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系統識別號 U0026-2508201418190600
論文名稱(中文) 2010年ML6.4臺灣甲仙地震之同震及震後變形研究
論文名稱(英文) Coseismic and Postseismic deformation following a lower crustal event: the 2010 ML 6.4 Jiashian, Taiwan earthquake
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 地球科學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Earth Sciences
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 蔡佩京
研究生(英文) Pei-Ching Tsai
學號 L46011023
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 99頁
口試委員 指導教授-饒瑞鈞
口試委員-景國恩
口試委員-樂鍇.祿璞崚岸
中文關鍵字 甲仙地震  斷層錯位模型  均勻應力降反演模型  震後變形機制 
英文關鍵字 Jiashian earthquake  Dislocation model  Uniform stress drop model  Post-seismic mechanism 
學科別分類
中文摘要 2010年規模6.4甲仙地震,其震源深度達22.6公里,此地震之震源深度較台灣西南部發震深度深,也較一般推斷的滑脫面斷層為深,震源所在的環境相較於上部地殼之淺源地震較為黏性且塑性。因此甲仙地震提供了我們研究台灣西南部深部構造的機會及探討震後變形之機制。藉由101個連續站的GPS資料,計算此地震事件之同震及震後位移,以斷層錯位模型及均勻應力降模型進行反演,得此次地震之斷層幾何,主要滑移深度在17到22公里處,最大滑移量約為137.1 mm。由GPS每日解之時間序列分析觀察到,甲仙地震震央西半部32公里內之連續站記錄到了較大的同震位移量呈240°到360°的扇形分布,於同震位移量較為大的連續站之時間序列上可觀察到顯著之非線性區段,其非線性段時間之持續約15天至6個月不等,而非線性區段反應了地表受甲仙地震之震後效應影響。經模型反演,得此震後效應受一般所認知之原同震面震後滑移亦或黏彈性鬆弛效應之影響極小,並在假定與同震相同之斷層幾何下,得不到震後位移擬合的趨勢,因此假定造成甲仙地震震後位移變化之斷層面與同震不同,經反演得到造成震後位移之斷層幾何參數,其傾角較同震之斷層幾何為緩,主要滑移深度在9到13公里之間,最大滑移量22.2 mm。甲仙地震之震後位移為受地震之同震應力影響,誘發了淺部較緩斷層面產生震後無震滑移的結果。
英文摘要 The Jiashian earthquake occurred at a depth of 22.6 km in southern Taiwan. It situated in an area between the Western Foothills and the Central Range, which is the fold-and-thrust belt in Taiwan. Because the focal depth is well below the inferred depth of detachment fault, it provides us an opportunity to study the deep fault structure under South Taiwan. Focal depth of the 2010 ML 6.4 Jiashian earthquake is 22.6 km, which is located at the lower crust where the environment is more viscous and ductile than the upper crust. The magnitude of 2010 Jiashian earthquake is moderate, thus the behavior of post-seismic deformation might be transient and obscure. We use GPS data from GPS continuous stations to observe the main mechanism of post-seismic deformation for this event. By analyzing the time series from daily solution of GPS continuous stations, we observed the nonlinear curve revealed in part of stations. It means that the post-seismic deformation was work after the Jiashian earthquake. Then through the vectors of displacement of co-seismic and post-seismic, we use the dislocation model and uniform stress drop inversion model to infer the geometry of the unknown fault. The result of co-seismic model shows the fault geometry that dip is 41.39°, strike is 318.05°, the depth of main slip distribution on the fault is between 17-22 km, and the vector of maximum slip is 137.1 mm. The result of post-seismic model shows that the afterslip and the viscoelastic relaxation were not the main mechanism of this event. The post-seismic slip was contributed by aseismic slip of the other fault plane which is triggered by co-seismic stress. The fault geometry of this fault plane are that dip is 26°, strike is 318°, the depth of main slip distribution on the fault is between 9-13 km.
論文目次 摘要 I
Extended Abstract II
致謝 V
目錄 VI
圖目錄 IX
表目錄 XII
第一章、緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 甲仙地震 3
1.3 地質背景 10
1.3.1 地層 11
1.3.2 斷層分布 15
1.3.3 旗山轉換斷層帶 18
1.4 背景地震 21
1.5 震後變形機制 25
1.5.1震後滑移 25
1.5.2黏彈性鬆弛效應 25
1.5.3孔隙彈性回跳 26
1.6 研究內容 27
第二章、GPS資料及處理成果 28
2.1 GPS資料 29
2.2 GPS座標解算流程及策略 30
2.3 GPS座標時間序列分析 33
2.3.1 座標時間序列擬合方法 33
2.3.2 空間濾波 34
2.3.3 時間序列結果 36
2.3.4 甲仙地震同震位移場 41
2.3.5 甲仙地震震後位移場 43
第三章、2010年甲仙地震之同震模型 47
3.1 斷層錯位模型 47
3.1.1 模型理論方法 47
3.1.2 最佳斷層參數搜尋方法 48
3.1.3 斷層錯位模型結果 49
3.2 均勻應力降反演模 51
3.2.1 模型理論方法 51
3.2.2 均勻應力降反演模型結果 53
第四章、2010年甲仙地震之震後模型 55
4.1 震後滑移模型 55
4.1.1 最大震後滑移量模型 55
4.1.2 最大震後滑移量模型結果 56
4.2 黏彈性模型 58
4.2.1 黏彈性模型理論 58
4.2.2 黏彈性模型理論結果 60
4.3斷層錯位模型 61
4.3.1 同震斷層面幾何反演結果 61
4.3.2地表震後位移場之反演結果 63
第五章、討論 65
5.1 甲仙地震震後變形主要機制 65
5.2 斷層幾何型態 68
第六章、結論 73
參考文獻 74
附錄一 80
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