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系統識別號 U0026-2508201921492900
論文名稱(中文) 以無人車執行最初與最後一哩路配送之軸輻式城市物流網路設計問題研究
論文名稱(英文) Strategic Design of Hub-and-Spoke City Logistics Network using Autonomous Vehicle for the First and Last Mile Delivery
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊管理研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Information Management
學年度 107
學期 2
出版年 108
研究生(中文) 廖嘉豪
研究生(英文) Chia-Hao Liao
學號 R76064116
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 48頁
口試委員 口試委員-莊坤達
口試委員-吳政翰
口試委員-陳勝一
指導教授-王逸琳
中文關鍵字 城市物流  最初及最後一哩路  軸輻式網路  當日配送問題  整數規劃 
英文關鍵字 City Logistics  Autonoumous Vehicle  First-and-Last Mile  Hub-and-Spoke Network  Integer Program 
學科別分類
中文摘要 隨著日益高升的當日配送與即時外送需求,都市內的物流配送業務量成長迅速,不當的物流配送機制可能導致配送耗時過長、載具閒置、交通壅塞甚至環境污染等諸多問題。本研究針對起訖點在城市中,需一日內送達的龐大送貨需求(譬如:郵政快遞系統、食物幫買服務等),提出了軸輻式配送網路(Hub-and-Spoke)的設計架構,使用小型無人車來當最初及最後一哩路的配送載具,以大幅地降低物流的運輸成本。舉例來說,當某地出現一筆待送貨物,該處附近的集散點(Hub)將派出小型無人車直接去收取貨物,返回集散點後再與其它貨物由貨車將之轉運到其目的地附近的集散點,繼續由當地的小型無人車接力送達目的地。相較於傳統將每件貨物採點對點的直送方式,此種轉運方式雖較費時,但可發揮經濟規模的運送效益,大幅減少運輸成本。本論文在已選好集散點位置之後,主要探討此配送網路圖中集散點間如何決定轉運貨車路線與排程的「區位路線問題」(Location Routing Problem),透過時空網路圖(Time-Space Network),去設計數學規劃模式及啟發式演算法。
本研究提出的創新配送機制,綜合考慮了軸輻式網路、集散點間的貨車以及各區小型無人車隊的整體調度模式,可處理依時變化的配送需求,甚至可將各區小型無人車隊視為在各分區之間依需求而互補調度,以增加貨車跟小型無人車的使用率,也更能夠應付不同時空下較大的需求出現。
目前我們曾嘗試使用貪婪式演算法來快速求得可行的貨車路線,以其當基因演算法的初始解;亦發展出一個分段求解數學規劃模式的方式,在較短時間內得到高品質解。
英文摘要 With the increasing popularity of on-line shopping and cloud kitchens, the same-day delivery demands have rapidly grown and caused much city logistics challenges. More vehicles for shipping huge amount of origin-destination (OD) deliveries inside a city lead to more traffic jams, accidents, energy consumption and air pollutions. We proposed a Hub-and-Spoke (HS) framework to design the logistics network for these OD shipments, where small autonomous vehicles are used to conduct the first-and-last mile delivery that connect customers to a hub, and then trucks tranship those shipments between hubs. Such an HS logistics network helps reduce the number of vehicles required for inidividual OD shipmeents. Given the estimated amount of OD shipments in each time period during one day, we seek optimal schedules and routes for transshipment trucks between hubs. Moreover, by treating the autonomous vehicles as shared vehicles, we can also reposition these autonomous vehicles between hubs in different time periods to increase the utilization of autonomous vehicles and trucks. We have proposed Integer Programs on a time-space network to calculate exact optimal solutions, but it is too time consuming. To solve more practical cases of larger sizes, we propose a greedy algorithm and a Genetic Algorithm to find good feasible truck routes in short time. Then we propose a framework that iteratively solves a smaller time-space network of few periods in a rolling horizon fashion, which produces the best results in our computational experiments.
論文目次 摘要 ............................................................................................................................................ I
目錄 ......................................................................................................................................... VI
圖目錄 ..................................................................................................................................... IX
表目錄 ..................................................................................................................................... XI
第一章 緒論..............................................................................................................................1
1.1 研究背景與動機............................................................................................................1
1.2 研究目的........................................................................................................................3
1.3 研究架構........................................................................................................................4
第二章 文獻回顧......................................................................................................................5
2.1 無人車在城市物流相關文獻........................................................................................5
2.2 軸幅式網路相關文獻....................................................................................................6
2.3 小結..............................................................................................................................10
第三章 區域性無人車收送網路設計問題............................................................................11
3.1 問題描述與假設..........................................................................................................11
3.1.1 問題描述...............................................................................................................11
3.2.2 問題假設...............................................................................................................11
3.2 本研究之整數規劃模式..............................................................................................12
3.2.1 參數與變數定義...................................................................................................12
3.2.2 數學模式的建立...................................................................................................14
3.3 小結........................................................................................................................ 19
第四章 共享性無人車收送網路設計問題............................................................................21
4.1 問題描述與假設..........................................................................................................21
4.1.1 問題描述...............................................................................................................21
4.1.2 問題假設...............................................................................................................21
4.2 本研究之整數規劃模式模式......................................................................................21
4.2.1 參數及變數意義...................................................................................................21
4.2.2 數學模式的建立...................................................................................................22
4.3 小結..............................................................................................................................23
第五章 區域性無人車收送演算法設計................................................................................24
5.1 基因演算法..................................................................................................................24
5.1.1 基因演算法步驟...................................................................................................24
5.1.1 染色體的編碼方式...............................................................................................25
5.1.2 交配策略(crossover operation) ............................................................................. 26
5.1.3 突變策略(mutation operation) .............................................................................. 28
5.1.4 適應函式(fitness function).................................................................................... 28
5.1.5 挑選策略(selction operator).................................................................................. 30
5.2 計算初始解..................................................................................................................30
5.2.1 產生初始解步驟...................................................................................................30
5.2.2 抵達下一個點的收貨權重...................................................................................31
5.2.2 抵達下一個點的送貨權重...................................................................................31
5.5.3 加入二次轉運的考量...........................................................................................32
5.3 小結..............................................................................................................................33
第六章 數值分析....................................................................................................................34
6.1 區域性無人車數學模式測試......................................................................................34
6.11 視覺化結果與分析................................................................................................34
6.1.2 分析模式求解情況...............................................................................................37
6.1.3 滾動式模式求解...................................................................................................39
6.2 共享性無人車數學模式測試......................................................................................40
6.2.1 視覺化結果與分析...............................................................................................40
6.3 區域性無人車演算法測試..........................................................................................42
6.3.1 視覺化結果與分析...............................................................................................42
6.3 小結..............................................................................................................................43
第七章 結論與未來研究........................................................................................................44
7.1 結論..............................................................................................................................44
7.2 未來研究......................................................................................................................45
參考文獻 ..................................................................................................................................47
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