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系統識別號 U0026-2507201712174400
論文名稱(中文) 利用GPS連續站觀測資料探討澎湖地區地殼變形
論文名稱(英文) Crustal Deformation of Penghu Area from GPS observations
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 地球科學系碩士在職專班
系所名稱(英) Department of Earth Sciences (on the job class)
學年度 105
學期 2
出版年 106
研究生(中文) 韋立人
研究生(英文) Li-Jen Wei
電子信箱 s00147@mail.tut.edu.tw
學號 l47001055
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 73頁
口試委員 口試委員-楊耿明
口試委員-景國恩
指導教授-饒瑞鈞
中文關鍵字 澎湖  時間序列  應變  基線 
英文關鍵字 Penghu  Time-series  Strain  Baseline 
學科別分類
中文摘要 澎湖及台灣海峽地區長久以來被視為穩定大陸邊緣,然而澎湖群島位於台灣西部前陸盆地前凸起位置(周穎蔚,1999),澎湖地區是否會因前陸盆地的板塊重壓造成彎曲(bending)變形?本研究以台灣西部沿岸、澎湖、金門、馬祖地區共34個GPS連續站於2006年至2016年間的觀測資料,以ITRF2008做為參考框架,使用GAMIT/GLOBK軟體解算,將資料轉化為時間序列、應變、基線等方式來探討澎湖地區、澎湖與大陸沿岸(金門、馬祖地區)之間、澎湖與台灣西部沿岸之間的形變。
利用時間序列相對地心方式將澎湖、金門、馬祖區域各GPS連續站資料重疊觀察,顯示區域內各GPS連續站均朝東南向移動,方位角在109˚至102˚之間,誤差介於0.01 mm/yr至0.03mm/yr之間,去掉斜率後觀察各區域變化並不顯著;利用應變方式觀察澎湖地區整體呈現微量伸張型態,澎湖地區西半部主應變率在0.11~0.17 μstrain/yr之間,呈現東西向伸張型態;澎湖地區東半部主應變率在-0.06~-0.04 μstrain/yr之間,呈東西及東北-西南向擠壓型態。使用基線方式觀測S01R(白沙)站及PANG(澎湖)站相對於金門、馬祖區域,基線變化處於0.14 mm/yr至5.97 mm/yr之間,相對11年間變化並不顯著,以澎湖最西側WIAN(外垵)測站相對於金門、馬祖區域基線呈現伸張型態;觀測S01R相對於台灣西部沿岸連續站基線變化,基線變化為0.70 mm/yr至57.91 mm/yr之間。
由時間序列觀測澎湖、金門、馬祖區域地殼變化:去掉斜率後顯示11年間並無顯著變化,該區域仍視為穩定大陸邊緣;由應變方式檢視澎湖地區西半部呈現東西向伸張狀態,推論係前陸盆地板塊重壓彎曲(bending)張裂造成;澎湖區域東半部呈現擠壓推論是台灣造山運動往西延伸到澎湖群島東半部。利用基線方式檢視S01R及PANG相對大陸沿岸地區(金門、馬祖地區)觀測11年間幾乎沒有變化,顯示出澎湖地區相對於中國大陸邊緣仍屬於穩定被動大陸邊緣型態,亦發現S01R與PANG資料重疊後其移動類型相似而無顯著變化,推論兩站均可作為研究歐亞板塊及菲律賓板塊相互運動的基準測站;利用基線方式檢視澎湖相對於台灣西部沿岸之間整體呈現擠壓型態,主要縮短方向在在於台灣西南部,推論台灣造山運動一直往西延伸至台灣西部沿岸與澎湖之間。
英文摘要 SUMMARY
Through GPS observations, this study explored the effect of the descending plate load from Western Taiwan Foreland Basin on the crustal deformation of Penghu area. The study analyzed the Time-series, Strain, and Baseline from 34 stations located among Taiwan, Kinmen, and Matsu, from the year 2006 to 2016. Results from Time-series showed that there were no significant changes among those areas. Results from Strain showed that the descending plate load from Western Taiwan Foreland Basin resulted in the extension of the western part of Penghu. Additionally, the eastern part of Taiwan showed compression due to the orogeny in Taiwan. Results from Baseline showed that no significant changes among Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu. However, the distance between Penghu and the western part of Taiwan shortened, especially for the distance between Penghu and the south-western part of Taiwan.

INTRODUCTION

Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu areas have long been regarded as stable Chinese continental margins; however, Penghu is located at the forebulge of western Taiwan foreland basin (Chou, 1999). Therefore, it is still unclear if the descending plate load from Western Taiwan foreland basin would cause plate bending to the Penghu area.



MATERIALS AND METHOD

The current research discusses the changes in coastlines among Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu by methods including Time-series, Strain, Baseline etc. from data collected from 34 GPS stations located in those areas between 2006 and 2016.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Based on Time-series, the results of the GPS stations from Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu areas showed that all the GPS stations moved toward south-eastern side and Azimuth was between 109˚ to 102˚. However, after the deduction of the slope, the changes were not statistically significant. The results from Strain showed that the Penghu area was mildly extended with the -0.06~-0.04 μstrain/yr Strain rate at eastern Penghu, demonstrating the compressional trend from East to West and from North-East to South-West. The Strain rate at western Penghu was between 0.11~0.17 μstrain/yr, indicating an East-to-West extension. Results from S01R station and PANG station based on Baseline showed that, relatively to Kinmen and Matsu, the baseline change was between 0.14 mm/yr to 5.97 mm/yr. The changes among the eleven years were not statistically significant. Relatively to Kinmen and Matsu, Baseline from the WIAN station at the west-most Penhu increased. The baseline change among the S01R station and other stations alongside the west coast of Taiwan showed decreases between 0.70 mm/yr to 57.91 mm/yr.

Based on Time-series, the deformation of Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu areas among the eleven years were not statistically significant after the deduction of the slope. The results of Strain showed that the western part of Penghu stretched toward east and west. This tendency might be caused by the descending plate load from western Taiwan foreland basin. The eastern part of Penghu demonstrated mild compression. This tendency might be caused by the orogeny in Taiwan, which extended to islands at the eastern part of Penghu.

The results from baselines showed that the changes of S01R and PANG were not statistically significant, showing that, in comparison to the Chinese continental margin, Penghu still belonged to the category of stable Chinese continental margin. In addition, the results from S01R and PANG showed that their movements were similar and are without noticeable differences. It can be inferred that the two stations could both serve as the baseline stations for research pertaining to Eurasian Plate and Philippine Sea Plate. The distances between the west-most WIAN station in Penghu and the area baselines in Kinmen and Matsu increased. This tendency might be caused by the descending plate load from western Taiwan foreland basin. Additionally, the baseline between Penghu and the eastern coast of Taiwan shortened. This shortage was the most obvious between Penghu and the south-eastern part of Taiwan. It can be inferred that the orogeny in Taiwan extended toward the west coast of Taiwan and between Taiwan and Penghu. Due to the blockage effect of the rigid Peikang High, the movement turned to south-west side.

CONCLUSION

The conclusions of the study are as follows:
1. Based on the results from Time-series, Kinmen, Penghu and Matsu areas still belonged to the category of stable Chinese continental margin. Based on the results of Strain, the western part of Penghu stretched, due to the descending plate load from Western Taiwan Foreland Basin. The eastern part of Penghu showed mild compression due to the orogeny at the east coast of Taiwan.
2. Based on the result from the observation of the baselines, Kinmen, Penghu and Matsu areas still belonged to the category of stable Chinese continental margin. S01R and PANG could both serve as the baseline stations. In comparison to Kinmen and Matsu areas, WIAN stations increased. This might be caused by the descending plate load from western Taiwan foreland basin.
3. Based on the result from Baselines, the distance between Penghu and the coast lines of the western part of Taiwan shortened. The shortage mainly occurred at the south-eastern part of Taiwan, showing that the orogeny in Taiwan extended to the area between the western coast of Taiwan and Penghu.

論文目次 中文摘要…………………………………………………...........……………………….....I
Extended Abstract………………………..………….......…………………...………III
誌謝…………………………………………………………………………..…...VI
目錄………………………………………...…………………………………...... VII
表目錄………………………………………………………………..…………VIII
圖目錄………………………………………………………………………..…….IX


第一章、緒論……………………………………………………………………..….1
1.1、研究動機…………………………………………………………..1
1.2、前人研究………………………………………………..…………3
第二章、研究區域地質背景…………………………………………..……………9
2.1、台灣海峽地區地質與地貌…………………………..……………9
2.2、澎湖地區地質與地貌…………………………..………………..11
第三章、資料來源及研究方法…………………..……………….……………….13
3.1、GPS資料來源……….………….……………..……………….…13
3.2、GPS時間序列……………….…………………………..…….….15
3.3、GPS應變場……….……………..……………………………..…16
3.4、GPS基線…………….……………..…………………………..…19
第四章、研究結果………...………………………..…………………………..…20
4.1、金門、馬祖、澎湖時間序列及澎湖、台灣海峽應變分析……..20
4.2、澎湖相對於金門、馬祖地區基線變化………………………….42
4.3、澎湖相對於台灣西部沿岸基線變化…………………………….55
第五章、討論………………………………………..…………………………..…66
第六章、結論………………………………………..…………………………..…69
參考文獻…………………………..……………………………………………….71
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