6Al-4V (grade 5) titanium alloy..35
Table 4.6 Maximum stress component S11 for each ply, frontal loading test..51
Table 4.7 Maximum stress component S11 for each ply, torsional test..53
Table 4.8. Maximum stress component S11 for each ply, vertical test...54
Table 4.9. Results of frontal loading test.....60
Table 4.10. Results of torsional test.....63
Table 4.11. Results of vertical loading test....65
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