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系統識別號 U0026-2607201301091200
論文名稱(中文) 認知能力對動作表現的影響:老年人動作適應研究
論文名稱(英文) Influence of Cognitive Capabilities on Motor Performance: A Study of Motor Adaptation of the Elderly
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 物理治療研究所
系所名稱(英) Department of Physical Therapy
學年度 101
學期 2
出版年 102
研究生(中文) 林宣寧
研究生(英文) Hsuan-Ning Lin
學號 T66004027
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 48頁
口試委員 指導教授-楊政峰
指導教授-黃英修
口試委員-卓瓊鈺
口試委員-郭余民
中文關鍵字 認知能力  察覺力  老年人  視覺運動關係適應 
英文關鍵字 cognition  awareness  elderly  visuomotor adaptation 
學科別分類
中文摘要 背景及目的:
過去的研究指出在適應視覺運動關係(visuomotor adaptation)時,需要利用策略性修正(strategic correction),來適應視覺運動關係的改變。策略性修正被認為是一種認知能力。認知能力可分為晶體智力(crystallized intelligence)和流體智力(fluid intelligence)。依先前研究顯示,晶體智力增長至一定的程度後,便維持穩定。然而,流體智力的能力則會受到年紀的影響;在二十多歲時達到高峰,之後便逐年下降,六十多歲後會更快速的衰退。先前的研究表示,適應新的視覺運動關係時,老年人的動作方向誤差比年輕人大、到達目標的準確性也比年輕人差。表示年紀增長會造成動作適應表現變差。目前對老年人視覺動作適應表現之下降是否與流體智力的衰退有關尚不清楚。因此本研究的第一個目的是要了解對老年人來說,視覺運動關係改變的適應是否會受到流體認知能力表現的影響。
當視覺運動的關係改變時,需要依靠察覺環境發生何種改變(awareness)來形成認知策略以應對外界的改變。相對年輕人而言,老年人比較難察覺外在的改變。先前的研究表示,在適應視覺運動關係的實驗中,有察覺到環境改變的老年人,其適應表現會比沒有察覺者好。因此在本研究的另外兩個目的分別為: (1)了解老年人在適應視覺運動關係時,難以察覺環境改變的能力是否是因為流體智力衰退所造成。(2)確認視覺運動關係的適應與察覺環境之間的關聯性。
研究方法:
本研究收集31位65歲以上且慣用手皆為右手的健康老年人。所有受試者都要完成視覺運動關係適應的實驗及認知能力的檢測。實驗中受試者需從起始點以觸控筆向指定的目標做連線動作,他們所看到的動作軌跡會被逆時針旋轉30°,而他們必須盡可能的連得越準越好。整個實驗過程中總共包含432次連線動作,包含24次沒有偏轉的基礎期(baseline)、384次逆時針偏轉30°的適應期 (adaptation phase)及24次沒有偏轉的後效應期(after-adaptation phase)。完成動作適應的實驗後,受試者接著要完成魏氏成人智力量表第三版(WAIS-III)中屬於流體智力的三項指數分數測驗: 知覺組織(perceptual organization)、工作記憶(working memory)及處理速度(processing speed)。實驗完成後,利用線性複回歸(multiple linear regression)、Pearson相關性分析及點二列相關性分析(biserial correlation)對動作適應實驗中的動作起始方向誤差(initial direction error)、動作固定誤差(constant error)、三項認知能力分數及察覺力做統計分析。
研究結果:
在適應初期,動作起始方向誤差及動作固定誤差都很大,但都會隨著練習的次數增加而逐漸下降。只有在適應後期,動作起始方向誤差及動作固定誤差的變異量可被三項認知能力解釋,在適應初期及後效應期動作表現的變異量皆無法被三項認知能力解釋。進一步了解發現在適應後期中,動作適應的表現與其中知覺組織和處理速度有關,與工作記憶無關。在察覺力與三項認知能力及動作適應表現之間的相關性分析顯示,察覺力與三項認知能力皆有相關,而與動作適應的表現只有在適應後期有關。
結論:
老年人之動作適應表現與流體認知功能在適應後期有關。在後適應期(after adaptation)中,動作適應表現與認知能力則無關。另外,動作適應的表現主要除了與認知功能中的知覺組織有關外,與處理速度的能力也有關連。

英文摘要 Background and motivation:
Visuomotor adaptation requires strategic correction to adapt to the changes between visual and motor relationship. Strategic correction is one of the cognitive capabilities. Cognitive capabilities can be divided into crystallized intelligence and fluid intelligence. Crystallized intelligence maintained stable and less affected by aging, however, fluid intelligence will decline with aging. Degradation in the performance of visuomotor adaptation such as more movement direction errors and lower accuracy than the young adults in the elderly has been found in previous studies. It is not clear whether the poor motor adaptation in the elderly is related to decline in fluid intelligence. The first purpose of this study was to determine whether visuomotor adaptation would be affected by the cognitive capabilities that categorized to fluid intelligence in the elderly.
Awareness is needed to help develop a cognitive strategy to face the change of visuomotor relation. Previous studies suggested that elderly had difficulty in forming awareness. Therefore, we were also interested in whether elderly had difficulty in forming awareness during visuomotor adaptation was because of the degradation of fluid intelligence. The second purpose was to determine if awareness correlates with cognitive capabilities during visuomotor adaptation. In addition, to investigate whether the poor performance of visuomotor adaptation in the elderly was due to the lack of awareness, the third purpose was to determine if awareness is associated with performance of visuomotor adaptation.

Methods:
This study included Thirty-one right-handed healthy elderly subjects. All of them were older than 65-year-old and had normal or corrected-to-normal vision. All participants went through a process of visuomotor adaptation and then their cognitive status was evaluated.
The visuomotor adaptation required the subjects to adapt to a visually 30° counterclockwise rotation environment in which the pointing movements had to be made as accurate as possible. There were 432 pointing movements made throughout experiment including 24 movement trials in the baseline phase followed by 384 movement trials in the adaptation phase and 24 movement trials in the after-adaptation phase. After the visuomotor adaptation experiment, the participants completed part of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) assessed fluid intelligence which included three cognitive capabilities index score: perceptual organization index score (POIS), working memory index score (WMIS) and processing speed index score (PSIS).
The initial direction errors (IDE) and constant error (CE) analyzed from hand trajectory which was obtained from the visuomotor adaptation experiment was averaged across trials for the baseline phase, early, middle, and late phase of adaptation and for the after-adaptation phase separately. The multiple linear regression and Pearson correlation between IDE,CE for each phase and the scores of cognitive capabilities were analyzed. In addition, biserial correlation between awareness and cognitive capabilities, awareness and visuomotor adaptation were analyzed.

Results:
At the beginning of the adaptation, IDE and CE were large and then gradually reduced with more practices. The variations of IDE and CE could be explained by three cognitive capabilities at late adaptation phase. However, only perceptual organization and processing speed but not working memory had correlations with IDE and CE.
The correlation values between awareness and all cognitive capabilities were statistically significant. Furthermore, only at late adaptation phase, the correlation between awareness and IDE of visuomotor adaptation was statistically significant.

Conclusions:
Our findings showed that: (1) The cognitive capabilities of fluid intelligence was related to the motor performance of visuomotor adaptation in the late adaptation phase, but not in the early adaptation phase, for the elderly; (2) Cognitive capabilities were not associated with motor performance in the phase of after adaptation in the elderly; (3) For the elderly, motor performance during visuomotor adaptation was influenced mainly by perceptual organization and might be influenced by processing speed also.

論文目次 摘要……………………………………I
Abstract……………………………III
致謝……………………………………VI
Contents……………………………VII
List of Tables……………………X
List of Figures…………………XI
Chapter 1. Introduction………………………1
Chapter 2. Methods……………………………10
2.1. Subjects…………………10
2.2. Task………………………10
2.3. Apparatus………………11
2.4. Procedures……………12
2.5. Cognitive evaluation……………13
2.6. Data analysis………………………15
2.6.1. Movement initiation……………15
2.6.2. End of entire movement………15
2.6.3. End of primary submovement……………16
2.7. Dependent variables………………………………16
2.7.1. Initial direction error………………16
2.7.2. Constant error……………………………16
2.7.3. Awareness……………………………………16
2.8. Independent variables………………………17
2.8.1. The perceptual organization index score
(POIS) ……17
2.8.2. The working memory index score (WMIS)
………………17
2.8.3. The processing speed index score (PSIS)
……………17
2.9. Statistical analysis………………………17
2.9.1. multiple linear regression……18
2.9.2. Pearson correlation………………18
2.9.3. Biserial correlation……………20
Chapter 3. Results……………………………………21
3.1. Motor performance and cognitive assessment……21
3.2. Multiple linear regression analyses……………22
3.2.1. Regression analysis for initial direction
error…23
3.2.2. Regression analysis for constant error………23
3.3. Pearson correlation analyses………………………………24
3.2.1 Correlation analysis for initial direction
error………24
3.2.2 Correlation analysis for constant error………24
3.4. Biserial correlation analyses………………………24
3.4.1 Correlations between cognitive capabilities and
awareness……24
3.4.2 Correlations between motor performance and
awareness…………25
Chapter 4. Discussion……………………………………26
4.1 Cognitive function associated with motor
performance in the later adaptation phases but not
in early adaptation phase for the elderly
……………………………………………………26
4.2 Cognitive function not associated with motor
performance in the phase of after
adaptation………………………29
4.3 Perceptual organization and processing speed
associated with visuomotor adaptation ……………29
Chapter 5. Conclusion……………………………………32
References……………………………………33
Appendix………………………………………48

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