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系統識別號 U0026-2601201617204600
論文名稱(中文) 含黏彈複合樑柱接頭之鋼構架的實驗與數值研究
論文名稱(英文) Experimental and Numerical Studies of Viscoelastic Composite Beam-column Connectors on Steel Frame
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 土木工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Civil Engineering
學年度 104
學期 2
出版年 105
研究生(中文) 黃上傑
研究生(英文) Shang-Jie Huang
電子信箱 aaa5172000@gmail.com
學號 N66034467
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 182頁
口試委員 指導教授-王雲哲
口試委員-黃忠信
口試委員-林育芸
口試委員-朱聖浩
口試委員-盧煉元
中文關鍵字 樑柱接頭  複合材料  阻尼  彈塑性質  黏彈性質 
英文關鍵字 beam-column connector  composite material  damping  viscoelastic properties  elastoplastic properties 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本論文探討鋼構架含新型黏彈式樑柱接頭之結構特性。研究包含數值模擬以及震動台試驗,並互相對照其結果。在震動台試驗中,我們製作兩組高度為3.8公尺之鋼結構架,其中一組在樑與柱之接合處包含黏彈式樑柱接頭,另一組作為對照組則無。新型樑柱接頭設計包含高分子材料、軟金屬材料以及傳統鋼鐵材料,為一複合式材料元件。實驗中施與鋼結構架底部步階函數震動,並記錄及分析其加速度歷時反應。實驗結果顯示鋼結構架含樑柱接頭之阻尼比較對照組有明顯提升,約莫25%;然而,若輸入連續之地震加速度歷時資料,實驗結果反應不如預期。推斷複合樑柱接頭在對抗甩動有顯著效果,但對於連續之地震,傳統之隔震元件或許仍是最佳選
擇。另一方面,由於新型樑柱接頭包含高分子材料及軟金屬材料,使得鋼結構架含樑柱接頭之整體勁度下降。實驗結果顯示,由於鋼結構架整體勁度下降,連帶導致第一共振頻下降1%;而對比震動台及數值模擬之結果,第一共震頻之計算差距為6.4%,顯示數值模擬之結果在一定程度上可預測實驗狀況。此外、以數值模擬方式分析,新型樑柱接頭勁度較同尺寸型鋼約降低5%。然而,我們可以透過微調樑柱接頭中之微結構設計,來達到控制勁度下降比例與同時提升阻尼之目的。以等效截面積的概念而言,此新型接頭與切削接頭具有類似的想法,即折減斷面積,但藉由「微觀結構」的設計,此複合元件亦可提供優異的消能性質。
英文摘要 The effects of viscoelastic composite connector on a steel frame were numerically and experimentally studied in this thesis. In our experimental studies, two one-story steel frames (3.8 m in hight) were performed on the shaking table. One of the specimens contains the viscoelastic composite beam-column connectors at its joints, and the other is a comparison specimen. The composite connector consists of polymer, soft metal, and conventional construction steel to form a composite material. The specimens were suddenly flung by the shaking table, and their acceleration responses were recorded and analyzed. Our experimental data shows that the specimen with the composite connector exhibits larger overall damping that of the comparison specimen. The overall damping enhancement is about 25\% from the shaking-table by flinging the specimens. From earthquake-spectrum shaking-table experiment, the steel frame with the composite connector exhibited larger acceleration responses. Hence, the composite connector may be more efficient in against the flinging. For far-fault earthquakes, base isolation may still be the best option to reduce vibration. However, due to the inclusion of the polymer and soft metal, the beam-column connector is less stiffer than the comparison specimen. Hence, the first resonant frequency of the specimen containing the composite connectors is smaller than that of the comparison specimen. The reduction of the first resonant frequency is 1\%. In other words, the total stiffness of the specimen with the composite connector is less than that of the comparison specimen. However, in this study, we experimentally demonstrate that the overall damping of the steel frame may be enhanced by using the composite connector, and its stiffness can be controlled through ‘microstructural design’ of the beam-column connector.
論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
CHINESE ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i
ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
NOMENCLATURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii
1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Goals and motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Literature review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2.1 Damping mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2.2 HDHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2.3 Vibration and structural dynamics in general . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2.4 Numerical method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.3 Outline of this thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2 Theoretical aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.1 Elasticity analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.2 Elastoplastic material models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.2.1 Introduction of elastoplastic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.2.2 Yield surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.2.3 Von Mises criterion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.2.4 Hardening models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.2.5 Perfect (or ideal) plasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.2.6 Isotropic hardening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.2.7 Tangent data (linear isotropic hardening) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.2.8 Hardening function data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.2.9 Kinematic hardening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.3 Plasticity analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.4 Viscoelasticity analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.4.1 Some remarks about viscoelastic materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.4.2 Generalized Maxwell (GM) model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.4.3 Standard linear solid model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.4.4 Kelvin-Voigt model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.4.5 Frequency domain analysis and damping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.4.6 18-branch GM model rubber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.5 Energy dissipation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.6 Fast Fourier transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3 Computational aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
3.1 Background of finite element analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
3.1.1 Interpolation and shape functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
3.1.2 Discretization for elasticity analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
3.1.3 Discretization for plasticity analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
3.2 Numerical solvers used in COMSOL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3.2.1 BDF vs. Generalized- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.2.2 The Generalized- method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.2.3 Backward differentiation formulas (BDFs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
4 Results and discussion for computational work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
4.1 Material parameters used in the numerical work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
4.1.1 Rubber (silicon gel) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
4.1.2 Metal materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
4.1.3 Hypothetical SLS material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.2 2D material level analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
4.2.1 Sub-resonant frequency simulation of rubber . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
4.2.2 Simplify 18-branch GM model to SLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
4.3 3D component level analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
4.3.1 Effective stiffness of 3D composite connector . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
4.3.2 Model building of final design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
4.3.3 Energy dissipation of tin tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
4.4 3D cantilever beam analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
4.5 3D portal frame simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
4.5.1 Simulation of portal frame with different type of joints under loading 51
4.6 3D Frame analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
4.6.1 Critical load calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
4.6.2 Eigenfrequency simulation of 3D frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
4.6.3 Square wave simulation of 3D frame model . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
4.6.4 Sub-frequency simulation of 3D frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
4.7 2D two-story frame simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
5 Shaking-table experiment, results and discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
5.1 Earthquake background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
5.2 Introduction of instrument in shaking table experiment . . . . . . . . . . . 71
5.2.1 Background of uniaxial seismic table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
5.2.2 Background of seismic accelerometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
5.2.3 Background of laser displacement sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
5.3 Material parameters used in the shaking table experiment . . . . . . . . . . 76
5.3.1 Silicone rubber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
5.3.2 Tin, Sn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
5.3.3 Conventional steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
5.4 Steel frame experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
5.4.1 Square wave shaking table test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
5.4.2 Possible parametric resonance in shaking table experiment . . . . . 84
5.4.3 Sinusoidal wave experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
5.4.4 Seismic simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
5.4.5 Important discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
6 Conclusions and Future Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
6.1 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
6.2 Future Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
LIST OF REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
APPENDICES
Appendix A: Some mathematic equations used in this thesis . . . . . . . . . . 99
Appendix B: Two-dimensional 2-story frame (large cross-section) . . . . . . . 106
Appendix C: Homemade codes used in the study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Appendix D: Operation of shaking table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Appendix E: Laminated rubber bearing experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Appendix F: Raw data of shaking table experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Appendix G: Presentation slide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
VITA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
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