進階搜尋


   電子論文尚未授權公開,紙本請查館藏目錄
(※如查詢不到或館藏狀況顯示「閉架不公開」,表示該本論文不在書庫,無法取用。)
系統識別號 U0026-2508201012330100
論文名稱(中文) 應用於腦波處理之低功率轉導電容濾波器
論文名稱(英文) A Low Power Gm-C Filter for EEG Conditioning
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 奈米科技暨微系統工程研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生(中文) 郭嘉銘
研究生(英文) Chia-Ming Kuo
學號 q2695109
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 127頁
口試委員 指導教授-朱銘祥
共同指導教授-林宙晴
口試委員-李順裕
口試委員-羅錦興
中文關鍵字 轉導電容低通濾波器  運算轉導放大器  低功率  低電壓  腦波 
英文關鍵字 Gm-C low pass filter  operational transconductance amplifier  low power  low voltage  EEG 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本文提出兩種全差動式五階低通轉導電容濾波器架構,並設計符合此新式濾波器架構的運算轉導放大器電路,分別為多輸入差動輸出運算轉導放大器(MIDO OTA)、電流映對輸出差動輸入運算轉導放大器(CMDI OTA)與多輸出差動輸入運算轉導放大器(MODI OTA)。
以CMDI OTA與MODI OTA為基礎所建構的五階低通轉導電容濾波器電路比其它濾波器電路有較好的效能,較小的硬體面積及較低功率消耗。模擬結果顯示此濾波器的動態範圍為51.2dB,在差動輸入訊號振幅為100mVp-p下,其諧波失真成份低於-50dB。此濾波器在供應電壓1V下,所需的功率消耗低於320nW,其晶片的核心面積為0.176 mm2。此晶片為台灣積體電路製造公司的0.18μm製程所製作而成。量測結果顯示此低電壓低功率濾波器的動態範圍為30.5dB,在差動輸入訊號振幅為60mVp-p下,其總諧波失真低於-40dB。而測試結果顯示此濾波器頻寬為100Hz並且可以濾除掉腦波訊號頻率以外的雜訊干擾。
英文摘要 In this thesis, two kinds of fifth-order differential Gm-C low pass filters are presented. Three operational transconductance amplifiers (OTAs) are employed to realized the filters, namely, the multiple-input-differential-output
(MIDO) OTA, the current-mirror-output-differential-input (CMDI) OTA, and the multiple-output-differential-input (MODI) OTA.
The fifth-order OTA-C low pass filter was micro-fabricated by using the CMDI and MODI OTA design which required smaller area of die and lower power consumption. The simulated results showed a dynamic range of 51.2dB, while harmonic distortion components were below -50dB for differential input signals up to 100mV peak to peak (Vp-p). The power consumption of this filter was below 320nW, the supply voltage was 1V, and the active area of die was 0.176 mm2. This chip was fabricated with 0.18-μm CMOS process in TSMC. The measured results indicated that this low-voltage and low-power filter possessed the dynamic range of 30.5dB, while total harmonic distortion was less than -40dB for 60mVp-p input. According to the testing results, this filter can be adopted to eliminate the out-of-band interference of the electroencephalography (EEG) whose signal bandwidth is below 100Hz.
論文目次 摘 要 I
Abstract II
誌 謝 III
目 錄 IV
圖目錄 VI
表目錄 X
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 研究背景 1
1-2 文獻回顧 3
1-3 研究動機與目的 6
1-4 論文架構 7
第二章 轉導電容濾波器之設計理論與方法 8
2-1 引言 8
2-2 運算轉導放大器的特性 9
2-3 以運算轉導放大器為基礎建構被動式元件 11
2-3-1 等效電阻 11
2-3-2 等效電感 12
2-4 線性化技術應用於運算轉導放大器 17
2-5 低轉導值運算轉導放大器 22
2-6 電路設計於弱反轉區 27
2-7 濾波器效能參數 35
第三章 轉導電容濾波器之電路設計 38
3-1 濾波器設計流程與規格訂定 38
3-2 運算轉導放大器之電路設計與分析 42
3-2-1 差動輸入差動輸出運算轉導放大器 42
3-2-2 多輸入差動輸出運算轉導放大器 44
3-2-3 多輸出差動輸出運算轉導放大器 47
3-2-4 共模回授電路 53
3-3 五階轉導電容低通濾波器之設計 55
3-3-1被動式電感電容梯形濾波器 55
3-3-2主動式元件替換法 61
3-3-3精簡運算轉導放大器 68
3-3-4五階轉導電容低通濾波器之各種電路組態 81
3-4 晶片佈局 86
3-5 量測方法 89
第四章 結果與討論 92
4-1 各種型式五階低通濾波器之模擬結果 92
4-1-1 頻率響應 92
4-1-2 暫態響應 94
4-1-3 各種型式濾波器之模擬結果比較 98
4-1-4 製程漂移、溫度及電壓源變化下之模擬結果 105
4-1-5 仿真EEG訊號源模擬 106
4-2 硬體實現 108
4-3 量測結果 109
4-3-1 頻率響應 109
4-3-2 暫態響應 110
4-3-3 輸入參考雜訊 118
4-3-4 濾波器效能比較 119
4-3-5 仿真EEG訊號源測試 121
第五章 結論與建議 123
參考文獻 124
參考文獻 [1] M.Teplan, "Fundamentals of EEG measurement," Measurement science
Review, volume:2, section 2, pp.2, 2002.
[2] N.V Thakor, "Biopotentials and Electrophysiology Measurement," CRC Press, 1999.
[3] H. Krabbe, "A high-performance monolithic instrumentation amplifier," IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, volume:14, pp.186-187, 1971.
[4] Q. S. Zhu, F. J. Lidgey, and W. J. Su, "High CMRR, second generation current-mode instrumentation amplifiers," IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, volume:2, pp.1326-1328, 1993.
[5] R.F. Yazicioglu, P. Merken, and C. Van Hoof, "Effect of electrode offset on the CMRR of the current balancing instrumentation amplifiers," IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, volume:1 , pp. 35-38 , 2005.
[6] H. W.Smit, K.Verton, and C. A.Grimbergen, "A Low-Cost Multichannel Preamplifier for Physiological Signals," IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, volume:34, issue:4, pp. 307-310, 1987.
[7] W. J. R. Dunseath and E. F. Kelly, "Multichannel PC-based data-acquisition system for high-resolution EEG," IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, volume:42, issue:12, pp. 1212-1217, 1995.
[8] T.C. Huhta and J.G. Webster, "60-Hz Interference in Electrocardiography," IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, volume:20, issue:2, pp. 91-101, 1973.
[9] K.V.T.Piipponen, R.Sepponen, and P.Eskelinen, , "A Biosignal Instrumentation System Using Capacitive Coupling for Power and Signal Isolation," IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, volume:54, issue:10, pp. 1822 - 1828, 2007.
[10] R. Martins, S. Selberherr, and F. A. Vaz, "A CMOS IC for portable EEG acquisition systems," IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, volume:47, issue: 5, pp. 1191-1196, 1998.
[11] P.A. Fabbro and C.A.D.R. Filho, , "An Integrated CMOS Instrumentation Amplifier with Improved CMRR," IEEE Proceedings of the 15th Symposium on Integrated Circuits and Systems Design, volume:4, pp. 57-61 , 2002.
[12] H. Wu and Y. P. Xu, "A Low-Voltage Low-Noise CMOS Instrumentation Amplifier for Portable Medical Monitoring Systems," IEEE-NEWCAS Conference, pp. 295-298, 2005.
[13] K. A. Ng and P. K. Chan, "A CMOS analog front-end IC for portable EEG/ECG monitoring applications," IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I, volume:52, issue:11, pp. 2335-2347, 2005.
[14] R. F. Yazicioglu, P. Merken, R. Puers, and C. A. V. H. C. Van Hoof, "A 60 mu/W 60 nV/rtHz Readout Front-End for Portable Biopotential Acquisition Systems,", IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, volume:42, issue:5, pp. 1100-1110, 2007.
[15] C. D. Salthouse and R. Sarpeshkar, "A practical micropower programmable bandpass filter for use in bionic ears," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, volume:38, issue:1, pp. 63–70, 2003.
[16] W.K. Cheng, "The Circuits and Filters Handbook," CRC Press., 1995.
[17] R. Schaumann and M. E. V. Valkenburg, "Design of Analog Filters," New York: Oxford, 2001
[18] J.S. Martinez and W.M.C. Sansen, "A Large-Signal Very Low-Distortion Tranconductor for High-Frequency Continuous-Time Filters, " IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, volume:26, issue:7, pp.946-955, 1991.
[19] S. Sinencio and J. S. Martinez, "CMOS transconductance amplifiers, architecture and active filters: a tutorial, " IEEE Proc. Circuits Devices System., volume:147, pp. 3-12, 2000.
[20] S.S. Bustos, J. S. Martinez, F. Maloberti and E. S. Sinencio, "A 60-dB Dynamic-Range CMOS Sixth-Order 2.4Hz Low-Pass Filter for Medical Application, " IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II, volume:47, issue:12, pp.1391-1398, 2000.
[21] A. Nedungadi and T.R. Viswanathan, "Design of Linear CMOS Transconductance Elements, " IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, volume:31, issue:10, pp.891-894, 1984.
[22] S. Koziel and S. Szczepanski, "Design of Highly Linear Tunable CMOS OTA for Continuous-Time Filters, " IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II, volume: 49, issue:2, pp.110-122, 2002.
[23] C.G. Yu and R. L. Geiger, "Very low voltage operational amplifier using floating-gate MOSFETs, " IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, volume:2, pp.1152-1155. 1993.
[24] A. Veeravalli, E. Sánchez-Sinencio, and J. Silva-Martínez, "Transconductance amplifier structures with very small transconductances: A comparative design approach, " IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, volume:37, issue:6, pp. 770–775, 2002.
[25] E. Rodriguez-Villegas, A. Yúfera, and A. Rueda, "A 1.25-V micropower Gm-C filter based on FGMOS transistors operating in weak inversion, " IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, volume:39, issue:1, pp.100–111, 2004.
[26] J. S. Martinez and J. S. Suner, "IC voltage-to-current transducers with very-small transconductance, "Analog Integrated Circuits Signal Processing, volume:13, pp.285-293, 1997.
[27] X. Qian, Y. P. Xu, and X. Li, "A CMOScontinuous-time lowpass notch filter for EEG systems,” Analog Integrated Circuits Signal Processing, volume:44, pp.231–238, 2005.
[28] J. S. Martinez and S. S. Bustos, "Design considerations for high-performance very-low-frequency filters, " IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, volume:2, pp.648-651, 1999.
[29] P. Garde, "Transconductance cancellation for operational amplifiers, " IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, volume:12, issue:3, pp.310-311, 1977.
[30] L. Shuenn-Yuh and C. Chih-Jen, "Systematic Design and Modeling of a OTA-C Filter for Portable ECG Detection," IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems, volime:3, issue:1, pp.53-64, 2009.
[31] S. Koziel and S. Szczepanski, "Design of Highly Linear Tunable CMOS OTA for Continuous-Time Filters, " IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II, volume:49, issue:2, pp.110-122, 2002.
[32] E. Vittoz, and J. Fellrath, "CMOS analog integrated circuits based on weak inversion operations, " IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, volume:12, issue:3, pp.224-231, 1977.
[33] P. E. Allen and D. R. Holberg, "CMOS Analog Circuit Design," New York: Oxford, 2002.
[34] B. Razavi, "Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits," McGraw-Hill, 2003.
[35] D. A. Johns and K. Martin, "Analog Integrated Circuit Design," Wiley, 1997.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2014-08-30起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw