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系統識別號 U0026-2508201411212600
論文名稱(中文) 高頻GPS資料解算之分析:以2013年規模6.5南投地震為例
論文名稱(英文) High-rate GPS analysis on the 2013 ML 6.5 Nantou earthquake
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 地球科學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Earth Sciences
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 曾耀民
研究生(英文) Yao-Min Tseng
學號 L46014071
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 67頁
口試委員 指導教授-饒瑞鈞
口試委員-景國恩
口試委員-樂鍇‧祿璞崚岸
中文關鍵字 南投地震  空間濾波法  GPS連續站  卡曼濾波 
英文關鍵字 Nantou earthquake  Spatial filtering  Kalman filter  GPS stations 
學科別分類
中文摘要 台灣目前已有200多個高頻GPS連續站觀測資料和600多個強震儀,分布相當密集,在地震發生的時候可以提供相當豐富的資料。結合1 Hz GPS位移及地震儀200 Hz加速度這兩種資料來探討對於地震學研究之可行性。我們以2013年6月2日規模6.5,震源深度15.4公里南投地震為例,嘗試來求得其同震位移以及地震波形。在GPS部分使用相對定位及精密單點定位去得到每時刻之動態座標解。在相對定位的部分,一般都是使用長基線做為參考站,在此我們使用了長基線及短基線的參考站去作解算,同時使用空間濾波來比較兩者結果是否相同。地震儀的在積分成位移的過程,我們使用了三種方法:高通濾波、基線改正、卡曼濾波。來消除地震儀積分時所產生的基線偏移。從GPS及地震儀處理過後所得到的波形,我們可以獲得相當一致的波形,兩者最大不同在於GPS我們是使用1 Hz資料,地震儀則是有200 Hz得取樣率,在南投地震中GPS站S167的東西向最大震幅約20 mm,但地震儀的最大震幅將近有50 mm,200 Hz確實能夠得到更多的地震資訊,可以彌補GPS在取樣率上的不足,但是在同震位移上地震儀仍是無法得到與GPS相同的成果,而在波形上則有相當好的一致性。從南投地震所獲得的GPS及地震儀位移時間序列去做震波傳遞圖,我們發現離震央的西北方向及西南方向的震波有較長時間延續之地震波現象出現。
英文摘要 There are more than 200 GPS stations and 600 seismometers in Taiwan. The distribution is quite dense and when the earthquake happens, it can provide abundant information. We discuss the feasibility in seismology which combines 1 Hz GPS with 200 hz seismometer. We try to obtain co-seismic displacement and seismic wave during the time period of the 2 June 2013 ML 6.5 Nantou earthquake. We apply not only relative positioning technique but also precise point positioning technique to obtain time series. We use reference stations which includes lone-baseline and short-baseline in relative positioning technique. Using spatial filtering to improve the time series. To avoid baseline errors, we measure by three methods which Low-Cut Filters, baseline-correction, kalmans filters to integrate. We acquire similar seismic displacement wave from GPS and integrated seismometer. The difference between GPS and seismometer is that the former is 1 Hz and the later is 200 Hz. The amplitude of station S167 is 20 mm in GPS but the amplitude in seismometer is 50 mm. From the result we can conquer the problem of GPS sampling rate by using 200 Hz seismometer but seismometer can not obtain the same coseismic displacement with GPS. From the displacement estimated for GPS and seismometer are stacked according to epicentral distance we find that the southwest and northeast of the epicenter has later phases.
論文目次 摘要 I
SUMMARY II
誌謝 V
目錄 VI
表目錄 VIII
圖目錄 IX
第1章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 前人研究 3
1.3 研究內容 9
第2章 GPS原理概述 11
2.1 定位原理 11
2.2 GPS觀測量 11
2.2.1 虛擬距離觀測量 11
2.2.2 載波相位觀測量 13
2.3 GPS定位方式 15
2.3.1 單點定位 15
2.3.2 相對定位 15
2.3.3 精密單點定位 15
第3章 研究方法 16
3.1 資料來源 16
3.2 解算軟體簡介 20
3.2.1 TRACK 20
3.2.2 RTKLIB 20
3.2.3 VADASE 21
3.2.4 GIPSY 22
3.3 GPS濾波處理 22
3.3.1 恆星日濾波 22
3.3.2 空間濾波 27
3.3.3 修改空間濾波 29
3.4 地震儀積分處理軟體 32
3.4.1 高通濾波(Low-Cut Filters ) 32
3.4.2 二段基線修正 32
3.4.3 卡曼濾波 35
第4章 結果與討論 37
4.1 GPS軟體精度分析 37
4.2 GPS與強震儀波形比較 41
4.3 GPS濾波後成果 48
4.4 短基線及長基線空間濾波精度 53
4.5 震波傳遞 56
第5章 結論 62
參考文獻 64


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