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系統識別號 U0026-2608201110011000
論文名稱(中文) 改良式永久散射體雷達干涉法
論文名稱(英文) An Improved PS-InSAR Approach
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 測量及空間資訊學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Geomatics
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 楊佳祥
研究生(英文) Jia-Shiang Yang
電子信箱 moon.shade@msa.hinet.net
學號 p6697405
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 169頁
口試委員 指導教授-蔡展榮
口試委員-吳究
口試委員-謝嘉聲
中文關鍵字 合成孔徑雷達  雷達干涉  雷達差分干涉  永久散射體雷達干涉  地層下陷  地震 
英文關鍵字 SAR  InSAR  D-InSAR  PS-InSAR  Subsidence  Earthquake 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本文提出改良式永久散射體雷達干涉法(PS-InSAR),並以1999年台灣中部包含彰化和雲林地區做為實驗測試區,計算此區的地層下陷速度。改良式PS-InSAR只利用垂直基線小於200m的同調性影像來挑選永久散射體候選點(PSCs),能在一般PS-InSAR無法得到任何PSC的72x72km^2計算區中,成功得到9422個PSCs,最後,不再設限垂直基線門檻值,直接使用全部的差分干涉圖進行平差計算,萃取出9196個永久散射體(PSs)並估算其高程變動速率。PS在平地和山區的密度分別為5.72PS/km^2和0.44PS/km^2。彰化和雲林地區呈現整體地層下陷的趨勢。彰化地區的平均下陷變動速率為-4cm/year,有64%的PSs呈現下陷的變動情形。鹿港、芳苑和大城區域的平均高程變動速率分別為+5.3cm/year、-5.5cm/year和-4.7cm/year。在彰化斷層的西側和東側有73%和60%的PSs分別呈現上升和下陷的變動速率,此系統性的垂直變動情形間接反映彰化斷層帶的存在和位置。在良好的計算條件下,本文採用的PS-InSAR方法在建物密集的都市實驗區中,其表示計算精密度的RMSD為1.52cm/year。本文上述的計算結果吻合地真資料的描述,證明改良式PS-InSAR為正確和可行的技術。本文最後探討改良式PS-InSAR計算所需的三種參數:(1)垂直基線門檻值、(2)同調性門檻值和(3)採用的SAR影像數目的決定方法以及它們對於計算結果的影響。
英文摘要 An improved PS-InSAR approach is proposed in this thesis. It is used to estimate the vertical displacement velocity vectors in 1999 in central Taiwan covering Changhua and Yunlin regions. The improved PS-InSAR only adopts the coherence images with the perpendicular baseline less than 200 m to select the permanent scatterer candidates (PSCs). The improved PS-InSAR can obtain the 9422 PSCs from the computational area, covering 72x72km^2, where the general PS-InSAR is incapable of selecting any PSC. Then the criterion of perpendicular baseline length is not taken into account, and all differential interferograms are involved in the adjustment processing. Finally, the 9196 permanent scatterers (PSs) are extracted from the 9422 PSCs, and their vertical displacement velocities are estimated successfully.

The PS densities are respectively 5.72PS/km^2 and 0.44PS/km^2 in the plain and mountain areas. The vertical displacement velocities in Changhua and Yunlin regions have the descending tendency as a whole. In Changhua region, the average vertical displacement velocity is -4cm/year, and 64% PSs are descending. The average vertical displacement velocities are respectively +5.3cm/year, -5.5cm/year and -4.7cm/year in Lukang , Fangyuan and Tacheng areas. The 73% PSs have the ascending displacement velocities on the west side of Changhua Fault; but the vertical displacement velocities on the 60% PSs are descending on the east side of Chaughua Fault. Apparently, the vertical displacement velocities on the PSs have the ascending and descending tendencies respectively on the west and east side of Chaughua Fault. This situation implies the existence and location for Chaughua Fault. Under the favorable conditions, the RMSD is 1.52cm/year and estimated from the computational area with dense coverage of buildings. These results mentioned above are validated by comparing the ground truth data. Hence it demonstrates that the improved PS-InSAR is a proper and feasible technique.

The three parameter values such as (1) perpendicular baseline threshold, (2) coherence threshold and (3) number of adopted SAR images are crucial for the result determined by the improved PS-InSAR. Finally, the influence of these three parameter values on the computational result and the method for determining the optimal parameter values are demonstrated and studied in this thesis.
論文目次 摘要 I
Abstract II
致謝 III
Contents IV
List of Tables VII
List of Figures VIII
List of Abbreviations XI
1. Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation and Objective 1
1.2 Literature Review 3
1.2.1 Development of Synthetic Aperture Radar 3
1.2.2 Development of InSAR and D-InSAR 5
1.2.3 Development of PS-InSAR 7
1.3 Overview and Organization 10
2. Radar Principles 11
2.1 Introduction 11
2.2 Side-Looking Radar 11
2.2.1 Range Resolution 13
2.2.2 Azimuth Resolution 15
2.2.3 Geometric Characteristics of Side-Looking Radar 16
2.3 Synthetic Aperture Radar 19
2.4 Polarization 22
2.5 Transmission Characteristics 24
2.6 Scattering Characteristics 25
2.6.1 Geometric Characteristics 25
2.6.2 Surface Roughness 25
2.6.3 Dielectric Constant 26
3. Speckle Noise 27
3.1 Introduction 27
3.2 Statistics 28
3.3 Noise Model 31
3.4 Speckle Noise Filtering 32
3.4.1 MMSE Filtering 32
3.4.2 Refined Lee Filtering 35
3.4.3 Lee Sigma Filtering 37
3.4.4 Improved Sigma Filtering 39
4. Interferometry 43
4.1 InSAR 43
4.2 D-InSAR 45
4.2.1 D-InSAR Methods 48
4.3 PS-InSAR 49
4.3.1 Selection of Permanent Scatterers Candidates 49
4.3.2 Determination of Linear Displacement Velocity 52
4.3.3 Determination of Nonlinear Displacement Velocity 57
4.3.4 Comparison between PS-InSAR and D-InSAR 58
5. Using D-InSAR to Determine the DDM 59
5.1 Introduction 59
5.2 Experimental SAR Images 60
5.3 Procedure 63
5.4 Inputting SAR Images 66
5.5 Inputting Precise Orbits 67
5.6 Cutting SAR Images 68
5.7 Registration 69
5.8 Resampling 75
5.9 Generating Interferograms 76
5.10 Subtracting Reference Phase 79
5.11 Generating Coherence Images 83
5.12 Filtering Phase Noise 86
5.13 Phase Unwrapping 90
5.14 Generating DEM 95
5.15 Generating DDM 97
6. Using Improved PS-InSAR to Estimate Displacement Velocities in Central Taiwan 105
6.1 Introduction 105
6.2 Experimental SAR Images 107
6.3 Creating Coherence Images and Differential Interferograms 110
6.4 Improved Method for Selection of PSC 112
6.5 Evaluating the Vertical Displacement Velocities 114
6.6 Selecting Optimal Parameter Values for Improved PS-InSAR 124
6.6.1 Perpendicular Baseline Threshold 125
6.6.2 Coherence Threshold 126
6.6.3 Adopted SAR Images 132
6.6.4 Computational Time 133
6.7 Computation Precision 134
7. Control Group: Using PS-InSAR to Estimate Displacement Velocities in Tainan City 136
7.1 Experimental Materials 136
7.2 Selecting PSCs and Generating Displacement Velocity Image 139
7.3 Computation Precision 141
8. Conclusions and Future Works 143
Reference 148
Appendix A 156
Appendix B 158
Appendix C 164
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