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論文名稱(中文) 中國甘肅黃爺洞石筍近兩千年的氣候變化紀錄之研究
論文名稱(英文) Climate Changes During the Last 2000 Years Reflected by Stalagmite δ18O Records in Huangye Cave of Gansu Province, China
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 地球科學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Earth Sciences
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 余樺峻
研究生(英文) Hua-Chun Yu
學號 l46981090
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 82頁
口試委員 指導教授-吳銘志
共同指導教授-李紅春
口試委員-汪中和
口試委員-羅尚德
口試委員-張詠斌
中文關鍵字 中國  甘肅  黃爺洞  石筍  碳氧同位素  古氣候 
英文關鍵字 Gansu Province  Huangye Cave  Stalagmite  Oxygen Isotope  Paleoclimate 
學科別分類
中文摘要 甘肅武都黃爺洞(33°05’N,105°00’E,海拔1700m)位於東亞季風邊界,對季風變化敏感。2005年從黃爺洞採集石筍HY05-3,長23.6 cm,石筍經過鈾釷質譜定年,顯示上部15公分為過去2000年以來的連續沉積,在15-16公分間存在一沉積間斷,下半段石筍年齡可以確定約為全新世早-中期。為研究該區域的洞穴石筍與氣候環境變化關係,驗證氣候變化與中國朝代更替的關係,我們從1180個高解析度碳氧同位素數據中,選擇過去2000年這段記錄進行詳細研究。根據HY05-3碳氧同位素分析結果,氧同位素值輕代表降雨較多,氣候較濕潤,地表植被發育較好,因此會使碳同位素值也變輕,在大部分時間碳氧同位素存在正相關性,由於黃爺洞地處人煙稀少的山區,人為破壞程度相對低,植被型態的改變大致上是跟著氣候演變。

我們將石筍HY05-3與已經發表的同一洞穴石筍氧同位素紀錄以及2008年在Science上發表相隔不到50公里的萬象洞石筍氧同位素紀錄進行對比,結果顯示,在定年誤差範圍內,大多數時段上的對應都相當吻合,顯示甘肅南部的氣候在此兩個洞穴有一致的反映。然而,在AD1600年前後以及AD800年前後,黃爺洞記錄與萬象洞的記錄明顯不同,這可能是在這兩個時段兩地氣候上有所差異,短時間尺度上的石筍δ18O記錄受到區域降雨差異的影響而反映不一致。對比後說明,在十年際的尺度上,石筍δ18O記錄洞穴位置附近之氣候,但區域內局部地區的降雨變化不一致時,不同洞穴的石筍氧同位素記錄也會有所差異。我們將HY05-3的氧同位素記錄與漢中地區500年以來的乾濕歷史記錄進行對比,基本上降雨增加時,石筍δ18O值變輕;降雨減少時,石筍δ18O值變重。說明利用石筍氧同位素記錄可以反映降雨的變化。另外,石筍下半段的全新世早-中期記錄中顯示,氧同位素值在全新世早-中期沉積時段相對於近兩千年的紀錄明顯偏輕,碳同位素與氧同位素有很好的協變性;指示此時期研究區域的氣候較濕潤。

本研究結果顯示,雖然在長時間尺度上,石筍氧同位素在全新世早、中、晚三個時期呈現相似的變化趨勢,但在短時間尺度上,不同洞穴的氣候和環境變化存在差異。因此,不支持採用單點石筍紀錄來代表東亞夏季季風強度變化及討論夏季季風對朝代興衰、社會發展影響。
英文摘要 Huangye Cave (33°05’N, 105°00’E, 1700 m above sea level) is located at Wudu County, Gansu Province, China, which is at the boundary of Asia monsoon and thus sensitive to the changes of the monsoon. We collected a 236-mm-long stalagmite (HY05-3) in 2005. The 230Th/U ICP-MS dating result shows that the upper 15-cm had grown continuously during the last 2000 years, and there is a hiatus between 15 and 16 cm depth. The age of the lower part belongs to early to middle Holocene. We use the past 2000-year record from 1180 carbon and oxygen isotope data to study changes in climate and environment in the region and verify relationship between changes in climate and Chinese cultural. According to the δ13C and δ18O results of HY05-3, lighter δ18O shows wet climate, and better vegetation coverage, which lead to lighter δ13C. Therefore, we may expect that δ13C and δ18O co-vary in the stalagmite records. Huangye Cave is located in mountain area with small population and human destruction, so vegetation coverage generally followed the climate evolution.

We compared HY05-3 δ18O records with the published stalagmite records from the same cave (Tan et al., 2010, Holocene) and Wanxiang Cave δ18O records which is about 50 km away (Zhang et al., 2008, Science). The comparison shows that the three records in many periods are generally resemble within dating uncertainty; reflecting regional climate effects. However, the records between Huangye Cave and Wanxiang Cave records around AD1600 and AD800, are obviously different. These discrepancies indicate that climatic conditions between the two locations were different during the two periods. The comparison shows that on decadal-scale stalagmite δ18O records reflect only climate around the cave. When local climatic conditions are different at the different cave locations within the same region, the δ18O records will vary from cave to cave. We compared HY05-3 δ18O records with the last 500 years drought/flood index from historical documents in Hanzhong. The δ18O decreases with precipitation increase, supporting the precipitation/cave δ18O relationship. In addition, the δ18O values of HY05-3 during early to middle Holocene were much lighter than that during the last 2000 years, and the δ13C co-varied with the δ18O. This indicates that wetter condition and more vegetation coverage were dominant in the area during early to middle Holocene.

Our study shows that although speleothem δ18O records have the similar trend on long term scale during early-to-late Holocene period, there are apparent discrepancies on short time scales. Therefore, this study does not support that using a single cave record represents the changes of East Asian summer monsoon intensity and its impact on Chinese cultural changes and societal evolution.
論文目次 摘要 I
ABSTRACT III
誌謝 V
目錄 VI
圖目錄 VIII
表目錄 X

第一章 前言 1
1.1研究背景 1
1.2研究動機與目的 2
1.3前人研究 3
1.3.1氧同位素相關研究 4
1.3.2碳同位素相關研究 6
1.3.3甘肅石筍的相關研究 9
第二章 文獻回顧 11
2.1洞穴碳酸鹽 11
2.1.1石筍 12
2.1.2石筍在古氣候學上的研究 13
2.2同位素分餾 14
2.2.1氧同位素 15
2.2.2碳同位素 16
2.3定年原理 17
2.3.1 230Th/U定年法 17
2.4儀器分析原理 18
2.4.1 Kiel III碳酸鹽自動進樣系統 18
2.4.2 IRMS同位素比值質譜儀 19
2.4.3 ICP-MS感應偶合電漿質譜儀 21
第三章 研究區域與樣品介紹 24
3.1研究區域的地理環境 24
3.1.1地理位置 24
3.1.2氣候 25
3.2黃爺洞概況 26
3.3石筍樣品介紹 29
第四章 結果與討論 30
4.1研究方法 30
4.2取樣位置 30
4.3 230Th/U定年分析結果與討論 31
4.4 HY05-3碳氧同位素記錄分析結果與討論 36
4.5 HY05-3石筍記錄與其他紀錄的對比 44
4.5.1氧同位素記錄與漢中地區乾濕歷史記錄對比 44
4.5.2 HY05-3石筍記錄與其他紀錄對比 45
第五章 結論 51
參考文獻 53
附錄 59
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