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系統識別號 U0026-2608201113250600
論文名稱(中文) 外顯學習與內隱學習對老年人適應視覺運動關係的影響
論文名稱(英文) The effects of explicit and implicit learning on visuomotor adaptation in the elderly
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 物理治療研究所
系所名稱(英) Department of Physical Therapy
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 陳昕暐
研究生(英文) Hsi-Wei Chen
學號 t6697106
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 36頁
口試委員 指導教授-楊政峰
指導教授-黃英修
口試委員-卓瓊鈺
中文關鍵字 外顯學習 
英文關鍵字 The effects of explicit 
學科別分類
中文摘要 [背景與研究動機] 越來越多新的科技產品在使用時,需要使用者運用特定的視覺運動關係而此適應會受到感覺動作整合能力與策略性修正能力的影響。過去的研究發現老年人在適應新的視覺運動關係時較年輕人困難,主要的原因是老年人在適應過程中,形成策略性修正的能力下降。有學者認為沒有察覺視覺運動關係改變是老年人策略性修正能力下降的重要原因,所以在適應前給予明確的視覺運動關係改變的外顯知識,應能降低策略性修正能力下降對老年人適應視覺運動關係改變的影響。因此,本研究的目的之一在探討外顯知識是否有助於老年人對視覺運動關係改變的適應,實驗假說為老年人經由外顯學習會比經由內隱學習表現出更準確的動作方向適應以及更小的動作固定誤差。此外,過去研究指出適應後經過一段時間會有動作表現的遺忘,然而動作表現的遺忘是否受學習方式的影響,目前則尚待釐清。因此,本研究的目的之二在探討外顯知識是否能減少老年人在適應視覺運動關係改變後動作表現的遺忘,實驗假說為老年人經由外顯學習會比經由內隱學習表現出更多的動作記憶保留。[研究方法] 本實驗收集19位健康老年人(包含外顯學習組10人與內隱學習組9人),慣用手皆為右手。受試者被要求手握觸控筆在電子手寫板上做出從指定的起始位置畫到目標的點對點動作。目標共有8個,以起始位置為中心呈輻射狀分布,距離起始位置10公分,每次隨機出現。兩組受試者的差別在於外顯學習組在適應前先告知受試者觸控筆的動作軌跡在螢幕上會被逆時針旋轉30度以及相對應的策略;內隱學習組則沒有告知任何動作任務的內容。所有受試者都要在實驗要求的動作時間範圍內準確地完成從指定的起始位置畫到目標。實驗共分兩天進行,受試者第一天在視覺運動關係被逆時針旋轉30度下完成384個動作,做為適應期,第二天在於相同條件下進行另外的192個動作,做為再適應期。實驗完成後計算動作固定誤差(Constant Error, CE)以及起始動作方向誤差(Initial Direction Error, IDE)。[研究結果] 本實驗比較兩組在第一天剛開始適應區段與適應到最後區段的表現,結果發現外顯學習組的受試者主要動作固定誤差明顯小於內隱學習組的受試者(group effect: F1,17 = 14.837, p < 0.005),並且外顯學習組的受試者動作起始方向誤差亦明顯小於內隱學習組的受試者(group effect: F1,17 = 27.960, p < 0.001),此結果顯示外顯知識有助於老年人視覺運動關係的適應。此外,比較第二天剛開始適應區段與第一天適應到最後區段的表現,結果發現外顯學習組與內隱學習組的主要動作的固定誤差與動作的起始方向誤差都有某種程度的增加,兩組主要動作的固定誤差變差的程度並沒有明顯的不同(block*group: p > 0.5)且兩組動作的起始方向誤差亦有相同結果(block*group: p > 0.5),顯示老年人不論是否具備動作任務相關的外顯知識,動作記憶的流失程度類似。[結論] 老年人外顯學習對適應視覺運動關係被改變的動作表現比內隱學習的動作表現好。老年人外顯學習與內隱學習均有相同程度的動作記憶減少。
英文摘要 [Background] Control of many modern technological devices may require the capability of adjusting visuomotor relationship. It has been suggested that visuomotor adaptation is processed through sensorimotor integration and strategic correction. In a previous study, the performance of visuomotor adaptation in the elderly was worse than the young adults, and the critical reason was the age-related decline of strategic correction during novel visuomotor adaptation. Some researchers considered that the age-related decline of strategic correction in the elderly was affected by awareness, and the elderly who were provided with the task knowledge before visuomotor adaptation might decrease the effect of age-related decline of strategic correction. The first aim of this study was to understand whether explicit learning would improve the performance of visuomotor adaptation than implicit learning for the elderly, and the hypothesis was that the elderly adapting explicitly would have more accurate movement direction and smaller target error than adapting implicitly. Additionally, it has been found that the performance of visuomotor adaptation might forget in post-adaptation, however whether the performance of visuomotor adaptation forgetting were affected by learning is unclear. The second aim of this study was to understand whether explicit learning would have less forgetting in post-adaptation than implicit learning, and the hypothesis was that the elderly would have more retention for movement direction and target accuracy with explicit learning than with implicit learning. [Method] The present study collected 19 right-handed healthy elderly subjects, 10 in the explicit learning group and 9 in the implicit learning group, and they were asked hand-held stylus pen and implemented the point-to-point movement on the digital tablet. There were eight targets which were distributed radially form center of the tablet, diameter in 10 cm. The order of target was randomly displayed on the monitor. The subjects of explicit learning group were instructed the task knowledge, but the subjects of implicit were not. Subjects were asked to match the required movement duration of experimental design, and as accurate as possible to the targets. The experimental procedures were as the followings: 1) on the first day, subjects achieved 384 trials during visuomotor rotation counterclockwise 30 degrees, which was called adaptation phase; 2) on the second day, subjects achieved 192 trials during visuomotor rotation counterclockwise 30 degrees again, which was called re-adaptation phase. The movement constant error and movement initial direction error were calculated for further analysis.[Results] The performance of visuomotor adaptation was indicated that the difference between explicit learning group and implicit learning group from the initial block to the final block in adaptation phase, and we found that the constant error of the primary movement in the explicit learning group was significant smaller than in the implicit learning group during adaptation phase (group effect: F1,17 = 14.837, p < 0.005), and the movement initial direction error in the explicit learning group was significantly smaller than in the implicit learning group during adaptation phase (group effect: F1,17 = 27.960, p < 0.001), too. This result supported the aim of this study that the explicit learning improved the performance of visuomotor adaptation of the elderly. The retention effect was indicated that the change from the final block on day1 to the initial block on day 2 in both groups, and we found that the primary movement constant error increased more on day 2 than on day 1 in both groups, and the change of the two groups was similar (block*group: p > 0.5). The result of movement initial direction error was similar to the result of movement constant error (block*group: p > 0.5). This result indicated that there were the same performance forgetting in both groups. Explicit learning improved the performance of visuomotor adaptation better than implicit learning for the older adults. However, the extent of motor memory loss was similar for the elderly with explicit and implicit learning.[Conclusion] The performance of explicit learning on visuomotor adaptation were better than implicit learning in the older adults. The level of motor memory loss was similar in both groups in the older adults.
論文目次 中文摘要…………………………………………………………………………Ⅰ
英文摘要……………………………………………………………………………Ⅲ
誌謝………………………………………………………………………………Ⅵ
目錄……………………………………………………………………………Ⅶ
圖目錄………………………………………………………………………………Ⅸ
第一章 背景與研究動機……………………………………………………… 1
第二章 研究方法……………………………………………………………… 8
2.1 受試者…………………………………………………………………… 8
2.2 實驗儀器………………………………………………………………… 8
2.3 實驗流程…………………………………………………………………10
2.4 資料分析…………………………………………………………………11
2.5 統計分析…………………………………………………………………13
第三章 研究結果………………………………………………………………14
3.1 動作時間…………………………………………………………………14
3.2 整體動作固定誤差………………………………………………………15
3.3 主要動作固定誤差………………………………………………………16
3.4 動作起始方向誤差………………………………………………………17
第四章 討論…………………………………………………………………19
第五章 結論…………………………………………………………………25
參考文獻…………………………………………………………………… 26
附錄………………………………………………………………… 30
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