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系統識別號 U0026-2508201821430400
論文名稱(中文) 孔洞結構力分析於積層製造人工髖關節之應用
論文名稱(英文) Stress Analysis Application of Additive Manufactured Hip Prosthesis with Porous Structures
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 材料科學及工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Materials Science and Engineering
學年度 106
學期 2
出版年 107
研究生(中文) 楊牧君
研究生(英文) Mu-Chun Yang
學號 N56051019
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 101頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳引幹
口試委員-劉浩志
口試委員-李旺龍
口試委員-粘永堂
中文關鍵字 積層製造  EBM  有限元素分析  Ti6Al4V  應力分析  楊氏係數  孔洞結構 
英文關鍵字 additive manufacturing  electron beam melting (EBM)  porous structures  finite element method  Ti6Al4V  stress analysis  Young’s modulus 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本論文主要分成兩主軸,分別為”模擬技術的建構”以及”應力模擬應用於積層製造”。
模擬技術的建構包括將實心樣品的拉伸試驗結果利用有限元素分析軟體進行重現,驗證模擬中楊氏係數的準確性以及探討模擬中拉伸樣品有無倒角對樣品拉伸時所產生的應力集中現象與變形量有何影響。應力模擬應用於積層製造則是針對不同的單元孔洞結構進行多種不同之機械性質測試,包括拉伸、壓縮、剪切、撓曲等。並將其中表現最適合應用於人工髖關節之Diagonal孔洞結構排入人工髖關節並進行ISO 7206-4試驗模擬受到最大下壓力值時的應力分布情形。
針對具有孔洞結構的模擬則是與文獻結果、實驗結果交互比對,包括模擬驗證圓形規則孔洞鋁樣品壓縮文獻,探討不同的相對密度與楊氏係數之間的關係,本論文成功利用方程式歸納出規則孔洞與楊氏係數之經驗關係式,且得到與文獻相同的趨勢,即在孔洞結構中相對密度愈大,材料的楊氏係數亦會越大。與文獻的比對結果亦包括將蜂巢狀結構拉伸實驗文獻利用模擬重現並比較模擬與文獻之楊氏係數,比對後得到相近之結果,文獻與本論文之結果分別為0.48MPa與0.46MPa。
與實驗結果比對則是包括將CNC製程製備之不同孔洞結構之片狀5052鋁試片與EBM製程製備之孔洞結構棒狀Ti6Al4V試片之拉伸試驗結果利用模擬重現,並比較模擬結果,比較的項目包括楊氏係數、應力集中的位置與應力集中的數值。根據結果顯示與5052鋁片在孔洞數少、相對密度高的時候楊氏係數與模擬結果相近,而實際實驗中隨著孔洞數增多楊氏係數減少的趨勢於模擬中亦有發生。EBM製備之孔洞結構棒狀Ti6Al4V試片楊氏係數與模擬之比較結果亦相近,實際實驗與模擬之楊氏係數分別為11.8 GPa與14.8 GPa。而無論是CNC與EBM製程製備試片的破裂處,均與模擬的應力集中處位置相同,且模擬中應力集中處的數值亦大於材料的降伏強度,說明本模擬系統可以判斷材料受力超過彈性區後可能發生塑性變形的位置。
本論文亦將模擬技術應用與髖關節應力模擬中,並參考ISO 7206-4規範,髖關節所受到的最大下壓力值2300 N進行模擬,首先確認實心髖關節結構受力之後的von-Mises應力分布與文獻結果相同均為250MPa左右。以此模擬驗證作為基準並進行延伸實驗,將髖關節受到不同下壓力值、插入不同楊氏係數之底座以模仿插入不同人骨之模擬結果進行統整,得到下壓力值越大,髖關節之應力集中數值越大,與插入楊氏係數越大之底座,髖關節的應力集中數值越小之結果。最後將Diagonal孔洞結構匯入髖關節應力模擬中,以探討孔洞結構對髖關節應力模擬會造成之影響。
英文摘要 For patients recovering from total hip replacement surgery, the stress shielding effect, which is caused by a difference in Young’s modulus between the hip prosthesis and human bone, can lead to prosthesis loosening or dislocation. Additive manufacturing technology, such as electron beam melting (EBM), is mature enough to fabricate porous structures made of Ti6Al4V alloy.
This thesis studies the mechanical properties of porous structures and their application to artificial hip prostheses using the finite element method. The study is divided into two parts. The first part establishes the simulation method and the second part discusses the application of the simulation results to hip prostheses.
The simulation and experimental results of the Young’s modulus of carbon steel show a very small deviation of about 0.7%. Porous samples with various pore geometries show the trend that higher relative density is accompanied by higher Young’s modulus in both simulation and experiments. Several unit cell structures were chosen for further mechanical simulation. The diagonal unit cell was found to be the most stable. Various compression load, Young’s modulus of cement, hip prosthesis outlook were simulated based on ISO 7206-4. The results show that when the porous structures were applied in a hip prosthesis, the stress concentration value decreased.
論文目次 摘要 I
誌謝 VII
目錄 X
表目錄 XIII
圖目錄 XIV
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 前言 1
1-2 金屬積層製造之應用 1
1-3 實驗目的 2
第二章 理論基礎與文獻回顧 3
2-1 不同孔洞結構對於金屬醫用材料性質之影響 3
2-1-1 孔洞結構對生物相容性之影響 3
2-1-2 孔洞結構對結構強度之影響 5
2-1-3 EBM積層製造之Ti6Al4V顯微結構與其解析度限制 6
2-2 孔洞結構對結構模數之影響 12
2-2-1 相對密度與結構模數之關係 12
2-2-2 Gibson & Ashby 提出之楊氏係數與相對密度之關係 13
2-3 孔洞結構實際應用於髖關節之模擬表現 16
2-3-1 人工髖關節發展簡介 16
2-3-2 彈性限與von-Mises應力 17
2-3-3 設計有鑽洞結構之髖關節機械性質測定 19
第三章 實驗方法與步驟 22
3-1 實驗所需材料與樣品規格 22
3-2 使用儀器 29
3-2-1 微拉伸試驗機 29
3-2-2 萬能拉伸試驗機 29
3-2-3 光學顯微鏡 30
3-2-4 電子束積層融熔3D列印機 30
3-2-5 X光繞射儀 31
3-2-6 HV微硬度測試儀 32
3-3 使用軟體 34
3-3-1 COMSOL 34
3-3-2 SOLIDWORKS 34
3-4 實驗流程 34
3-4-1 碳鋼拉伸試棒與EBM製程試棒模擬驗證 35
3-4-2 微拉伸機拉伸模擬驗證 35
3-4-3 不同孔洞之應力分析模擬 36
3-4-4 針對孔洞結構相關文獻之模擬驗證 37
3-4-5 針對孔洞結構應用於髖關節之應力分析模擬 38
第四章 實驗結果討論 46
4-1 模擬技術建構 46
4-1-1 拉伸試驗模擬之倒角對機械性質之影響 46
4-1-2 碳鋼試片模擬結果比對 47
4-2 孔洞結構與機械性質相關文獻之模擬驗證 52
4-2-1 圓形孔洞鋁壓縮試驗中相對密度對於楊氏係數之影響 52
4-2-2 蜂巢狀結構之楊氏係數模擬結果 54
4-2-3 不同結構之單元孔洞應力模擬分析 55
4-3 孔洞結構試棒拉伸試驗模擬驗證 62
4-3-1 CNC加工鋁樣品之拉伸試驗與模擬結果 62
4-3-2 EBM製備鈦合金樣品之拉伸試驗與模擬 64
4-4 髖關節植入物應力分布模擬 77
4-4-1 不同施加力值對於應力模擬分布影響 78
4-4-2 髖關節插入不同基座模擬插入不同部位骨骼結果 79
4-4-3 孔洞結構匯入髖關節之應力模擬結果 79
第五章 結論 96
參考文獻 99

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