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系統識別號 U0026-2508201017570800
論文名稱(中文) 臉孔選擇性皮質區對個別與平均臉之大腦反應:一個功能性磁振造影研究
論文名稱(英文) Neural Responses of Face-Selective Brain Areas to Individual and Average Faces: An fMRI Study
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 認知科學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Cognitive Science
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生(中文) 許雅惠
研究生(英文) Ya-Huei Hsu
學號 u7696102
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 92頁
口試委員 指導教授-龔俊嘉
召集委員-鄭順林
口試委員-林君昱
中文關鍵字 臉孔辨識  功能性磁造影  梭狀回  臉孔空間  規範基地模型 
英文關鍵字 fMRI  Fusiform Gyrus  FFA  Face space  Norm-base model 
學科別分類
中文摘要 對人類而言,臉孔辨識是一個重要的能力 。除了優越的辨識能力外,臉孔辨識還有一些有別於物體辨識的特殊辨識現象,其中一種現象稱為「誇大優勢」。 這個現象可以用臉孔空間理論的規範基地模型來解釋。規範基地模型假設大腦神經會根據臉孔與位置臉孔空間中央的平均臉的距離不同而有不同強度的反應。臉孔空間理論與規範基地模型已有許多行為實驗的支持,但目前尚未有fMRI的支持證據。

Loffler(2005)以規範基地的數理模型為基礎,製作平均臉及個別臉為刺激的fMRI研究發現,FFA對於個別臉的反應強度大於平均臉。Jiang(2006)操弄臉孔相似性的fMRI研究結果指出,FFA對於相似度愈小的臉孔的反應強度大於愈相似的臉孔。由於Loffler使用的合成臉的改變主要依賴頭形輪廓的改變,因此Jiang 等學者認為其研究所獲得的FFA結果,是由於臉孔間相似性因素所造成的影響,而不是個別臉/平均臉因素。

為探討規範基地模型假設的神經反應模式是否存在於大腦,本研究利用混合不同張數(3、6、10)真實臉孔的方法,使臉孔逐漸從個別臉變化至平均臉,控制臉孔輪廓為橢圓形,並以相同或相異性別判斷作業操弄相似性的有無。以fMRI探討規範基地模型所假設神經對臉孔反應模式是否可能存在於大腦裡,可能於何處腦區?

研究結果發現:1、符合規範基地模型假設的反應模式的大腦皮質區包括右側額中回、左側枕中回及右側顳中回。2、群體分析結果的腦區至有一半的受試者表現出Face > Scene達顯著差異,顯示這些區域對臉孔刺激具有選擇性。3、 FFA對個別和平均臉的神經反應差異無顯著差異。
英文摘要 For human being, face perception is an important ability. Besides its superior capability, face recognition is also qualitatively different from object identification, one kind of which is called “caricature advantage” and this phenomenon can be explained by the face space theory and the norm based model. The norm-based model assumes that, depending on the distance between individual and the average face, there will be different neuronal responses. The face space theory and the norm based model have received many behavioral, but limited fMRI support.

Among the latter, Loffler et al. (2005) used synthetic faces and found FFA activations for the individual faces stronger than the average faces, while Jiang et al. (2006) manipulates face similarity and found it also modulate FFA activations. Because the synthetic face changes were primarily achieved by changing external face contours, Jiang(2009) pursued this issue and demonstrated the face contour change invoked the largest response in the rFFA. This raises a concern of whether the lower FFA responds to average faces by Loffler et al., is either caused by the average faces, or confounded by the change of the face contour.

In order to understand, dose norm-based model exist in brain or not. This study morphs real individual faces to create sets of 3-, 6-, and 10-averaged faces, while controlling face contours to the same egg-shapes, and asks subjects to judge whether the two consecutive face images are the same or different sex. Therefore, the current study not only controls the face contour, but also manipulates face similarity by the same- (similar) or different- sex (dissimilar) condition.

This study finds that: 1. Group analyses identify three brain regions (right middle frontal gyrus, left middle occipital gyrus, and right middle temporal gyrus, among others), and their activation pattern conforms to the norm-based model prediction; 2. Those brain regions also show significant differences in localizer sessions (Face > Scene). 3. FFA has different activation profiles to the sets of stimuli, and the orders of adaptation do not conform to the norm-based model.
論文目次 緒論..................................................................................................................1
文獻探討........................................................................................................4
臨床研究........................................................................................................4
電生理研究....................................................................................................5
神經影像科學研究(Neuroimage).....................................................5
臉孔處理模型與腦區.................................................................................6
梭狀回(Fusiform Gyrus)......................................................................7
特殊的臉孔辨識現象及臉孔處理的解釋.........................................10
臉孔空間理論與規範基地模型............................................................12
與規範基模有關的研究...........................................................................13
研究動機及研究目的................................................................................17
預期結果........................................................................................................21
研究方法........................................................................................................22
受試者.............................................................................................................22
研究工具. ......................................................................................................23
實驗流程.........................................................................................................25
結構性掃描....................................................................................................26
功能性掃描....................................................................................................26
腦區功能定位...............................................................................................26
性別判斷實驗...............................................................................................27
資料分析及結果..........................................................................................34
個別分析(ROI).......................................................................................34
群體分析........................................................................................................36
分析結果........................................................................................................38
正確率及反應時間.....................................................................................38
ROI分析結果.................................................................................................39
左側FFA的ROI結果...................................................................................40
右側FFA的ROI結果...................................................................................43
ROI結果小結.................................................................................................45
群體分析結果...............................................................................................47
相同性別情況(same gender condition)的群體分析結果........48
相異性別情況(different gender condition)的群體分析結果..57
群體分析結果小結 .................................................................................62
結論與討論.....................................................................................................64
參考文獻.........................................................................................................70
附錄一 受試者安全問卷..........................................................................84
附錄二 使用的臉孔刺激..........................................................................89

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