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系統識別號 U0026-2605201516033500
論文名稱(中文) 以功率生物力學參數分析比較台灣職業棒球投手、台灣大專棒球隊投手與台灣高中棒球投手之投擲動作
論文名稱(英文) Comparative Analysis of Pitching Motion among Taiwanese Professional Baseball Pitchers, Taiwanese University Baseball Pitchers and Taiwanese High School Baseball Pitchers by Power Biomechanical Parameter
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 工程科學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Engineering Science
學年度 103
學期 2
出版年 104
研究生(中文) 黃彥博
研究生(英文) Yen-Po Huang
學號 N98951190
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 80頁
口試委員 指導教授-黃明哲
共同指導教授-周有禮
共同指導教授-周伯禧
召集委員-蘇芳慶
口試委員-林槐庭
口試委員-劉強
中文關鍵字 棒球  投手  投擲  直球  生物力學  運動學  動力學  功率 
英文關鍵字 Baseball  Pitching  Biomechanics  Shoulder  Elbow  Power 
學科別分類
中文摘要 最近幾年棒球運動成為人們最愛的競技運動。而其中棒球投手更是最激烈的投擲動作角色。棒球投擲運動對上肢關節的負荷非常大,尤其是在投擲慣用手的肩關節與肘關節。本研究首度藉由針對台灣地區三種不同程度級別的棒球投手,包括台灣職業級棒球隊投手,台灣大專公開組棒球隊投手與台灣高中級棒球隊投手,分析在投擲直球時上肢關節的生物力學差異,包含關節角度,關節受力,關節力矩與關節功率。本研究目的在探討不同程度級別與具不同投球經驗棒球投手所表現的投球過程,是否在投球過程中的生物力學參數有所差異,進而呈現不同的投球行為與運動表現。本研究同時並期以建立台灣棒球投手投球動作標準與台灣棒球投手資料庫。
本研究針對30位棒球投手進行投球動作分析,包括十位台灣職業棒球隊投手,十位台灣大專公開組棒球投手與十位台灣高中甲組冠軍棒球隊投手。本研究首度大規模於戶外真實投手丘土堆,採用包括8部取樣頻率為300fps三維動態量測系統,錄製過肩投球動作過程中固定於身體解剖標記點之反光球的空間位置。投球內容為直球。分析棒球投球動作對於過程中上肢肌肉骨骼系統的影響,計算出上肢關節在棒球投球過程中各關節的關節角度,關節受力,關節力矩。本研究並針對棒球投手上肢生物力學分析,首度引入計算關節功率,並以此作為評價棒球投球過程上肢運動表現的指標。統計方法採用重複測量變異數分析比較不同族群間的生物力學參數差異。設定p<0.05為顯著差異。
實驗結果發現,在手臂後拉時期,職業級投手的肩關節水平外展功率,肩關節外旋功率,肘關節屈曲功率與肘關節內翻功率顯著大於大專級投手與高中級投手。手臂加速時期,職業級投手的垂直外展功率與肘關節屈曲功率顯著大於大專級投手與高中級投手。手臂減速時期,職業級投手的垂直內收功率與肘關節屈曲功率顯著大於大專級投手與高中級投手。
基於以上的結果,台灣職業棒球投手表現最高功率明顯比台灣大專棒球投手與台灣高中級投手表現最高功率強。台灣職業棒球投手表現最高功率明顯比台灣大專棒球投手最高功率強,台灣大專棒球投手表現最高功率明顯比台灣高中級投手表現最高功率強,由此可發現台灣職業棒球投手的投擲功力明顯比台灣大專棒球投手與台灣高中級投手優異,同時台灣職業棒球投手的受傷風險明顯比台灣大專棒球投手與台灣高中級投手更大。
英文摘要 In recent years, baseball become one of the most popular competition sports. Baseball pitcher play the most demanding activities in sports on the human body. The loading on the throwing arm is great, especially at the shoulder and elbow. This study introduce biomechanical power parameter to analysis the performance among three level Taiwanese baseball pitchers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the difference of the performance among different level, to explore whether the biomechanical parameters results from different experience, moreover, contribute to altered performance.
Thirty baseball pitchers were recruited from Taiwanese professional baseball pitcher, Taiwanese university baseball pitcher and Taiwanese high school baseball pitcher. Participants threw 15 pitches in an outdoor mound. A 8-camera 3D motion capture system collected 300-Hz reflective marker spatial data. Biomechanics parameters including joint angle, joint force and joint moment were calculated throughout 3 phases of the pitch. This study introduce joint power analysis for the first time on the baseball pitching and are regarded as indicator for the performance of the baseball pitching on the upper extremity. Repeated-measure ANOVA with significance level of P< 0.05 was performed to compare the parameter difference among different level of baseball pitchers.
Results show that the shoulder joint horizontal abduction power, shoulder joint external rotation power, elbow joint flexion power and elbow joint varus power of the Taiwanese professional baseball pitch are significantly greater than those of the Taiwanese university baseball pitcher and Taiwanese high school baseball pitcher in the arm cocking phase. The shoulder joint abduction power and elbow joint flexion power of the Taiwanese professional baseball pitch are significantly greater than those of the Taiwanese university baseball pitcher and Taiwanese high school baseball pitcher in the arm acceleration phase. The shoulder joint adduction power and elbow joint flexion power of the Taiwanese professional baseball pitch are significantly greater than those of the Taiwanese university baseball pitcher and Taiwanese high school baseball pitcher in the arm acceleration phase.
Overall, the extreme power of Taiwanese professional baseball pitcher was significantly higher than the extreme power of the Taiwanese university baseball pitcher and the extreme power of the Taiwanese high school baseball pitcher. The performance on Taiwanese professional baseball pitcher was significantly higher than the performance on the Taiwanese university baseball pitcher and the performance on the Taiwanese high school baseball pitcher. As a result, the risk of injury of Taiwanese professional baseball pitcher was significantly higher than the risk of injury of the Taiwanese university baseball pitcher and the risk of injury of the Taiwanese high school baseball pitcher.
論文目次 中文摘要 I
ABSTRACT III
誌謝 VI
Contents VI
List of Tables X
List of Figures XII
Nomenclature XIV
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background and Literature 1
1.2 Purpose 4
CHAPTER 2 THEORIES AND MATHEMATIC METHOD 5
2.1 Kinematic 5
2.1.1 Kinematic Data Collection 5
2.1.2 Definition of Coordinate System 6
2.1.3 Neutral Posture 10
2.1.4 Calculation of Joint Angle 11
2.2 Kinematic algorithm in rotation and translation 13
2.3 Kinetic 15
2.4 Calculation flow 20
2.5 Definition of the joint angle, joint force, joint moment and joint power 22
CHAPTER III RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS 24
3.1 Setup of outdoor baseball pitching mound 24
3.2 Participants 25
3.3 Baseball pithcing phases 27
3.4 Experiment design 28
3.5 Instrumentations 29
3.6 Data reduction 31
3.7 Experiment flow 36
3.8 Assent form 37
3.9 Statistical analysis 37
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS 38
4.1 Technical performance of the pitchers 38
4.1.1 Ball speed 38
4.1.2 Accuracy 39
4.2 Shoulder joint kinetics 40
4.2.1 Shoulder joint force 40
4.2.2 Shoulder joint moment 43
4.2.3 Shoulder joint power 45
4.3 Elbow joint kinetics 50
4.2.1 Elbow joint force 50
4.2.2 Elbow joint moment 52
4.2.3 Elbow joint power 54
CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION 58
5.1 Kinetic chain among TPBP, TUBP and THBP 58
5.2 Performance among TPBP, TUBP and THBP 61
5.3 Injuries risk among TPBP, TUBP and THBP 64
5.2 Preventing injuries for the pitcher 66
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS 68
REFERENCES 72
Appendix A 76
Appendix B 77
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