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系統識別號 U0026-2507201415342000
論文名稱(中文) 分散式太陽能系統之最大功率追蹤器開發
論文名稱(英文) Development of a Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller for the Distributed PV System
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 系統及船舶機電工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Systems and Naval Mechatronic Engineering
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 連品鈞
研究生(英文) Pin-Chun Lien
學號 P16011208
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 93頁
口試委員 指導教授-趙儒民
口試委員-施明璋
口試委員-劉軒誠
中文關鍵字 分散式太陽能系統  太陽能最大功率追蹤  二次式極值演算法  直流-直流電壓轉換器  微控制器 
英文關鍵字 distributed photovoltaic system  distributed maximum power point tracking  quadratic maximization method  DC-DC converter  microcontroller 
學科別分類
中文摘要 分散式太陽能系統為了要解決集中式在遮蔽狀況下能源損失的問題,會在各片太陽能板的輸出端接上一個DC-DC Converter,並透過MPPT主控制器對其控制操作電壓,進行最大功率點追蹤(MPPT),再做串並聯輸出,優點是當某片太陽能板故障時,不會影響到其他各片的功能。一般的分散式太陽能系統是以一個高階中央控制器(如NI sbRIO-9606)負責所有工作,本研究是使用三個微控制器的搭配,設計一個與sbRIO-9606功能相同的MPPT主控制器:使用PIC32與W5100取代嵌入式計算功能,進行MPPT與網路通訊功能;使用Propeller取代FPGA功能,與各片DC-DC Converter進行資料交換。以低成本的優勢取代掉成本較高的高階控制器,並且經過測試系統穩定性及最大功率追蹤效果後,能以模組化大量生產,降低整個系統成本。本研究所設計出的MPPT主控制器具有自給式的電源供應電路,不需要額外供電,在市場上具有競爭性。
研究中,使用LabVIEW軟體,針對太陽能板在不同日照強度以及背板溫度的特性曲線進行模擬,以測試MPPT控制器是否能穩定的追蹤到最大功率點;接著使用太陽能模擬器模擬日照下的特性曲線及電壓電流輸出,並搭配自製的功率優化器,驗證系統之可行性。
系統實測時分成兩個階段:先使六組模擬訊號及兩片多晶矽太陽能板對鉛酸電池充電進行分散式架構測試,確認MPPT主控制器的調變能力、追蹤效果及系統穩定性;接著再以八片多晶矽太陽能板進行分散式實驗,測試在長時間運作下的發電情形,驗證本研究開發出的MPPT主控制器之功能符合需要。
英文摘要 In order to solve the problems of partial shading effect on the centralized photovoltaic system, a distributed photovoltaic system is proposed by setting up a DC-DC converter on each solar panel output terminal and a MPPT controller adjusting the reference voltage to do maximum power point tracking. In this system, even with certain panel breakdown, other panels can also operate at maximum power point. In general, a distributed photovoltaic system usually uses a high-level central controller responsible for all calculations, including the MPPT operation, PI regulation control and data collection. This research intends to use three micro-controllers designing a distributed MPPT controller which has the same function with the high-level central controller. As a result, the cost is reduced for the entire distributed PV system. Moreover, the proposed distributed MPPT controller takes advantage of the PV power directly, therefore the convenience and low price will make this work more competitive in the market.
During the course of simulation, this work uses LabVIEW to simulation the control variables and also acts as a digital PV panels. For real electricity output, the solar power is generated by the Solar Array Simulator. Then the distributed MPPT controller is used to perform MPPT operation, and to test the MPPT efficiency and stability.
In the experimental part, this study first uses two polysilicon photovoltaic panels to charge the lead-acid battery for system function testing. Lastly, we use eight polysilicon photovoltaic panels connecting to the power grid to test the proposed distributed photovoltaic system for a longer period of time for system stability evaluation.
論文目次 目錄
摘要 I
Extended Abstract III
誌謝 VI
目錄 VII
表目錄 X
圖目錄 XI
符號表 XVI
第1章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究目的 3
1.3 文獻回顧 6
1.4 研究方法 9
1.5 論文架構 10
第2章 太陽能發電系統介紹 11
2.1 太陽能發電系統架構 11
2.1.1 集中式太陽能發電系統 11
2.1.2 分散式太陽能發電系統 12
2.2 太陽能板等效電路及特性曲線 14
2.3 直流-直流電壓轉換器原理 18
2.4 太陽能最大功率追蹤技術 21
2.4.1 最大功率追蹤架構 21
2.4.2 傳統最大功率追蹤演算法 22
2.4.3 二次式極值法 24
第3章 MPPT主控制器設計 27
3.1 MPPT主控制器設計架構 27
3.2 主控制器IC應用 28
3.2.1 PIC32中央控制晶片 28
3.2.2 Propeller八核心控制晶片 31
3.2.3 W5100網路通訊晶片 34
3.3 通訊架構 36
3.3.1 UART通訊協定 36
3.3.2 SPI通訊協定 39
3.3.3 TCP/IP網路通訊協定 43
3.4 主控制器電路測試、設計與製作 47
3.4.1 測試電路 47
3.4.2 系統通訊時間 52
3.4.3 自給式電源供應 53
3.4.4 電路設計與製作 54
第4章 分散式太陽能系統之MPPT模擬 60
4.1 模擬太陽能板輸出虛擬功率之DMPPT測試 60
4.1.1 系統測試架構及太陽能特性模擬 60
4.1.2 擾動觀察法模擬結果 63
4.1.3 二次式極值演算法模擬結果 64
4.2 SAS輸出實際功率之DMPPT測試 66
4.2.1 系統測試架構及太陽能特性模擬 66
4.2.2 擾動觀察法追蹤結果 68
4.2.3 二次式極值演算法追蹤結果 69
第5章 分散式太陽能系統之MPPT實測 71
5.1 太陽能發電與鉛酸電池充電之MPPT實測 71
5.1.1 系統實測架構 71
5.1.2 實測結果 72
5.2 太陽能發電與市電併聯型逆變器之MPPT實測 73
5.2.1 系統實測架構 73
5.2.2 實測結果 76
5.3 提升系統通訊速度測試 82
第6章 結論與建議 87
6.1 結論 87
6.2 建議與未來展望 89
參考文獻 90
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