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系統識別號 U0026-2507201716261700
論文名稱(中文) 對低於質感辨識閾值於螢幕背景上之色彩適應反應時間
論文名稱(英文) The Reaction Time of Color Adaptation for Screen Background below the Threshold of Texture Legibility
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 工業設計學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Industrial Design
學年度 105
學期 2
出版年 106
研究生(中文) 曾朝源
研究生(英文) Chao-Yuan Tseng
學號 P38991034
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 108頁
口試委員 指導教授-吳豐光
口試委員-宋同正
口試委員-唐硯漁
口試委員-陳建旭
口試委員-賴新喜
口試委員-蔡登傳
口試委員-陳潔瑩
口試委員-林彥呈
口試委員-洪郁修
中文關鍵字 不同照度  色彩閾值  色彩適應  可視質感 
英文關鍵字 Different Illumination  Color Threshold  Color Adaptation  Texture Legibility 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究針對人數比例較高的色覺可視性有障礙者(紅綠色盲)及視覺正常者兩群體,試著以兩種不同照度(正常日光照度D65、低照度)的條件下,進行研究探討其有關色彩適應對質感辨識閾值背景的可視性,進而找出彼此互不影響的色彩閾值或質感。主要以基礎螢幕色光的色彩應用如紅、綠、青、黃等色彩,搭配與量測視力有關的Landolt ring,及質感可視的大小、間距做為試驗用刺激物構成,同時採行心理物理學法的理論方式來進行有關實驗。
整個實驗過程先做了兩項前測實驗調查,在第一項前測實驗裡,從10位受測者(5位色覺障礙者-色盲 (Color Vision Deficiency, CVD),5位正常色覺者(Normal Color Vision, NCV)),我們找出其個別的紅色視覺閾值及可視的圖形尺寸關係,分別為CVD:RGB(234,0,21)與NCV:RGB(223,0,32),質感圖形尺寸數值為2.5′(0.436mm)與質感圖形間距為2.5′(0.436mm)。在另一項可視性績效檢測實驗裡,利用螢幕色光:紅色、綠色、青色和黃色這四種背景顏色的適應配合Landolt ring的缺口值尺寸變化,可知當Landolt ring缺口值為3.33′(0.678mm)進行,該刺激物顏色的差異會較顯著。整合兩個前測實驗結果,再規劃出與質感閾值可視性有關的兩項新實驗,受測者為NCV共20位(男女各半)。在新實驗一的質感閾值刺激物構成(背景色 - Landolt ring色)有四種類型,Type 1: RGB(255,0,0) - RGB(234,0,21), Type 2: RGB(255,0,0) - RGB(223,0,32), Type 3: RGB(234,0,21) - RGB(255,0,0) 與 Type 4: RGB(223,0,32) - RGB(255,0,0);新實驗二的質感閾值刺激物構成(前景質感色 - 背景色 - Landolt ring色) 則有六種類型,Type 1: RGB(234,0,21) - RGB(223,0,32) - RGB(255,0,0), Type 2: RGB(223,0,32) - RGB(234,0,21) - RGB(255,0,0), Type 3: RGB(223,0,32) - RGB(255,0,0) - RGB(234,0,21), Type 4: RGB(255,0,0) - RGB(223,0,32) - RGB(234,0,21), Type 5: RGB(234,0,21) - RGB(255,0,0) - RGB(223,0,32) 與 Type 6: RGB(255,0,0) - RGB(234,0,21) - RGB(223,0,32)。
研究結果顯示:(I)以CVD與NCV的紅色閾值應用在Landolt ring時的可視性,對NCV而言,RGB(223,0,32)的閾值是具有顯著的。(II)具有質感圖形尺寸與間距的設定構成及配合Landolt ring時,總可視性平均反應時間在低照度環境時比D65環境照度好。將NCV及CVD紅色閾值兩種色彩各自做為背景色、前景色(Texture Dot)、或Landolt ring色彩時,可以得知以RGB(234,0,21)做為Landolt ring色彩時的可視性錯誤最多,可視性錯誤最少的則是以RGB(234,0,21)做為前景色(Texture Dot)。(III)以色彩適應後所做的可視性平均反應來看,可視性準確度100%的類型在D65環境與低照度環境下經黃色色適應後的Type 5刺激物組合(該組合的前景色為:RGB(234,0,21)、背景色:RGB(255,0,0)、Landolt ring色;RGB(223,0,32))。
在具有質感的刺激物可視性上,當紅色色適應後彼此之間的可視性反應時間優劣關係為:Type 1, Type 5, Type 2 > Type 3, Type 6 > Type 4。當綠色色適應後彼此之間的可視性反應時間優劣關係為:Type 1, Type 5 > Type 2, Type 4 > Type 3, Type 6。當青色色適應後彼此之間的可視性反應時間優劣關係為:Type 1, Type 5 > Type 2, Type 3, Type 4 > Type 6。當黃色色適應後彼此之間的可視性反應時間優劣關係為:Type 1, Type 5 > Type 2, Type 4 > Type 3, Type 6。
因此依據本研究結果,建議倘若要選用紅色色系配色時,可以運用本研究建議的色彩組合,在配色建議上:若為單純紅色閾值的配色刺激物時,文字或圖形色為RGB(223,0,32)與背景色RGB(255,0,0)的組合;另一種則為具有質感的組合,即前景色為:RGB(234,0,21)、背景色:RGB(255,0,0)、刺激物文字或圖形色;RGB(223,0,32),CVD可以增加對顏色圖像辨識度,且對NCV亦不會造成影響,讓CVD與NCV雙方皆可以在不影響可視性程度下,對物件得到正確的可視性結果。
英文摘要 This study explored, under two different illumination conditions (normal daylight at D65 and low illumination), how chromatic adaptation affected the legibility, texture recognition of background threshold and then found the color threshold or texture that would not affect each other for those with color vision deficiency (CVD) and those who had normal color vision (NCV). The study mainly used the basic screen colors such as red, green, cyan and yellow and the Landolt ring system, associated with vision measurement, and formed them into experiment stimulus with different sizes and spacing, while adopting the psychophysical approach to carry out the related experiment.
There were two preliminary experiments. In one of them, we found the red visual thresholds and visible pattern sizes for the 10 test subjects (5 participants with color vision deficiency, or CVD, and 5 with normal color vision, or NCV) and they were CVD: RGB(234, 0, 21) and NCV: RGB(223, 0, 32), while the size for the texture pattern was 2.5' (0.436mm) and the pitch or spacing was 2.5' (0.436mm). In the experiment for legibility performance, the red, green, cyan and yellow backgrounds were tested with changes in the gap size of Landolt ring, and it was learned that when the gap value was 3.33' (0.678mm), the difference in the stimulus color would be more significant. We compiled the results from the two preliminary experiments and organized another two new experiments for the legibility of texture threshold, with 20 people in the NCV group (10 men and 10 women). For the new experiment I, there were four compositions of stimulus with texture threshold (background color - Landolt ring color) and they were Type 1: RGB(255,0,0) - RGB(234,0,21), Type 2: RGB(255,0,0) - RGB(223,0,32), Type 3: RGB(234,0,21) - RGB(255,0,0) and Type 4: RGB(223,0,32) - RGB(255,0,0). For experiment II, there were six compositions of stimulus with texture threshold (texture dot - background color - Landolt ring color) and they were Type 1: RGB(234,0,21) - RGB(223,0,32) - RGB(255,0,0), Type 2: RGB(223,0,32) - RGB(234,0,21) - RGB(255,0,0), Type 3: RGB(223,0,32) - RGB(255,0,0) - RGB(234,0,21), Type 4: RGB(255,0,0) - RGB(223,0,32) - RGB(234,0,21), Type 5: RGB(234,0,21) - RGB(255,0,0) - RGB(223,0,32) and Type 6: RGB(255,0,0) - RGB(234,0,21) - RGB(223,0,32).
The results of the study showed that, (I) In terms of the legibility of red threshold of CVD and NCV applied to Landolt ring, NCV's threshold at RGB(223,0,32) was significant. (II) With the proper configuration of size and spacing for textured patterns and Landolt ring, the total mean response time for legibility in a low illumination environment is better than that of the D65 environment. We used the red thresholds of NCV and CVD separately as the background color, texture dot and Landolt ring color and learned that RGB(234,0,21) as Landolt ring offered the most errors while RGB(234,0,21) as the texture dot offered the least errors. (III) As for the mean response time of legibility after chromatic adaptation, Type 5 stimulus combination (texture dot: RGB(234,0,21), background color: RGB(255,0,0), Landolt ring color: RGB(223,0,32) after yellow adaptation provided the best visual acuity in D65 environment and low illumination environment.
As for the legibility of textured stimulus, the response times after red color adaptation were ranked at Type 1, Type 5, Type 2 > Type 3, Type 6 > Type 4. As for the cases after green color adaptation, the order was ranked at Type 1, Type 5 > Type 2, Type 4 > Type 3, Type 6. For the cyan color adaptation, the order was Type 1, Type 5 > Type 2, Type 3, Type 4 > Type 6. For the yellow color adaptation, the order was Type 1, Type 5 > Type 2, Type 4 > Type 3, Type 6.
Based on the results of this study, it is recommended to use the following color combinations when red is chosen as part of the composition: for stimulus with just the red threshold, the combination is having the texts and patterns at RGB(223,0,32) and background color RGB(255,0,0). For stimulus with texture, the texture dot RGB(234,0,21), background color RGB(255,0,0) and the texts or patters for the stimulus is RGB(223,0,32). These can improve the legibility of colored pattern for CVD without affecting NCV, so that both CVD and NCV can obtain the correct legibility results while the legibility is not affected.
論文目次 中文摘要 I
ABSTRACT III
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS V
CONTENTS VI
LIST OF TABLES IX
LIST OF FIGURES XI
GLOSSARY XIII
CHAPTER 1 – INTRODUCTION 1
1.1. Background and Motivation 1
1.2. Objectives 2
1.3. Research Scope 4
1.4. Research Structure 5
CHAPTER 2 - LITERATURES REVIEW 7
2.1. About Chromatic Theory 7
2.1.1. Color Vision and Visual Adaptability 8
2.1.2. Visual Acuity and Color Vision Deficiency (CVD) 9
2.1.3. Visual Adaptation to the Environment 12
2.2. The Legibility and Adaptation of Visual Texture 13
2.2.1. The Legibility of Visual Texture 13
2.2.2. The Adaptation of Visual Texture 15
2.3. Design of color applications 16
2.3.1. Display Elements and Visual Communication 17
2.3.2. Visual Performance Evaluation and Experimental Methods 18
2.4. SUMMARY 20
CHAPTER 3 – METHODS 22
3.1. PSYCHOPHYSICS 22
3.2. Preliminary Experiment 1:The Composition of Visual and Colors Texture Legibility for Color Vision Deficiency (CVD) 23
3.2.1. Experimental Purpose 24
3.2.2. Experimental Methods and Process 24
3.2.3. The Result of Preliminary Experiment 1 26
3.2.4. Summary 29
3.3. Preliminary Experiment 2:The Chromatic Adaptation of Three Primary on LED Display 30
3.3.1. Experimental Purpose and Methods 30
3.3.2. Experimental Procedure and Results 32
3.3.3. Summary 34
3.4. Discussion of Preliminary Experimental Results 34
3.5. Submit New Hypothesis 35
3.5.1. Red Texture Threshold Setting of Application Hypothesis 35
3.5.2. Texture Size and Pitch Distance Setting of Application Hypothesis 36
3.5.3. The Color Background of the Screen and the Ambient Illumination Setting of Application Hypothesis 37
3.6. Main Experimental Procedures 38
3.6.1. Experimental Equipment and Field Planning 39
3.6.2. Restriction of the Participants 41
3.6.3. Experiment I:Red Color Texture Threshold for Interactive Detection of Visual Performance 42
3.6.4. Experiment II:Visual Performance testing of Color Adaptation with Texture 44
3.6.5. Experimental Evaluation Method 45
CHAPTER 4 – RESULTS 47
4.1. Experiment I: Analysis of Interactive Detection Visual Performance for Red Color Texture Threshold 47
4.1.1. Results of Descriptive Statistics 48
4.1.2. One-Way ANOVA for Three Red Colors of Landolt Ring 50
4.1.3. Independent Samples One-Way ANOVA for Red Thresholds of CVD and NCV as the Color of Landolt ring 52
4.1.4. Independent Samples One-Way ANOVA for Red Thresholds of CVD and NCV as the Background Color 53
4.1.5. Analysis of Subjective Cognitive Results for Experiment I 54
4.1.6. Summary 55
4.2. Experiment II: Visual Performance Analysis of Color Adaptation for Textured Images 55
4.2.1. Results of Descriptive Statistics 55
4.2.2. Independent Samples One-Way ANOVA for Visual Performance of Textured Images and Color Adaptation 59
4.2.3. Repeated Measures One-Way ANOVA for Visual Performance of Textured Images and Color Adaptation 61
4.2.4. One-Way ANOVA for Reaction Time of Legibility after Color Adaptation 62
4.2.5. One-Way ANOVA for Stimulus after Color Adaptation 64
4.2.6. Subjective Cognitive Results 71
4.2.7. Summary 73
CHAPTER 5 - DISCUSSION 74
5.1. Subjective Cognitive Results and Differences for Main Experiment 74
5.2. Visual Legibility Accuracy for the Directionality of Color Texture and Stimulus Samples 75
5.3. Summary 76
CHAPTER 6 - CONCLUSION 79
REFERENCES 81
APPENDIX I. Subjective Cognitive Survey Questionnaire 89
APPENDIX II. The SPSS Statistics Results of Main Experiment I 95
APPENDIX III. The SPSS Statistics Results of Main Experiment II 98
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