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系統識別號 U0026-2607201214434300
論文名稱(中文) 交互多模型定位演算法實現於車輛導航之研究
論文名稱(英文) Interacting Multiple Model Positioning Algorithm and its Application in Vehicle Navigation
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 電機工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Electrical Engineering
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生(中文) 唐世銘
研究生(英文) Shin-Ming Tang
學號 N26994164
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 70頁
口試委員 口試委員-許佳興
指導教授-莊智清
口試委員-黃國興
口試委員-楊名
口試委員-詹劭勳
中文關鍵字 交互多模型  車輛導航 
英文關鍵字 IMM  Vehicle Navigation 
學科別分類
中文摘要 目前全球定位系統(Global Positioning System, GPS)已經發展成熟,且已被廣泛地應用在車輛導航上。當車子行駛於市區中會受到高樓、隧道等之遮蔽與多路徑效應的影響,導致訊號中斷。為了解決這個問題,以慣性導航系統(Inertial Navigation System, INS)與GPS的整合式導航技術已成為導航系統的主要方向。一般GPS/INS整合導航系統的作法是使用擴展式卡爾曼濾波器(Extended Kalman Filter, EKF)根據GPS與INS的量測量,並搭配導航演算法來推估載具的位置、速度與姿態。然而由於車輛之動態行為隨著時間有極高之變化與複雜性,若如一般導航演算法所使用之卡爾曼濾波器單一模型之架構,很難將載具之行為作完整的描述。因此,本論文發展了交互多模型(Interacting Multiple Model, IMM)架構車輛導航演算法。交互多模型考慮數個模型來表示系統之行為,藉由調整各模型之間比例,使其能針對情況調整出適當之模型,以確保其定位精度。
英文摘要 Nowadays, the Global Positioning System (GPS) has been widely used for vehicle navigation. However, GPS cannot provide an uninterrupted positioning solution when vehicle drives in areas such as urban canyons or tunnels, because the system suffers from signal blockage and multipath effects. In order to deal with these problems, GPS/Inertial Navigation System (INS) integrated navigation technique has become the main direction to facilitate a continuous positioning solution. A GPS/INS integrated navigation system typically utilizes an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) based navigation algorithm to estimate vehicle position, velocity, and attitude based on GPS and INS measurements. However, as the dynamic state of vehicles is highly variable and complex over time, utilizing single EKF model is not sufficient enough to capture the movement of vehicles. Therefore, this thesis develops an Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) positioning algorithm. IMM approach considers that the system follows one of a finite number of different models, the appropriate state estimates are combined according to the ratio adjustment between models to ensure the positioning accuracy.
論文目次 摘要 II
Abstract III
誌謝 V
目錄 VI
表目錄 VIII
圖目錄 IX
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 文獻回顧 2
1.3 論文貢獻 3
1.4 論文架構 3
第二章 慣性導航系統與全球定位系統 4
2.1 慣性導航系統 4
2.1.1 慣性導航系統簡介 4
2.1.2 座標框架 7
2.1.3 座標框架轉換 11
2.1.4 姿態表示 15
2.1.5 感測器的隨機誤差模型 19
2.2 全球定位系統 21
第三章 GPS/INS整合式導航系統 23
3.1 卡爾曼濾波器 25
3.1.1 卡爾曼濾波器簡介 25
3.1.2 擴展式卡爾曼濾波器 28
3.1.3 系統觀測性與濾波器的調整 29
3.2 GPS/INS整合式導航系統之結構 30
3.2.1 非耦合式整合系統 30
3.2.2 鬆散耦合式整合系統 31
3.2.3 緊密耦合式整合系統 32
3.2.4 超緊密耦合式整合系統 33
3.3 車輛運動模型 33
3.4 整合GPS/INS卡爾曼濾波器 35
第四章 交互多模型 39
4.1 多模型簡介 39
4.2 交互多模型 40
4.3 IMM車輛導航演算法 44
第五章 模擬與實驗結果分析 50
5.1 軟體模擬驗證 50
5.1.1 模擬路徑與觀測量 50
5.1.2 模擬結果分析 52
5.2 路測實驗結果 56
第六章 結論與未來工作 65
6.1 結論 65
6.2 未來工作 66
參考文獻 67
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