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系統識別號 U0026-2607201611083900
論文名稱(中文) 近斷層環境噪訊與斷層錯動之關聯分析
論文名稱(英文) Relationship between fault slip to the ambient noise from near fault zone stations
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 資源工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Resources Engineering
學年度 104
學期 2
出版年 105
研究生(中文) 吳沛芸
研究生(英文) Pei-Yun Wu
學號 N46031033
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 56頁
口試委員 指導教授-余騰鐸
口試委員-葉永田
口試委員-楊名
口試委員-劉啟清
中文關鍵字 噪訊  單站法  共振主頻 
英文關鍵字 ambient noise  HVSR  resonance frequency 
學科別分類
中文摘要 環境噪訊是經由大自然及人為作用所產生的能量造成波動,於地表附近的地層中不停來回震盪疊加所形成的訊號,地底構造的不同會使波產生不同的物理現象反映在不同頻率。台灣地質構造複雜、地底應力作用頻繁,當地底應力作用改變造成地底構造受擠壓或拉扯,進而造成斷層兩側位移速率改變時,可能會使噪訊於某段頻率有所改變。
本研究取用2007年中央氣象局於BATS地震網設立的6個寬頻地震測站之連續資料,分別使用功率譜密度量化噪訊強度與單站法分析,將研究分為兩部分。第一部分為比較近斷層測站與遠斷層測站之訊號強度受到斷層影響程度之差異;此部分研究結果顯示 (1) 0-2 Hz之噪訊主要受到氣象因素影響;(2) 當小區域地震發生且震源與三個近斷層測站連線與斷層走向趨近平行時,斷層所造成之場址效應只明顯出現在近斷層測站的5 Hz噪訊中;(3) 2.5-4.5 Hz及5.5-25 Hz噪訊因受到文明噪訊影響,於六個測站中無相同特徵出現。第二部分以單站法分析,並且選取縱谷斷層北部及中部的兩組GPS測站,計算平行斷層之位移量,觀察斷層位移方向改變時對噪訊主頻之影響;此部分研究結果顯示 (1)於小尺度下 (以週為單位) 無法觀察到斷層位移方向改變與噪訊主頻變動 (上升或下降) 之關係;(2) 於較大尺度 (兩週以上趨勢) 測站FULB之噪訊在長時間 (1-3個月) 斷層位移方向未改變後突然發生位移方向改變之情況下,其噪訊主頻會產生立即的波動,但在擾動結束後ㄧ週內便回復原狀;(3) 於較大尺度下測站ENLB之噪訊於斷層位移方向連續改變時,主頻會有下降的情況發生;(4) 平行斷層之位移對噪訊的影響有距離的限制,超過7.5公里便沒有關連訊號。本研究以小範圍區域在長短不同的時間內,對於斷層活動激烈的東台灣偵測環境噪訊的變異與斷層活動性為非經常性的正相關。
英文摘要 Fault is one of the discontinuities geological structure. At different underground structure may have different site effect show within the seismic wave. The purpose of this research is to find the relationship between small scale fault slip to the variation of ambient noise in eastern Taiwan.
There is two sections within this study. First section is to find the differences of the ambient noise at near and far fault stations. It shows that (1) 0-2 Hz noise effects mainly controlled by meteorological factors; (2) Site effect may obviously response to 5 Hz noise when local earthquake wave arrives at a small incident angle relative to the strike of the fault; (3) Noise of 2.5-4.5 Hz & 5.5-25 Hz is associated with anthropogenic activity, therefore, the noise dose not demonstrate the same characteristic pattern within the six stations. Second section is using HVSR method to analyze the impact of resonance frequency when fault slip direction changed. This section shows that (1) there is no relationship between the fault slip direction change to the resonance frequency under small time scale (in weeks); (2) To a larger time scale (more than two weeks), the resonance frequency at the station FULB would fluctuate immediately when the fault slip direction changed sudden after a long time stable period (1-3 months); (3) To a larger scale, the resonance frequency at the station ENLB would drop down when the fault slip direction changed continuously; (4) The effect of ambient noise only found at limited distance for displacement parallel to the fault.
論文目次 摘要 I
致謝 VII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 研究動機與目的 2
1.3 研究架構與流程 3
第二章 文獻回顧 5
2.1 微地動與場址效應 5
2.2 環境噪訊 8
第三章 研究方法 11
3.1 環境噪訊強度分析 11
3.1.1 資料來源 11
3.1.2 儀器介紹 13
3.1.3 資料處理及分析方法 14
3.1.4 功率譜密度 (Power Spectrum Density, PSD) 17
3.1.5 計算噪訊之時空分布 18
3.2 場址效應主頻變化分析 18
3.2.1 資料處理 18
3.2.2 單站法 18
3.2.3 主頻分析 19
3.3 GPS基線長度變異分析 21
3.3.1 資料來源與分析方法 21
3.3.2 定義位移方向改變點 21
3.4 交叉相關函數 22
第四章 實驗成果分析與討論 23
4.1 訊號疊加比較 23
4.2 選取時窗長度於功率譜密度之比較 27
4.3 噪訊特徵 30
4.4 近斷層與遠斷層測站噪訊之比對 31
4.5 噪訊與斷層位移量之比對 42
4.5.1 噪訊與A組GPS位移量之相關性 42
4.5.2 噪訊與B組GPS位移量之相關性 43
4.6 單站法分析噪訊與斷層位移之關係 46
第五章 結論與建議 52
參考文獻 53
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