||Comparative Analysis of Pitching Motion among Taiwanese Professional Baseball Pitchers, Taiwanese University Baseball Pitchers and Taiwanese High School Baseball Pitchers by Power Biomechanical Parameter
||Department of Engineering Science
In recent years, baseball become one of the most popular competition sports. Baseball pitcher play the most demanding activities in sports on the human body. The loading on the throwing arm is great, especially at the shoulder and elbow. This study introduce biomechanical power parameter to analysis the performance among three level Taiwanese baseball pitchers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the difference of the performance among different level, to explore whether the biomechanical parameters results from different experience, moreover, contribute to altered performance.
Thirty baseball pitchers were recruited from Taiwanese professional baseball pitcher, Taiwanese university baseball pitcher and Taiwanese high school baseball pitcher. Participants threw 15 pitches in an outdoor mound. A 8-camera 3D motion capture system collected 300-Hz reflective marker spatial data. Biomechanics parameters including joint angle, joint force and joint moment were calculated throughout 3 phases of the pitch. This study introduce joint power analysis for the first time on the baseball pitching and are regarded as indicator for the performance of the baseball pitching on the upper extremity. Repeated-measure ANOVA with significance level of P< 0.05 was performed to compare the parameter difference among different level of baseball pitchers.
Results show that the shoulder joint horizontal abduction power, shoulder joint external rotation power, elbow joint flexion power and elbow joint varus power of the Taiwanese professional baseball pitch are significantly greater than those of the Taiwanese university baseball pitcher and Taiwanese high school baseball pitcher in the arm cocking phase. The shoulder joint abduction power and elbow joint flexion power of the Taiwanese professional baseball pitch are significantly greater than those of the Taiwanese university baseball pitcher and Taiwanese high school baseball pitcher in the arm acceleration phase. The shoulder joint adduction power and elbow joint flexion power of the Taiwanese professional baseball pitch are significantly greater than those of the Taiwanese university baseball pitcher and Taiwanese high school baseball pitcher in the arm acceleration phase.
Overall, the extreme power of Taiwanese professional baseball pitcher was significantly higher than the extreme power of the Taiwanese university baseball pitcher and the extreme power of the Taiwanese high school baseball pitcher. The performance on Taiwanese professional baseball pitcher was significantly higher than the performance on the Taiwanese university baseball pitcher and the performance on the Taiwanese high school baseball pitcher. As a result, the risk of injury of Taiwanese professional baseball pitcher was significantly higher than the risk of injury of the Taiwanese university baseball pitcher and the risk of injury of the Taiwanese high school baseball pitcher.
List of Tables X
List of Figures XII
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background and Literature 1
1.2 Purpose 4
CHAPTER 2 THEORIES AND MATHEMATIC METHOD 5
2.1 Kinematic 5
2.1.1 Kinematic Data Collection 5
2.1.2 Definition of Coordinate System 6
2.1.3 Neutral Posture 10
2.1.4 Calculation of Joint Angle 11
2.2 Kinematic algorithm in rotation and translation 13
2.3 Kinetic 15
2.4 Calculation flow 20
2.5 Definition of the joint angle, joint force, joint moment and joint power 22
CHAPTER III RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS 24
3.1 Setup of outdoor baseball pitching mound 24
3.2 Participants 25
3.3 Baseball pithcing phases 27
3.4 Experiment design 28
3.5 Instrumentations 29
3.6 Data reduction 31
3.7 Experiment flow 36
3.8 Assent form 37
3.9 Statistical analysis 37
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS 38
4.1 Technical performance of the pitchers 38
4.1.1 Ball speed 38
4.1.2 Accuracy 39
4.2 Shoulder joint kinetics 40
4.2.1 Shoulder joint force 40
4.2.2 Shoulder joint moment 43
4.2.3 Shoulder joint power 45
4.3 Elbow joint kinetics 50
4.2.1 Elbow joint force 50
4.2.2 Elbow joint moment 52
4.2.3 Elbow joint power 54
CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION 58
5.1 Kinetic chain among TPBP, TUBP and THBP 58
5.2 Performance among TPBP, TUBP and THBP 61
5.3 Injuries risk among TPBP, TUBP and THBP 64
5.2 Preventing injuries for the pitcher 66
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS 68
Appendix A 76
Appendix B 77
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