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系統識別號 U0026-2508201022375500
論文名稱(中文) 使用超音波感測資訊之機器人在動態環境中之全域及區域路徑規劃
論文名稱(英文) Global and Local Path Planning for a Mobile Robot in Dynamic Environments based-on Ultrasonic Information
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 工程科學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Engineering Science
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生(中文) 林旻君
研究生(英文) Min-Jiun Lin
學號 n9696143
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 72頁
口試委員 指導教授-王宗一
口試委員-周榮華
口試委員-王榮泰
中文關鍵字 多重超音波  路徑規劃  動態障礙物  避障 
英文關鍵字 Multiple ultrasonic sensors  Path planning  Dynamic obstacle  Obstacle avoidance 
學科別分類
中文摘要 由於一般機器人所設定之活動的範圍大都局限在固定的環境裡,例如學校、醫院、辦公室等等,所以平時行走的路徑也都是固定的。然而在熟悉的環境裡,偶而也會出現一些不特定的干擾因素,例如其他行人、移動中之物品,及環境內部擺設的更動等,造成機器人行走的路徑須產生變化以因應之。因此,本文利用多重超音波感測器所提供之資訊,建立一套動態障礙物偵測規則,來得知動態障礙物之移動之方向及速度,以作為全域路徑規劃及區域路徑規劃之依據,藉此以達成在已知地圖中,閃避動態障礙物並到達目的地的功能。在實作部分,本文利用多個超音波感測器作為障礙物的判斷依據,並撰寫控制器及避障、路徑規劃等演算法,以進行馬達轉速的控制以及感測器的接收值,作為整個輪型機器人之操控及狀況判斷與避障處理。最後透過定位控制、軌跡追蹤和閃避障礙物等實驗以確實驗證本論文方法之有效性。
英文摘要 Most mobile robots operate in a specific confined environment, such as schools, hospitals, offices, etc, with fixed moving paths and stationary objects. However, in such semi-static environments, dynamic interference, like moving people, moving objects, and changing surroundings, to their moving path may happen unexpectedly and result in obstructing the path of a robot. For robots to avoid dynamic obstructions and continue their journey, this study uses multiple ultrasonic sensors to collect real-time surrounding information and establishes a set of rules for detecting the heading and the speed of dynamic obstructions. The global and the local paths are then recalculated to lead robots to their destinations. The rules are realized as algorithms and are implemented to analyze information received from ultrasonic sensors, to trigger the recalculations of global and local paths, and to control the motors of wheels of a robot to avoid unexpected dynamic obstructions. Experiments have been conducted to verify the effectiveness of the mechanism used in this study, and they have yielded promising results.
論文目次 中文摘要 1
Abstract 2
誌謝 3
目錄 4
圖目錄 7
表目錄 10
第 1 章 緒論 11
1.1 前言 11
1.2 研究動機及目的 12
1.3 文獻回顧 13
1.3.1 感測器文獻回顧 13
1.3.2 障礙物閃避文獻回顧 14
1.3.3 路徑規劃文獻回顧 15
1.4 論文架構 16
第 2 章 系統設計與系統架構 17
2.1 系統設計及系統功能架構 17
2.2 人機操作介面 17
2.2.1 路徑規劃介面 18
2.2.2 障礙物偵測介面 19
2.2.3 馬達控制介面 20
2.3 路徑規劃 20
2.3.1 Floyd Path 21
2.3.2 動態視窗法Dynamic Window Approach 22
2.3.3 B-Spline曲線 24
2.4 障礙物偵測 27
2.4.1 障礙物即時偵測 29
2.4.2 障礙物預測 34
2.5 自走車運動控制及回授 41
2.6 系統控制流程 44
第 3 章 系統實作 46
3.1 硬體架構 46
3.2 電路架構 46
3.3 馬達驅動系統 47
3.4 障礙物感測模組 50
3.4.1 SRF08超音波感測模組 51
3.4.2 I2C Bus 55
第 4 章 實驗與結果 58
4.1 感測器量測實驗 58
4.2 障礙物閃避實驗 59
第 5 章 結論與建議 67
5.1 結論 67
5.2 建議 68
參考文獻 69

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