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系統識別號 U0026-2608201413513200
論文名稱(中文) 情境式語意特徵、後向連結強度與監控對錯誤記憶的影響
論文名稱(英文) The influence of situational property, backward associative strength and metacognitive monitor on false memory
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 心理學系認知科學碩士班
系所名稱(英) MS in Cognitive Science
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 陳彥丞
研究生(英文) Yen-Cheng Chen
學號 U76011077
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 89頁
口試委員 口試委員-黃金蘭
口試委員-李玉琇
指導教授-胡中凡
中文關鍵字 DRM  錯誤記憶  監控  情境特性  後向連結強度 
英文關鍵字 DRM  false-memory  monitor  situational-property  backward associative strength 
學科別分類
中文摘要 錯誤記憶是一種將沒發生過或是與事實不符的事件,或細節,使之成為記憶並堅信記憶的內容發生過。過去經常使用DRM典範進行錯誤記憶研究。DRM典範會在學習階段以聽覺呈現特定詞彙(例如:睡覺)的相關聯詞彙(例如:枕頭、睡衣、棉被、床......),但不包括特定詞彙本身。受試者會傾向在自由回憶作業報告特定詞彙的存在,或是再認測驗時將特定詞彙判斷為曾經呈現過的。這些容易誘使受試者回答曾經學習過的詞彙稱為關鍵詞。在學習階段呈現給受試者的相關連詞彙稱為列表詞。
目前有兩個主要形成DRM錯誤記憶的歷程,列表詞與關鍵詞概念連結的產生與記憶的來源監控失敗。激發監控理論認為連結以自動化、促發的方式產生,模糊痕跡理論認為以語意,擷取語意要旨的方式產生。在監控歷程上,激發監控理論與模糊痕跡理論也有各自的看法。激發監控理論認為,受試者可能以熟悉性做為判斷關鍵詞是否呈現過的依據,或是較系統性的回憶關鍵詞呈現時伴隨的外部特徵(例如:位置、講者的聲音......)。模糊痕跡理論在監控方面則認為受試者會藉由回憶列表詞的外部特徵去拒絕與列表詞概念相像的關鍵詞。錯誤記憶的產生在於當受試者不論以上述何種方式從列表詞連結到關鍵詞,且監控失敗無法拒絕關鍵詞時。
近期研究指出,支持以自動化、促發的方式產生連結的指標BAS(自由聯想常模中自列表詞聯想到關鍵詞的比例。例如:給予詞彙睡衣,有20%受試者第一個聯想到的詞彙為睡覺,則聯想強度為0.200),經由分析後發現部分語意特徵與BAS有一定程度的關聯(Brainerd, Yang, Reyna, Howe, & Mills, 2008),語意特徵基模中的情境特性數目可以預測BAS值與錯誤回憶率且以具有情境特性的詞彙建構DRM列表可以在低BAS產生高錯誤再認率(Cann, McRae, & Katz, 2011)。Cann et al. (2011)認為詞彙的情境特性會促進要旨資訊的萃取,使錯誤回憶率提高。但同樣的列表卻無法在自由回憶作業產生高的錯誤回憶率,是否詞彙的情境特性的影響不在於促進要旨萃取而在錯誤記憶的另一個機制監控?由於具有情境特性的詞彙在DRM材料最多,此外情境特性就是建立情境腳本應該具有的特徵,與訊息誤導效果使用腳本或情境的方式產生錯誤記憶可能有些許關聯。因此,本次研究的目的在於了解詞彙的情境特性是如何影響錯誤記憶中的監控機制與錯誤記憶的表現,以及了解是否受試者的監控能力越好越容易有錯誤記憶。實驗一以多元面向的創造力測驗與錯誤記憶分數求取相關,藉由多面向的創造力探討錯誤記憶中的相似機制。結果顯示錯誤記憶與創造力有相似的機制,連結與監控,此外,萃取要旨與自動化連結也有一定程度正相關。實驗二以複製實驗的方式檢驗Cann et al. (2011)的研究,包括將Cann et al. (2011)的材料英譯中、以具有情境特性的詞彙建構DRM列表但BAS值更趨近0,以Gamma與C進行計算監控能力。結果顯示Cann et al. (2011)的實驗結果可以重現。BAS更低的情況依然有錯誤記憶產生,排除掉連結的影響後依舊有錯誤記憶產生,顯示監控可能的影響。實驗三進一步探討BAS與詞彙的情境特性在錯誤記憶中的監控機制與錯誤記憶表現上的影響,並且以記憶衰退性探討含有情境特性的詞彙建構的列表產生的錯誤記憶是否與一般列表產生的錯誤記憶不同。結果顯示BAS與詞彙的情境特性都會對錯誤記憶表現產生影響,但沒有交互作用。詞彙的情境特性在低BAS時對監控有單純主要效果,BAS對監控沒有影響。研究結果顯示,BAS依舊是一個影響錯誤記憶的指標。而詞彙的情境特性的列表與一般列表產生的錯誤記憶衰退率並無不同。最後分析受試者監控能力與錯誤記憶表現之間的關係,結果顯示受試者監控能力越好越不會產生錯誤記憶。
本次研究指出BAS依舊是可以預測錯誤記憶的指標,且情境特性詞影響不在連結而在降低監控。支持激發監控理論,但本次研究也指出萃取語意要旨與自動化連結有一定程度關聯,且錯誤記憶的衰退率依舊小於真實記憶,支持模糊痕跡理論,顯示兩個理論可能不是互斥而是互補。
英文摘要 Backward Associative Strength (BAS) is considered as a good predictor of false memory produced by Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) task. Previous study found that both semantic properties and BAS load on the same factor of the task (Brainerd et al., 2008). It is proposed that DRM lists composed of Situation Properties can elicit high false memory at low BAS (Cann et al., 2011). We assume that Situation Properties could influence metacognitive monitoring for DRM task but BAS could influence the time retention of false memory. The present study investigates if Situation Properties lists and BAS influence metacognitive monitoring and the time retention of false memory. Both Gamma and C (Cheng, 2010) values are used to measure the metacognitive monitoring of DRM task in Roediger’s (2013) paradigm and percentages of false memory decay rate are used to refer time retention. The results show that Situation Properties reduces metacognitive monitoring.
論文目次 第一章 緒論 1
第一節 Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM)典範 4
第二節 DRM的相關實徵研究 6
第三節 DRM錯誤記憶理論與解釋 8
一、激發/監控理論(Activation/Monitoring theory) 8
二、模糊痕跡理論(Fuzzy Trace Theory) 10
三、理論比較 10
第四節 後設認知 14
第五節 小結 16
第六節 研究目的與假設 18
第二章 實驗一:來源監控與後設監控的關聯,以創造力與錯誤記憶進行相關分析 20
第一節 實驗目的、推論與假設 20
第二節 實驗方法 21
一、受試者 21
二、實驗材料 21
三、實驗設計 22
四、實驗程序 23
第三節 結果 25
第四節 討論 27
第三章 實驗二:詞彙的情境特性對錯誤記憶中的監控機制能力與DRM錯誤記憶表現的影響 31
第一節實驗目的、推論與假設 31
第二節 實驗方法 32
一、受試者 32
二、實驗材料 32
三、實驗設計 33
四、實驗程序 33
第三節 結果 33
第四節 討論 36
第四章 實驗三:BAS、詞彙的情境特性對錯誤記憶表現與對錯誤記憶中監控機制的探討 39
第一節 實驗目的、推論與假設 39
第二節 實驗方法 40
一、受試者 40
二、實驗材料 40
三、實驗設計 41
四、實驗程序 41
第三節結果 42
第四節討論 47
第五章 綜合討論 50
第一節 研究發現 50
第二節 研究限制、研究貢獻與未來方向 62
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