||Implementing a Blended Language Learning Environment for oral presentations in an EAP course: skills, perspectives, and influences
||Department of Foreign Languages & Literature
||Neil Edward Barrett
blended language learning
為了因應越來越全球化的學術環境，大學學生常會被要求以英文發表報告，然而，這項作法卻會導致教師的工作負擔加重。本研究提出透過混合式學習法指導學生學習英語的技巧，並學習如何在學術英語課堂做出成功的口頭報告。筆者根據社會文化理論（Socio-Cultural-Theory）語言學習架構（Bax, 2011a）設計一門課程，以課堂報告、線上學習環境，以及利用雲端應用程式（Google Suite）進行線上合作等方式，讓學生習得口頭報告技巧。
本研究採行動研究法，展現二組學生如何在一學期的學術英語課程中有效增進小組報告技巧，並學習到寶貴的合作模式，其成果可為未來之用。每學期針對三組學生之口頭報告進行錄音，再以評分量表及頻率分佈情形分析學生口頭報告的技巧與語言運用。透過問卷、焦點集體訪談以及追蹤訪談分析學生觀點以及學習主題。除此之外，研究教師也會分別在課堂上以及線上觀察學生學習狀況，並詳細記錄。問卷調查結果顯示學生對於學習科技（Learning Technology）感到滿意，未來亦將持續使用。但學生在建構有效結論以及結合報告主旨與講述內容時會產生障礙，這表示應修改授課教材，才能協助學生學習。問卷結果也發現學生較喜歡線上學習與面對面合作並行，因為他們在合作過程中看到線上討論的侷限性。最後，學生對於Line的喜好遠遠超過利用Google Hangouts或Google Slides討論，顯示在設計混合式語言學習情境（Blended Language Learning Environment）時，學生本身的特性與學習成敗息息相關。針對進行類似研究計畫或在課堂上納入口頭報告的教師，目前已發展出一套指引。其施行結果所產生的寶貴想法，有助於評估專為語言學習者所設計的雲端運算之效度。
Students are being asked to present their work in English as the academic world becomes increasingly globalized yet at the same time instructors are faced with increasing workloads. This study offers a way of instructing students in the language and skills of successful English for Academic Purposes (EAP) oral presentations via blended language learning. Students learned presentation skills through classroom presentations, in an online learning environment, and through online collaboration with cloud computing applications (Google Suite) in a course designed according to a neo-Vygotskian language-learning framework.
By using an action research approach, this study shows how EAP students improved the quality of their group presentation skills over a semester and learned valuable collaboration skills for future projects. Data was collected from the recordings of three group oral presentations per semester and analyzed by a rubric and frequency counts of presentation skills and presentation-specific language. Questionnaires, focus group, and follow-up interviews were analyzed for student perspectives, and the interviews were analyzed for themes. In addition, the instructor-researcher observed the students in class and online and made detailed notes. Questionnaire results indicated the students were satisfied with the Learning Technology (LT) and would continue to use it in the future. Several problems were encountered as students had problems constructing effective conclusions, and problems linking the main ideas to the content of the presentation indicated revised instructional material is needed to assist students. The students also preferred to mix online and face-to-face collaboration, as they discovered the limits of online chat through collaboration. Finally, students had a strong preference to use Line over Google Slides comments or Google Hangouts, demonstrating that students are stakeholders that need to be involved in the design of a Blended Language Learning Environment (BLLE) for successful learning to take place. Guidelines have been developed for instructors undertaking similar research projects or introducing oral presentation instruction into the classroom. The results also provide valuable insights on the efficacy of cloud computing for language learners in higher education.
Chapter 1: Introduction 1
1.2 Purposes and Objectives of the Study 3
1.3 Research Questions 4
1.4 Significance of the Study 4
1.5 Key Terms 5
Chapter 2: Literature Review 7
2.1 Sociocultural Theory and Language Learning. History and Development. 7
2.1.1 Sociocultural theory and LT. 9
2.2 Blended Language Learning 12
2.3 Web 2.0 and Language Learning 15
2.4 Mobile Learning and Collaboration 16
2.5 Cloud Computing and Learning 17
2.6 Academic Oral Presentations 19
2.7 Linguistic Differences: Native Speaker and Non-Native Speaker Presentations 20
2.8 Courseware for Oral Presentations 21
2.9 Oral Presentations, Socialization, and Language Learners 22
2.10 Classroom-Based Studies 24
2.11 Multimodal Competence in Oral Presentations 24
2.12 Steps in Designing Oral Presentations 25
2.13 Design Principals for Oral Presentation Competence 27
2.15 The Unified Theory of Acceptance and the Use of Technology (UTAUT) 31
2.15.1 Performance expectancy. 32
2.15.2 Effort expectancy. 34
2.15.3 Social influences. 34
2.15.4 Facilitating conditions. 36
2.15.5 UTAUT in use. 37
2.16 Action Research as a Methodology 40
2.16.1 Background to action research. 40
2.16.2 Action research as a dissertation. 42
2.16.3 Reason for action research. 44
2.16.4 Type of action research. 44
2.16.5 Action research and typical research design. 45
2.16.6 A practical and pluralistic approach to research. 45
2.16.7 Action research validity. 46
2.16.8 Action research bias. 47
2.17 Summary 48
Chapter 3: Methodology 50
3.1 Overview of Methodology 50
3.2 Research background 50
3.3 Background and Location 51
3.3.1 Background of the researcher. 51
3.3.2 The pilot study. 52
3.3.3 Background of the participants. 55
3.3.4 Setting. 56
3.4 Theoretical Framework. 57
3.5 Oral Presentation Instruction and Material 58
3.6 Google Slides 59
3.7 Design of the Study 60
3.7.1 Blended language learning framework. 61
3.7.2 Outline of the instruction. 62
3.7.3 Academic oral presentation rubric design for assessment. 64
3.8 Data Sources and analysis procedure 65
3.8.1 Analysis procedure of presentations 65
3.8.2 Procedure for final survey. 67
3.8.3 Interview procedure. 67
3.8.4 Observations and field notes procedure. 68
3.8.5 Interview analysis procedure. 69
3.9 Research validity 71
3.10 Summary of Methodology 72
Chapter 4: Results 75
4.1 Introduction to Results 75
4.2 Research Question 1: How and in what ways do academic oral presentations skills develop and improve in a Blended Language Learning Environment? 76
4.2.1 Scores per group. 76
4.2.2 Observations from the videos 84
4.3 Research Question 2: What are students' perspectives on the BLLE for oral presentations in terms of performance, effort, social influence, and facilitating conditions? How can these students’ perspectives inform design and instruction in the BLLE? 85
4.3.1 Questionnaire results. 85
4.3.2 Interview results. 89
4.4 Reflection Cycle 1 92
4.5 Cycle 2 94
4.6 Results Cycle 2 94
4.6.1 Research question 1: How and in what ways do academic oral presentations skills develop and improve in a Blended Language Learning Environment? 94
4.6.2 Research question 2: What are students' perspectives on the BLLE for oral presentations in terms of performance, effort, social influence, and facilitating conditions? How can these students’ perspectives inform design and instruction in the BLLE? 104
4.6.3 Interview results cycle 2. 107
4.6.4 Interview Extracts. 108
4.6.5 Factors which influence how students develop and perform an academic oral presentation in the BLLE. 127
4.6.6 Analysis of Online and Classroom Observations cycle 2. 128
4.7 Summary of Results 130
Chapter 5: Discussion and Conclusion 135
5.1 Research Question 1: How and in what ways do academic oral presentations skills develop and improve in a Blended Language Learning Environment? 135
5.1.1 Presentation rubric. 135
5.1.2 Introduction section. 138
5.1.3 Organization of the presentation body. 143
5.1.4 Use of visuals. 145
5.1.5 Conclusion. 146
5.1.6 Non-verbal behavior. 147
5.1.7 Summary of question 1. 149
5.2 Research Question 2: What are students' perspectives on the BLLE for oral presentations in terms of performance, effort, social influence, and facilitating conditions? How can these students’ perspectives inform design and instruction in the BLLE? 151
5.2.1 Performance expectancy. 151
5.2.2 Effort expectancy. 154
5.2.3 Facilitating conditions. 158
5.2.4 Social influence. 161
5.2.5 Intention to use. 163
5.2.6 How Can These Students’ Perspectives Inform Design and Instruction in the BLLE? 163
5.2.5 Summary of research question 2. 167
5.3 Research Question 3. What are the factors that influence how students develop and perform an academic oral presentation in the BLLE? 170
5.3.1 Factor 1 Collaboration. 170
5.3.2 Factor 2. Instruction and performance. 172
5.3.3 Factor 3. Learning technology. 175
5.3.4 Factor 4 convenience. 178
5.3.5 Summary research question 3. 178
5.5 Limitations 179
5.6. Implications for instructors, students, instructional designers, and researchers 181
5.6.1 Instructors. 181
5.6.2 Students. 183
5.6.3 Instructional designers. 183
5.6.4 Researchers. 184
5.8 Contributions 185
5.9 Conclusion 186
Appendix A 203
Appendix B 205
Appendix C 207
Appendix D 208
Appendix E 209
Appendix F 211
Appendix G 212
Appendix H 214
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