||The Effect of On-line Consumer Reviews on Uncertainty Reduction towards Value Perception
||Institute of International Business
uncertainty reduction theory
on-line consumer reviews
消費者評論已成為公司行銷的重要工具，也是其與消費者建立關係的管道之一，因此網路消費者評論如何影響消費者的態度是值得探討的議題。本研究以雙歷程理論（Dual-process Theory）與不確定性降低理論 (Uncertainty Reduction Theory)探討網路消費者評論對消費者的不確定降低與價值感知之影響，以瞭解消費者態度是否會受到消費者評論的影響並建立與該公司的關係。本研究共回收450份有效問卷，資料分析結果顯示論點強度、負面的消費者評論、建議的全面性、來源可信度、與之前信念的確認、建議的評分會讓消費者對該商店的不確定性降低。另外，不確定性降低對價值感知有正向影響。最後，本研究建議企業可以在官方網站提供消費者評論來讓消費者的不確定性降低，以增進消費者對公司的價值感知。
On-line consumer reviews have become an important tool for marketing by companies, and on-line consumer reviews are also one of the channels to build relationships with consumers. Therefore, how on-line consumer reviews affect consumers’ attitude has become an important concern. This study combined the dual-process and the uncertainty reduction theories to examine how on-line consumer reviews affect consumers’ uncertainty reduction and value perception. This can help us understand whether consumers’ attitude will be influenced by on-line consumer reviews and if relationships will be built between consumers and the company. In this study, 450 valid questionnaires were collected to conduct data analyses. Data analyses results showed that argument quality, negatively framed on-line consumer reviews, recommendation sidedness, source credibility, confirmation of prior belief, and recommendation rating have a positive effect on the uncertainty reduction of consumers for the stores. Results also showed that uncertainty reduction has a positive effect on value perception. Finally, this study suggests that companies can provide on-line consumer reviews on their websites to increase consumers’ uncertainty reduction and consumers’ value perception for the company.
List of Tables Ⅴ
List of Figures Ⅴ
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1.Research Background and Motivations 1
1.2.Research Objectives 5
1.3.Research Contribution 6
1.4.Research Process 7
Chapter 2 Literature Review and Research Hypotheses 8
2.1.Uncertainty Reduction Theory 10
2.2.Dual-process Theory 14
2.2.1.Informational Determinants 15
2.2.2.Normatively Determinants 24
2.3.Value Perception 27
Chapter 3 Research Design and Methodology 31
3.1.Definition of Constructs 31
3.2.Measurement Development 33
3.3.Pilot Test Analysis and Result 37
3.4.Data Analysis Procedure 41
Chapter 4 Research Analyses and Results 43
4.1.Data Collection and Demographics Analysis 43
4.2.Descriptive Analysis 45
4.3.Measurement Model Analysis 45
4.3.1.Confirmatory Factor Analysis(CFA) 45
4.3.2.Convergent Validity and Reliability Analysis 49
4.3.3.Discriminant Validity Analysis 50
4.4.Structural Model Analysis and Hypotheses Testing 51
Chapter 5 Discussion and Conclusion 55
5.1.Research Findings 55
5.2.Theoretical Implications 61
5.3.Managerial Implications 63
5.4.Limitations and Directions for Future Research 65
Adjei, M.T., Noble, S.M., & Noble, C.H. (2010). The influence of C2C communications in online brand communities on customer purchase behavior. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 38(5), 634-653.
Antheunis, M.L., Valkenburg, P.M., & Peter, J. (2010). Getting acquainted through social network sites: Testing a model of online uncertainty reduction and social attraction. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(1), 100-109.
Arora, R. (2007). Message framing strategies for new and mature products Journal of Product & Brand Management, 16(6), 377-385.
Ba, S., & Pavlou, P.A. (2002). Evidence of the effect of trust building technology in electronic markets: price premiums and buyer behavior. MIS Quarterly, 26(3), 243-268.
Bagozzi, R.P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation model. Journal of Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), 74-94.
Bailey, J.E., & Pearson, S.W. (1983). Development of a tool for measuring and analyzing computer user satisfaction. Management Science, 29(5), 530-545.
Basuroy, S., Chatterjee, S., & Ravid, S.A. (2003). How critical are critical reviews? The box office effects of film critics, star power, and budgets. Journal of Marketing, 67(4), 103-117.
Benedicktus, R.L., Brady, M.K., Darke, P.R., & Voorhees, C.M. (2010). Conveying trustworthiness to online consumers: Reactions to consensus, physical store presence, brand familiarity, and generalized suspicion. Journal of Retailing, 86(4), 322-335.
Berger, C.R. (1987). Communicating under uncertainty. In M. E. Roloff & G. R. Miller (Eds.), Interpersonal processes: new directions in communication research (pp. 39-62). Newbury Park, C.A.: Sage.
Berger, C.R. (2002). Strategic and nonstrategic information acquisition. Human Communication Research, 28(2), 287-297.
Berger, C.R., & Bradac, J.J. (1982). Language and social knowledge. London: Edward Arnold.
Berger, C.R., & Calabrese, R.J. (1975). Some explorations in initial interaction and beyond: Toward a developmental theory of interpersonal communication. Human Communication Research, 1(2), 99-112.
Bhattacherjee, A., & Sanford, C. (2006). Influence processes for information technology acceptance: An elaboration likelihood model. MIS Quarterly, 30(4), 805-825.
Brown, J., Broderick, A.J., & Lee, N. (2007). Word of mouth communication within online communities: Conceptualizing the online social network. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 21(3), 2-20.
Buda, R., & Zhang, Y. (2000). Consumer product evaluation: The interactive effect of message framing, presentation order, and source credibility. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 9(4), 229-242.
Burman, B., & Biswas, A. (2004). Reference prices in retail advertisements: moderating effects of market price dispersion and need for cognition on consumer value perception and shopping intention. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 13(6), 379-389.
Cai, S., & Xu, Y. (2011). Designing not just for pleasure: Effects of web site aesthetics on consumer shopping value. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 15(4), 159-187.
Chaiken, S., Liberman, A., & Eagly, A.H. (1989). Heuristic and systematic processing within and beyond the persuasion context. In J.S. Uleman & J.A. Bargh (Eds.), Unintended thought (pp. 212-252). New York: Guilford Press.
Champion, J.C., Hunt, J.B., & Hunt, T.G. (2010). The effect of retail store image on student perceptions of merchandise quality and willingness to buy. American Journal of Business Research, 3(1), 17-32.
Chang, E.-C., & Luan, B. (2010). Chinese consumers’ perception of hypermarket store image. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 22(4), 512-527.
Chen, S., & Chaiken, S. (1999). The Heuristic-Systematic Model in its broader context. In S. Chaiken & Y. Trope (Eds.), Dual-process theories in social psychology (pp. 73-96). New York: Guilford Press.
Chen, Y., & Xie, J. (2008). Online consumer review: Word-of-mouth as a new element of marketing communication mix. Management Science, 54(3), 477-491.
Cheung, C.M.K., Lee, M.K.O., & Rabjohn, N. (2008). The impact of electronic word-of-mouth: The adoption of online opinions in online customer communities. Internet Research, 18(3), 229-247.
Cheung, M.Y., Luo, C., Sia, C.L., & Chen, H. (2009). Credibility of electronic word-of-mouth: Informational and normative determinants of on-line consumer recommendations. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 13(4), 9-38.
Chevalier, J.A., & Mayzlin, D. (2006). The effect of word of mouth on sales: Online book reviews. Journal of Marketing Research, 43(3), 345-354.
China Internet Network Information Center. (2012). Statistical report on internet development in China. Retrieved from http://www.apira.org/data/upload/The29thStatisticalReportonInternetDevelopmentinChina_P9G97q.pdf
Cialdini, R.B. (1993). Influence. New York: Quill William Morrow.
Clarkson, J.J., Tormala, Z.L., & Rucker, D.D. (2008). A new look at the consequences of attitude certainty: The amplification hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(4), 810-825.
comScore (2007). Online consumer-generated reviews have significant impact on offline purchase behavior. Retrieved from http://www.comscore.com/press/release.asp?press=1928
Crosby, L.A., Evans, K.R., & Cowles, D. (1990). Relationship quality in services selling: An interpersonal influence perspective. Journal of Marketing, 54(3), 68-81.
Crowley, A.E., & Hoyer, W.D. (1994). An integrative framework for understanding two-sided persuasion. Journal of Consumer Research, 20(4), 561-574.
Dainton, M., & Aylor, B. (2001). A relational uncertainty analysis of jealousy, trust, and maintenance in long-distance versus geographically close relationships. Communication Quarterly, 49(2), 172-189.
D’Ambra, J., & Wilson, C.S. (2004). Explaining perceived performance of the World Wide Web: Uncertainty and the task-technology fit model. Internet Research, 14 (4), 294-310.
Darke, P.R., Chaiken, S., Bohner, G., Einwiller, S., Erb, H.-P., & Hazlewood, J.D. (1998). Accuracy motivation, consensus information, and the law of large numbers: effects on attitude judgment in the absence of argumentation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24(11), 1205-1215.
Dellarocas, C. (2003). The digitization of word of mouth: Promise and challenges of online feedback mechanisms. Management Science, 49(10), 1407-1424.
Dellarocas, C. (2006). Strategic manipulation of internet opinion forums: Implications for consumers and firms. Management Science, 52(10), 1577-1593.
Deutsch, M., & Gerrard, H.B. (1955). A study of normative and informational social influence upon individual judgment. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 53(3), 629-636.
Di, E., Huang, C.-J., Chen, I-h., & Yu, T.-C. (2010). Organisational justice and customer citizenship behaviour of retail. The Service Industries Journal, 30(11), 1919-1934.
Dubois, D., Rucker, D.D., & Tormala, Z.L. (2011). From rumors to facts, and facts to rumors: The role of certainty decay in consumer communications. Journal of Marketing Research, 48(6), 1020-1032.
Eisend, M. (2006). Two-sided advertising: A meta-analysis. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 23(2), 187-198.
Evans, J. (2010). Intuition and reasoning: A dual-process perspective. Psychological Inquiry, 21(4), 313-326.
Fornell, C., & Larcker D.F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.
Gibbs, J.L., Ellison, N.B., & Lai C.-H. (2012). First comes love, then comes google: An investigation of uncertainty reduction strategies and self-disclosure in online dating. Communication Research, 38(1), 70-100.
Glockner, A., & Witteman, C. (2010). Beyond dual-process models: A categorisation of processes underlying intuitive judgement and decision making. Thinking & Reasoning, 16(1), 1-25.
Godes, D., & Mayzlin, D. (2004). Using online conversations to study word-of-mouth communication. Marketing Science, 23(4), 545-560.
Grewal, D., Gotlieb, J., & Marmorstein, H. (1994). The moderating effects of message framing and source credibility on the price-perceived risk relationship. Journal of Consumer Research, 21(1), 145-153.
Gudykunst, W.B., Yang, S., & Nishida, T. (1985). A cross-cultural test of uncertainty reduction theory: Comparisons of acquaintances, friends, and dating relationships in Japan, Korea, and the United States. Human Communication Research, 11(3), 407-455.
Hair, J.F., Anderson, R.E., Tatham, R.L., & Black. W.C. (1998). Multivariate data analysis (5th ed.). Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate Data Analysis (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education.
Hansen, H., Samuelsen, B.M., & Silseth, P. (2008). Customer perceived value in B-t-B service relationships: Investigating the importance of corporate reputation. Industrial Marketing Management, 37(2), 206-217.
He, H., & Li, Y. (2011). Key service drivers for high-tech service brand equity: The mediating role of overall service quality and perceived value. Journal of Marketing Management, 27(1-2), 77-99.
Hennig-Thurau, T., & G. Walsh. (2003). Electronic wordof-mouth: Motives for and consequences of reading customer articulations on the Internet. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 8(2), 51-74.
Hu, F.-L., & Chuang, C.C. (2012). A study of the relationship between the value perception and loyalty intention toward an e-retailer website. Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, 17(1), 1-18.
Izquierdo, C.C., Rodriguez, S., & Jose, R.S. (2006). Customers’ perception of value in financial services relationships: a Spanish case. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 19(1), 57-79.
Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect theory: An analysis of decisions under risk. Econometrica, 47(2), 263-292.
Kao, D.T. (2011). Message sidedness in advertising: The moderating roles of need for cognition and time pressure in persuasion. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 52(4), 329-340.
Kaplan, M.F., & Miller, C.E. (1987). Group decision making and normative versus informational influence: Effects of type of issue and assigned decision rule. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53(2), 306-313.
Khare, A., Labrecque, L.I., & Asare, A.K. (2011). The assimilative and contrastive effects of word-of-mouth volume: An experimental examination of online consumer ratings. Journal of Retailing, 87(1), 111-126.
Kim, J., Fiore, A.M., & Lee, H.-H. (2007). Influences of online store perception, shopping enjoyment, and shopping involvement on consumer patronage behavior towards an online retailer. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 14(2), 95-107.
Koh, Y.J., & Sundar, S.S. (2010). Heuristic versus systematic processing of specialist versus generalist sources in online media. Human Communication Research, 36(2), 103-124.
Lee, J., Park, D.-H., & Han, I. (2008). The effect of negative online consumer reviews on product attitude: An information processing view. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 7(3), 341-352.
Lee, M., & Youn, S. (2009). Electronic word of mouth (eWOM): How eWOM platforms influence consumer product judgement. International Journal of Advertising, 28(3), 473-499.
Lemanski, J.L., & Lee, H.-S. (2012). Attitude certainty and resistance to persuasion: Investigating the impact of source trustworthiness in advertising. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(1), 66-75.
Lin, L.-Z., & Yeh, H.-R. (2012). Linking consumer perception of store image using FANP. I-Business, 4(1), 18-28.
Liu, Y. (2006). Word of mouth for movies: Its dynamics and impact on box office revenue. Journal of Marketing, 70(3), 74-89.
Mahmood, M.A., & Medewitz, J.N. (1985). Impact of design methods on decision support system success: An empirical assessment. Information and Management, 9(3), 137-151.
Mayzlin, D. (2006). Promotional chat on the internet. Marketing Science, 25(2), 155-163.
Morgan, R.M., & Hunt, S.D. (1994). The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 20-38.
Morschetta, D., Swobodab. B., & Foschtc. T. (2005). Perception of store attributes and overall attitude towards grocery retailers: The role of shopping motives. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 15(4), 423-447.
Morschetta, D., Swobodab. B., & Schramm-Klein, H. (2006). Shopping orientations as determinants of attitude towards food retailers and perception of store attributes. European Advances in Consumer Research, 7, 160-167.
Mudambi, S.M., & Schuff, D. (2010). What makes a helpful online review? A study of customer reviews on amazon.com. MIS Quarterly, 34(1), 185-200.
Munnukka, F. (2008). Customers’ purchase intentions as a reflection of price perception. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 17(3), 188-196.
Negash, S., Ryanb, T., & Igbariab, M. (2003). Quality and effectiveness in web-based customer support systems. Information & Management, 40(8), 757-768.
Ohanian, R. (1990). Construction and validation of a scale to measure celebrity endorsers' perceived expertise, trustworthiness, and attractiveness. Journal of Advertising, 19(3), 39-52.
Park, C., & Lee, T.M. (2009). Information direction, website reputation and eWOM effect: A moderating role of product type. Journal of Business Research, 62(1), 61-67.
Park, D.-H., & Kim, S. (2008). The effects of consumer knowledge on message processing of electronic word-of-mouth via online consumer reviews. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 7(4), 399-410.
Park, D.-H., Lee, J., & Han, I. (2007). The effect of on-line consumer reviews on consumer purchasing intention: The moderating role of involvement. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 11(4), 125-148.
Pauley, P.M., & Emmers-Sommer, T.M. (2007). The impact of internet technologies on primary and secondary romantic relationship development. Communication Studies, 58(4), 411-427.
Pechmann, C. (1992). Predicting when two-sided ads will be more effective than one-sided ads: The role of correlational and correspondent inferences. Journal of Marketing Research, 29(4), 441-453.
Planalp, S., & Honeycutt, J.M. (1985). Events that increase uncertainty in personal relationships. Human Communication Research, 11(4), 593-604.
Pollach, I. (2006). Privacy statements as a means of uncertainty reduction in WWW interactions. Journal of Organizational and End User Computing, 18(1), 23-49.
PQ Media (2009). Exclusive PQ media research: Despite worst recession in decades, brands increased spending on word-of-mouth marketing 14.2% to $1.54 billion in 2008. Retrieved from http://www.pqmedia.com/about-press-20090729-wommf.html
Ramirez, A., Walther, J.B., Burgoon, J.K., & Sunnafrank, M. (2002). Information-seeking strategies, uncertainty, and computer-mediated communication: Toward a conceptual model. Human Communication Research, 28(2), 213-228.
Senecal, S., & Nantel, J. (2004). The influence of online product recommendations on consumers’ online choices. Journal of Retailing, 80(2), 159-169.
Shen, Y.-C., Huang, C.-Y., Chu, C.-H., & Liao, H.-C. (2010). Virtual community loyalty: An interpersonal interaction perspective. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 15(1), 49-73.
Sirdeshmukh, D., Singh, J., & Sabol, B. (2002). Consumer trust, value, and loyalty in relational exchanges. Journal of Marketing, 66(1), 15-37.
Smith, S.M., & Petty, R.E. (1996). Message framing and persuasion: A message processing analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22(3), 257-268.
Smith, W.L. (1996). A framework for the application of uncertainty reduction (UCR) theory to service encounters. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 4(3), 299-308.
Sternthal, B., Dholakia, R., & Clark, L. (1978). The persuasive effect of source credibility: a test of cognitive response analysis. Journal of Consumer Research, 4(4), 252-260.
Tidwell, L.C., & Walther, J.B. (2002). Computer-mediated communication effects on disclosure, impressions, and interpersonal evaluations: Getting to know one another a bit at a time. Human Communication Research, 28(3), 317-348.
Tormala, Z.L., & Petty, R.E. (2004). Source credibility and attitude certainty: A metacognitive analysis of resistance to persuasion. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 14(4), 427-442.
West, P.M., & Broniarczyk, S.M. (1998). Integrating multiple opinions: The role of aspiration level on consumer response to critic consensus. Journal of Consumer Research, 25(1), 38-51.
Wu, P.C.S., Yeh, G.Y.-Y., & Hsiao, C.-R. (2011). The effect of store image and service quality on brand image and purchase intention for private label brands. Australasian Marketing Journal, 19(1), 30-39.
Xue, F., & Zhou, P. (2010). The effects of product involvement and prior experience on chinese consumers’ responses to online word of mouth. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 23(1), 45-58.
Zeithaml, V.A. (1988). Consumer perceptions of price, quality and value: A means-end model and synthesis of evidence. Journal of Marketing, 52(3), 2-22.
Zhu, F., & Zhang, X.M. (2010). Impact of online consumer reviews on sales: The moderating role of product and consumer characteristics. Journal of Marketing, 74(2), 133-148.