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系統識別號 U0026-2508201922312100
論文名稱(中文) 畑 廟宇循環系統構築
論文名稱(英文) Ash back to earth Temple being part of the circular economy
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 建築學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Architecture
學年度 107
學期 2
出版年 108
研究生(中文) 林聖哲
研究生(英文) Sheng-Che Lin
學號 N76061050
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 75頁
口試委員 指導教授-劉舜仁
口試委員-薛丞倫
口試委員-邱浩修
口試委員-蕭俊碩
中文關鍵字 台南  廟宇廢棄物  鹼激發  循環材料  數位製造 
英文關鍵字 Tainan  Temple waste  Alkali-activated  Circular material  Digital fabrication 
學科別分類
中文摘要 台灣大多數寺廟每隔若干年代,便會有擴建、增建的行為,然而,每次的修建,不僅記錄了寺廟自身的歷史沿革與發展軌跡,更反映了當時社會、經濟、政治、文化、社群等的變遷興衰。台灣寺廟古蹟之所以可貴,是它可以凝固時間,讓歷史的某一段紀錄忠實地表達出來,形成一個容納時間的地景。

廟宇祭祀文化融入常民生活,然而隨著環境保護意識的抬頭,過往留下的燃香、金紙被視為污染的元兇,甚至提出不燒香的口號。當這些行為都停止時,廟宇便成為空殼,城市記憶與傳統文化的累積出現斷層,對於台灣土地的自我認同則開始後退。

循環經濟的概念開始於台灣發根,過往材料的取得變成重新思考的範疇,而廟宇祭祀文化所產生的廢棄物處理在過往皆以掩埋的方式。因此,本論文試圖以廟宇廢棄物作為主要材料的研究,以其回饋廟宇,以延續台灣特有的祭祀文化。以台南的一做廟宇作為操作基地,建立一套城市之於廢棄物到建築的循環系統。
英文摘要 Typically, most temples in Taiwan will be expanded and rebuilt every few years. Each time of these expansion and rebuilding, they not only extract information regarding the historical evolution and developmental trajectories of the temples themselves, but also reflect contemporary social, economic, political, cultural and urban rise and fall. In other words, the reasons why Taiwan's temple monuments are valuable are that they can provide a snapshot of the corresponding time and let a certain record of history faithfully expressed.

The temple ritual culture is integrated into the life of Taiwanese. However, with rise of environmental protection awareness, emissions from burning incense and gold paper are regarded as the source of air pollution. To this end, people even shout the slogan of not burning incense. However, when these behaviors are stopped, the temples lose the purpose, and then the connection among urban memories and traditional cultures is subsequently broken. Worse, the self-identification of Taiwanese land may begin to retreat.

The concept of circular economy began in Taiwan, and the acquisition of materials in the past became a rethinking category. Though originally just buried, the waste from temple ritual culture should also follow the same route, being recycled. Therefore, this thesis aims to use temple waste as the main material to pave the way for the unique sacrificial culture in Taiwan developing. With a temple in Tainan as a base of operations, I build a circular system from temple waste to architecture, realizing the ambition.

Introduction

Picking up a bunch of incense and praying for good luck, people use the scent as a symbol to communicate with gods. Traditional temples in Taiwan provide people with so many different activities from resting, to paying homage to gods. Humans and gods coexist in the land. It reflects the daily appearance of a city, and in the space study of traditional folk beliefs, the concept of "sacrificial circle" is often used to refer to the space field formed by the temple. Among them, the folk belief temples in Tainan are characterized by the "Jing" or "Temple area" as the essence of the sacrificial circle, and are an important spatial component of the urban structure.

Incineration of incense and gold paper is a long-standing ritual among Taiwanese, but there are a lot of harmful gases behind these movements, such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), granular pollutants, nitrogen oxides (NOx), acid gases, benzene, toluene. , polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), to name just a few. According to statistics (Environmental Information Center, TEIA), an average of burning one kilogram of gold joss paper will produce 1.5 kilograms of carbon dioxide. Worse, if the manufacturing process is considered, the actual amount of carbon dioxide produced is much more. In addition, the waste generated by these temples is a highly alkaline substance, which can cause land burden and even accelerate soil aging if discarded at wild. With the rise of environmental awareness, environmentalists have begun to advocate reducing or even forbidding to burn incense. However, without this action, people enter the temple like visiting an empty shell museum. That may accelerate the disappearance of the sacrificial culture.

Temples communicate the memories of many cities and residents but become the culprit of pollution. Based on the above background, this thesis intends to establish a circulation system on the basis of incineration, and rethink about that ash could be a material to reverse the stigma of temples.

Process

The process of the circular system is divided into two section. The first part is the study of materials and the second part is the design. In the part of the material research, a new recycled material is made by temple waste thorough alkali excitation principle – adjusting the different composition of cementitious materials and alkali substance. Then a digital manufacturing manner to design the bricks was developed. Later, the results of the material research were involved in the ceremony of the temple, redefining the temple's visitation path and its boundary with the ordinary people.

This thesis intends to make a porous material resulting from a series of chemical reactions during manufacturing process; the materials can absorb the suspended particles from burning incense and gold joss paper , and neutralize the acid and alkali to make these materials return to the soil in a neutral state. The follow-up design proposal is based on the continuation of temple culture as the main concept.

Conclusion

There are two important conclusions in this thesis:

1.The material

After physical properties (compressive strength test) and chemical properties testing, this recycled material with temple waste as the main material provides flexibility and periodicity, allowing time to join the conditions of architectural design and to become a new category of thinking. .

2.The temple

Analyzing the elements of a series of temples and Tainan, it is found that the temple itself is a flexible organism. Exploring the emergence of its publicity requires constant reconstruction. Therefore, the accession path that is both the starting point and the end point is the experimental field of design.
論文目次 論文摘要
圖目錄
表目錄
Chapter 1 / Interduction 001
1-1研究動機 2
1-2廟宇廢棄物與處理 2
1-3廢棄物導入循環經濟的可能性 4
1-3.1金紙灰成分含量
1-3.2金紙灰取代部分水泥
1-4研究架構 7
Chapter 2 / Circular Economy 008
2-1循環經濟五大概念 10
2-2「搖籃到墳墓」至「搖籃到搖籃」 11
2-3循環設計 12
2-4循環材料 13
Chapter 3 / Material Research 015
3-1關於祭祀 16
3-2香的製造 17
3-3金紙的製造 18
3-4祭祀廢棄物 19
3-4.1水泥的基本性質
3-4.2香灰的基本性質
3-4.3金紙灰的基本性質
3-4.4鹼激發
3-4.5鹼激發原理
3-4.6鹼性溶液比較
3-4.7試體製作與實驗流程
3-5試體配比與測試 25
3-5.1試體篩選條件
3-5.2試體實驗測試
3-5.3試體添加鹼劑實驗測試
3-5.4試體實驗小結
3-5.5試體固碳
3-6廟宇磚生命週期 36
Chapter 4 / From Material, to Architecture and Urbanism 038
4-1台南 39
4-1.1府城聯境組織
4-1.2六合境-永華宮
4-1.3永華宮現況
4-2設計介入 47
4-2.1廟宇磚原型製造
4-2.2回到永華宮
4-3邁向都市 61
Chapter 5 / Conclusion and Suggestions 065
結論 66
5-1未來研究 67
Reference 068
參考文獻
Appendix 069
附錄
參考文獻 中文文獻
王子維、許曉怡、林欣蓉等撰,〈奈米SiO2及香灰再生利用取代部分水泥漿之研究〉,國立高雄應用科技大學土木工程系
王和源教授、陳柏存博士撰,〈鹼激發廢液晶玻璃砂漿材料-工程性質及應用開發〉
內政部建築研究所撰,〈鹼活化爐石混凝土應用於營建材料之研究〉
邵文政撰,〈循環之島-零廢棄設計〉,綠建築雜誌58期,2019
林美容撰,〈由祭祀圈到信仰圈─臺灣民間社會的地域構成與發展〉,中央研究院民族所
林育緯撰,〈不同激發劑對爐石飛灰無機聚合物工程性質之影響〉,國立台灣科技大學營建工程研究所碩士論文
財團法人中技社撰,循環經濟的發展趨勢與關鍵議題,2015
郭葉輝撰,〈漫談城市採礦〉,臺灣鑛業報導,2010
陳黎安、何代堯、駱怡君、葉昀昀撰,〈讓神明保佑泥-金紙灰水泥砂漿試體試驗〉,高雄高工
陳志賢撰,〈含矽質廢棄物之無機聚合物〉,國立成功大學土木工程研究所博士論文
劉舜仁撰,〈循環經濟時代的設計挑戰〉,臺灣建築學會會刊雜誌,2018
鍾佩樺撰,〈從柱仔行街到府中街: 一個台南都市歷史街道空間變遷之研究〉,國立成功大學建築研究所碩士論文
謝明蒲撰,〈廢玻璃鹼激發膠結材之吸水性能研究〉,國立成功大學土木工程研究所碩士論文
謝宏昌撰,〈城市的生命〉,國立成功大學出版中心

英文文獻
Achim Menges, 2008, Integral Formation and Materialisation: Computational Form and Material Gestalt, Routledge
Arup, 2016, The Circular Economy in the build environment
Arup, 2017, The urban Bio-Loop_ growing, making, and regenerating
Henri Lefebvre, Critique of Everyday Life (3-volume set), London: Verso
Jeff Link, 2016, 5 Ways Architects Are Redefining Craftsmanship For a Postdigital Age, ArchDaily. Retrieved July 16th , 2016,from http://www.archdaily.com/781960/5-ways-architects-are-redefining-craftsmanship-for-a-postdigital-age
Leyla Acaroglu, 2018, A Guide to Life Cycle Thinking
Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications: Architectural and Material Techniques, Princeton Architectural Press, 2009
Mariale Moreno, Carolina De los Rios, Zoe Rowe and Fiona Charnle, A conceptual framework for circular economy
Mario Carop, 2013, The Digital Turn in Architecture in 1992-2012
Neri Oxman, Material Ecology, Christine Ortiz, Fabio Gramazio, Matthias Kohler, Computer-Aided Design, Elsevier, MIT
Walter Benjamin, 1986, Reflections: Essays, Aphorisms, Autobiographical Writings, edited by Peter Demetz, NY: Schocken Books
Xu Gao, Alkali activated slag-fly ash binders: design, modeling and application, Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands
網站
中聯資源,〈爐石特性〉,中鋼集團中聯資(https://www.chc.com.tw/source.html)
台灣搖籃到搖籃(https://www.c2cplatform.tw)
循環台灣 Taiwan Circular Economy Network, 2018(https://www.circular-taiwan.org)
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