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系統識別號 U0026-2507201601350900
論文名稱(中文) 台灣海域某水驅型氣層生產歷史之模擬研究
論文名稱(英文) Simulation Study of Production History of a Water-Drive Gas Reservoir in Offshore Taiwan
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 資源工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Resources Engineering
學年度 104
學期 2
出版年 105
研究生(中文) 賴彥廷
研究生(英文) Yen-Ting Lai
學號 N46034099
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 92頁
口試委員 口試委員-林再興
口試委員-楊耿明
口試委員-陳大麟
口試委員-吳榮章
指導教授-謝秉志
中文關鍵字 水驅  數值模擬  海域氣層 
英文關鍵字 water-drive  numerical simulation  offshore gas reservoir 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究的目的以數值模擬法研究台灣海域已生產之水驅型氣層之再生產評估,本研究以C氣層做為案例並且建立地質模型和數值模式,並對 C氣層C-W區塊進行歷史調諧。研究中主要進行: (1)地質資料、儲集層參數、流體成份和生產資料蒐集;(2) 生產井之天然氣成份PVT性質分析;(3) 歷史調諧。歷史調諧主要是透過控制地層及流體參數並且加入水侵模式而達到最佳之調諧效果。
歷史調諧後獲得一個可信賴數值模型,數值模擬得到其原始氣體埋藏量約有22.29億立方公尺天然氣和25%的採收率,根據剩餘天然氣分佈圖,本研究針對此水驅型氣層提出新的增產評估,預期C氣層可再額外生產約3.4億立方公尺天然氣,可增加的採收率為17%。
英文摘要 The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of a produced water-drive gas reservoir in offshore Taiwan by reservoir simulation. The geological and numerical models for the C gas field case study were built and the history matching on the C gas field C-W block was performed. The major steps in the case study were: (1) gathering the geology, geophysics, PVT experiment, and production data, (2) studying the PVT behavior of a nature gas sample from the production well, and (3) history matching. The history matching was done via trial and error by modifying specific reservoir properties, performing end point scaling and modeling the aquifer support in the system.
After the history matching, a reliable numerical model was constructed. The reservoir simulation estimated that the Original Gas in Place was about 2,229 MMSCM and the gas recovery was 25%. Based on the distribution of remaining in-site gas, we propose a new production project for optimizing production from this water drive gas reservoir. Given the designed operation, the C gas field can be produced more 340 MMSCM of gas and predicted extra recovery is about 17%.
論文目次 Contents
Abstract-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------I
中文摘要--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------II
致謝--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------III
Contents---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IV
List of Tables------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- VII List of Figures------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VIII
Nomenclature------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------XI
Chapter 1 Introduction------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
1.1 Background ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
1.2 Motivation------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3
1.3 Purpose----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4
Chapter 2 Literature review------------------------------------------------------------------------------5
2.1 The gas recovery of water-drive gas reservoir-------------------------------------------------5
2.2 Coproduction---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6
2.3 History matching-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------7
2.4 Summary of the literature review----------------------------------------------------------------8
Chapter 3 Methodology----------------------------------------------------------------------------------9
3.1 Numerical simulation----------------------------------------------------------------------------9
3.1.1 Composition model -------------------------------------------------------------------------9
3.1.2 Conservation of mass-----------------------------------------------------------------------10
3.1.3 Darcy’s law for multi-compositional flow-----------------------------------------------11
3.1.4 Constraint equations------------------------------------------------------------------------12
3.1.5 Equation of state (EOS) of the Fluid------------------------------------------------------13
3.1.6 Jacobian matrix for the pressure equation -----------------------------------------------15
3.1.7 Compositional and saturations------------------------------------------------------------17
3.1.8 Solution method-----------------------------------------------------------------------------18
3.1.9 Implicit treatment of the flow equation of the reservoir--------------------------------18
3.1.10 Well model----------------------------------------------------------------------------------20
3.2 Aquifer model by Fetkovich-------------------------------------------------------------------21
Chapter 4 Case study------------------------------------------------------------------------------------23
4.1 Reservoir description----------------------------------------------------------------------------23
4.2 Geological, engineering, and fluid experimental data-----------------------------------25
4.2.1 Reservoir type-------------------------------------------------------------------------------34
4.2.2 Engineering data----------------------------------------------------------------------------37
4.2.3 Production data------------------------------------------------------------------------------38
4.3 Reservoir simulation-----------------------------------------------------------------------------40
4.3.1 Reservoir grid--------------------------------------------------------------------------------40
4.3.2 Fluid property and characterization-----------------------------------------------------40
4.3.3 Reservoir rock property--------------------------------------------------------------------45
4.3.4 Well locations and completions data------------------------------------------------------48
4.3.5 Aquifer size and strength ------------------------------------------------------------------49
4.4 Numerical model construction------------------------------------------------------------------49
4.5 Sensitivity analysis-------------------------------------------------------------------------------52
4.6 History matching---------------------------------------------------------------------------------53
4.6.1 Parameters that can be changed to history matching-----------------------------------53
4.6.2 Matching gas and oil production----------------------------------------------------------54
4.6.3 Matching water production----------------------------------------------------------------55
4.6.4 History matching of well C-12------------------------------------------------------------56
4.6.5 History matching of well C-18------------------------------------------------------------58
4.6.6 History matching of well C-19------------------------------------------------------------60
4.6.7 History matching of well C-20------------------------------------------------------------62
4.7 Summary------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------65
Chapter 5 Discussions-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------67
5.1 Selection of the type of re-production for the C-W block-----------------------------------71
Chapter 6 Conclusions----------------------------------------------------------------------------------76
References------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------78
Appendix A ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------81
Appendix B ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------87
Appendix C ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------91
參考文獻 References
Agarwal, R.G., Al-Hussainiy, R., Ramey, H.J., 1965. The Importance of Water Influx in Gas Reservoirs. Paper SPE 1244, presented at SPE Annual Fall Meeting held in Denver (3-6 October).

Arco, D. P. and Bassiouni, Z.; (1987), ‘The Technical and Economic Feasibility of Enhanced Gas Recovery in the Eugene Island Field by Use of Coproduction Technique’, Louisiana State University, Journal of Petroleum Technology’, May 1987, USA, Pp. 58-590.

Charles, S. R; Tracy, S. W. and Farrar, R. L; (1999), “Applied Reservoir Engineering, Vol. 1, OGCI Publications, Oil and Gas Consultants International, Inc. U.S.A. Pp. 5-77 to 5-22

Givens, J. W; (1968), ‘A Practical Two-Dimensional Model for Simulating Dry Gas Reservoir with Bottom Water Drive’, Continental Oil Co., Houston, Texas, SPE Symposium on Numerical Simulation of Reservoir Performance held in Dallas, Texas, April 22-23, 1968, Pp. 1229-1232.

Cohen, M. F.:”Recovery Optimization in a Bottom/Edge Water-drive Gas reservoir, Soehlingen Schneverdingen”, SPE 19068, SPE Gas Technology Symposium held in Dallas, Texas, 7-9 June 1989.

Computer Modelling Group, User’s Guide Winprop Phase Property Program, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 2012.

Computer Modelling Group, User’s Guide GEM Advanced Compositional Reservoir Simulator, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 2012.

Walt Dobbs et al.: “SPE 145070 Coupled Surface/Subsurface Simulation of an Offshore K2 Field”, SPE Reservoir Characterisation and Simulation Conference, 11 October 2011 (2011-10-11).

El-Ahmady, M.H., Wattenbarge, R.A., and Pham, T. T.:”Over-estimation of Original Gas In Place in Water-Drive Gas Reservoirs Due to a Misleading Linear p/z Plot”, paper 2001-77 presented at Canadian International Petroleum Conference 2001, Calgary, June 12-14, 2001.

Faizan Ali :”Importance of water Influx and waterflooding in Gas condensate reservoir” Master dissertation, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 2014.

Fevang, Ø.:” Gas condensate flow behavior and sampling,” PhD dissertation, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 1995.

Fetkovitch, M.J., “A Simplified Approach to Water Influx Calculations- Finite
Aquifer Systems,” Journal of Petroleum Technology, Vol. 23, p.8 4-828, 97 .

Firoozabadi, A.; Olsen, G. and Golf-Racht, V. T, (1987), ‘Residual Gas Saturation in Water-Drive Gas Reservoir’, SPE California Regional Meeting held in Ventura, California, April 8-10, 1987, USA, Pp. 1-4 (319-322)

Geffen, T.M., Parrish, D.R., Haynes, G.W. and Morse, R.A.: “ Efficiency of Gas Displacement From Porous Media by Liquid Flooding.” Trans., AIME (1952) 195, 29

Hoffman, B. T., Jef, K. C., Xian-Huan, W. & Sebastien, B. S. 2006. A Practical Data Integration Approach to History Matching: Application to a Deepwater Reservoir. SPE Journal 11 (4): pp. 464-479. 10.2118/95557-pa.

Hower, T. L. and Jones, R. E.: “Predicting recovery of gas reservoirs under Waterdrive Conditions”, SPE 22937, SPE 66th Annual Conference and Exhibition held in Dallas, TX, 6-9 October 1991.

Layne, M.A., Numbere, D. T. and Koederitz, L. F.:” Future Performance Prediction for Water Drive Gas Reservoirs,” paper SPE 26669 presented at the 1993 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 3-6 October.

Matthew, J. D., Hawes, R. I. and Lock, T. P,: (1988) “ Feasibility Studies of water flooding Gas Condensate Reservoir”, JPT, Pp. 1049-1056

Nghiem, L.X. , Fong, D. and Aziz, K., 1981. Compositional Modeling with an Equation of State, SPEJ, VOL. 21, BO. 6, pp. 687-698

Peng D.Y. and Robinson, D. B., 1976 A New Two-Constant Equation of State, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Fundamentals, 1976, 15(1), pp. 59-64

Rogers, L. A.; (1984), ‘Test of Secondary Gas Recovery by Coproduction of Gas and Water form Mt. Selman Field, Texas’, SPE/DOE/GRI 12865, Unconventional Gas Recovery Symposium held in Pittsburgh, P. A., May 13-15, 1984, Pp. 331-335.
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