||The Application of Conjoint Analysis on Consumer Preferences for Fruit Products of On-line shops
||Department of Business Administration (on the job class)
In Taiwan, multi-channels of agricultural products selling result to the deficiency of farmers’ income. Through Internet, the path from farmers to customers becomes shorter and farmers could enhance revenues. Along with the technology develops, it is prevalent that consumers shop with smart-phones today. Therefore, internet shopping grows rapidly with the convenience of portable devices. However, agricultural e-commerce in Taiwan develops slowly. The consumers are used to choosing agricultural goods on the spot. In 2014, a crisis of food safety aroused the public’s awareness of food resources. Agricultural products sold in on-line shops could offer customers more product information to reduce risks of contaminated food. As a preliminary research of agricultural e-commerce, fruit was chosen as the research objective. This study conducted conjoint analysis to inspect what attributes influence customers to purchase at fruit online shops. The results showed that customer review and product return occupied great importance on the consumers’ minds, and other attributes listed in sequence below: smoothness of shopping platform, farmhouse reputation, and exclusive discounts. Notably, discounts barely influence customers to buy fruits in on-line shops. According to results, fruit e-commerce owners should optimize the design of customer reviews, improve the service of product return, cooperate with honest farmers and maintain good quality of fruits. Therefore, it naturally creates web WOM which attracts more consumers to buy fruits from off-line to on-line.
According to the data of Market Intelligence & Consulting Institute, Taiwan's B2C online shopping market scale was expected to reach NT 413.9 billion in 2014, and maintained a high growth rate about 15% in the coming years. Along with the technology develops, it is prevalent that consumers shop with smart-phones today. The report also mentioned consumers’ future mobile shopping lists, and the top six categories included "activity tickets (41%), travel tickets (39.3%), 3C products (28.1%), food (23.3%), mobile games (22.1%), and clothing accessories (22%).” Although food selling is popular in internet shopping, agricultural e-commerce in Taiwan develops slowly. Agricultural products are easily damaged in the transportation, and the consumers in Taiwan are used to choosing agricultural goods on the spot. However, a crisis of food safety aroused the public’s awareness of food resources in 2014. With the transparency of Internet, agricultural products sold in on-line shops could offer customers more product information to reduce risks of contaminated food. On the other hand, multi-channels of agricultural products selling result to the deficiency of farmers’ income in Taiwan. Through Internet, the path from farmers to customers becomes shorter and farmers could enhance revenues.
From literatures, agricultural e-commerce encountered some plights and continued adjusting managements to cater for customers. When customers purchase fruits at on-line shops, some factors are taken into consideration. However, it is difficult to customize fruit on-line shops for individual because everyone has different needs. As a preliminary research of agricultural e-commerce, fruit was chosen as the research objective. The objective is to find out what specific attributes and factors of fruit on-lines shops can satisfy consumers.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This study conducted conjoint analysis, a technique used by marketing managers to gain an insight into consumers' preferences for products and services and to predict buyers’ behaviors, to distinguish what attributes customers favor when they buy fruits at on-line shops.
There were five steps in this study: (1) Collect attributes from the literatures. (2) Reduce the number of attributes by the pretest. (3) Design the formal questionnaire. (4) Verify and analyze the collected data. (5) Make conclusions and suggestions.
According to literatures, it could sort out nine attributes of fruit e-commerce at first and then reduce to five attributes through a pretest. The last five attributes included customer review, farmhouse reputation, smoothness of shopping platform, exclusive discounts and product return. Therefore, this study would utilize attributes listed above to design a formal questionnaire.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The results revealed that customer review was the most important attribute for customers when it came to buy fruits on on-line shops, and its importance percentage was 37.78%. It showed that customers doubted the quality of fruits and wanted to know more product information from other buyers. The second attribute customers preferred was product return with 31.95 importance percentage. It told that consumers cared the conveniences of product return because they feared they might receive damaged fruits. The third and fourth attribute were smoothness of shopping platform and farmhouse reputation, as well as their important percentage were 17.93% and 9.53% respectively. Smoothness of shopping platform meant the smoothness customers felt when they visited fruit on-line shops and finished their purchases. The result reflected customers favored user-friendly websites so that they could save time in internet shopping. Farmhouse reputation stood for how customers know the fruit shops and most customers would like to adopt the suggestions from their family or friends. The last attribute was exclusive discounts with 2.81 importance percentage. Unexpectedly, price discounts rarely influenced consumers. It was assumed that considering the fee of shipping, customers chose to buy fruits from internet for other reasons so price was not their main concern.
From the results, consumers valued customer reviews and product return service for fruit on-line shops. On the other hand, the attribute of exclusive discounts had least influence. It is unusual because on-line shoppers always pay attention to price promotion and avoid product return. It is assumed that fruit is not similar to the other standard goods and easily get damaged so that consumers care the conveniences of product return. As for the exclusive discounts, consumers can not feel price discounts because of the fee of shipping. For fruit internet sellers, they need to notice the managements of customer reviews, services of product return, and good quality of fruits and shopping websites. Therefore, it naturally creates web WOM which attracts more consumers to buy fruits from off-line to on-line.
Extended Abstract II
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 3
第二章 文獻探討 5
第一節 農產品電子商務 5
第二節 網路購物便利性 8
第三節 網路購物之消費者信任 11
第四節 網路購物之促銷 16
第五節 聯合分析法 19
第三章 研究方法 25
第一節 研究流程 25
第二節 屬性定義與衡量 26
第三節 屬性篩選 27
第四節 屬性水準定義與受測體的建立 30
第五節 統計分析方法 33
第四章 資料分析 35
第一節 樣本結構分析 35
第二節 在網路商店購買水果屬性偏好的聯合分析結果 37
第五章 結論與建議 76
第一節 研究結論 76
第二節 研究貢獻與管理意涵 81
第三節 未來研究之建議與方向 82
附錄一 前測問卷 88
附錄二 正式問卷 90
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