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系統識別號 U0026-2506201121181600
論文名稱(中文) 臺灣河川生態環境梯度與魚類群落之時空變異
論文名稱(英文) A Temporal and Spatial Study of the Relationships between Freshwater Fishes and Environmental Gradients in Taiwan
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 水利及海洋工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Hydraulics & Ocean Engineering
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 張霈瑩
研究生(英文) Pei-Ying Chang
學號 n86981113
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 111頁
口試委員 口試委員-邱郁文
口試委員-莊明德
指導教授-孫建平
中文關鍵字 河川生態  環境梯度  特有魚種  外來魚種  典型對應分析  時空變異 
英文關鍵字 River ecosystem  Environmental gradient  Endemic fish species  Invasion fish species  Canonical correspondence analysis  Temporal and spatial variation 
學科別分類
中文摘要 臺灣由於特殊之地理、地形及地質條件加上氣候之影響,使得臺灣的魚類具獨特性,且對環境擁有較強之適應能力。然而,近年來外來魚種的侵入與頻繁的人為活動,對魚類生存的河川生態環境受到衝擊。
本文研究目的在於探討河川環境梯度對魚類之關係,並以空間及時間尺度進行分析。本研究利用典型對應分析方法,同時考量環境因子、魚類及測站間之關聯性。研究結果顯示:(1) 在環境因子與特有魚種和外來魚種之關聯中顯示,特有魚種對棲地型態之依附性較外來魚種高,且部分外來魚種之豐度僅與單一環境因子呈現高度相關性,外來魚種於導電度之梯度範圍變化大,部分外來魚種之豐度無論探討之環境因子如何改變,皆僅與導電度呈高度正相關。特有魚種在淺瀨和淺流之棲地型態下魚類豐富度高;就底質粒徑而言,特有魚種之豐度與小漂石之相關性高。(2) 環境因子與測站間之關係¬¬,依河段之不同觀察出中游測站多為水面河道寬且濁度高之河川環境,而溶氧量較高之測站則以上游測站為主。以測站所屬之不同地理區而言,不同地理區所顯示對魚類豐度相關性高之環境因子各具不同。(3) 測站之時間變異以季節而論,測站於夏季時之變異性高於冬季,而對同一測站於不同調查時間而言,會因測站位於不同主支流及不同河段,變異方式均不相同。
近年來生態意識興起,水利工程也開始重視生態問題,本研究之研究結果將提供未來水利工程規劃、興建與整治時,在生物與人類需求之考量下,維護河川生態環境及魚類豐富度之參考依據。
英文摘要 In Taiwan, because of the extraordinary terms of geography, topography, geology and the influences of climate, there are unique characteristics of endemic fish species resilience to environmental variation. However, the recent issues of invasive species and human disturbance have made impacts to the river ecology. In order to examine the relationship between freshwater fishes and environmental gradients, the study conducted canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) to detect the general relationship among fish species, sampling sites and environmental variables (physical and chemical) on temporal and spatial scales.
The results revealed three parts respectively: (1) abundance of endemic fish species are associated with specific habitat types. Endemic fish species are habitat specialists in riffles/glides and cobble substrate, and abundance of invasive fish species are related to conductivity. (2) the sampling sites in respective geographic areas show their own environmental factors of high correlation to fish species’ abundance, and; (3) not only the sampling sites’ environment in summer shows more variability than in winter, but also for the same sampling sites’ environment it shows special terms’ variance in different geographic areas.
Following the rise of ecological consciousness in recent years, engineers have started to pay attention to ecological issues. This study can contribute to ecological water resources management by providing a reference of environmental fish association to make balance between human and nature, maintain river ecosystems, and protect the populations of endemic fish species.
論文目次 目 錄
摘 要 I
Abstract II
目 錄 IV
圖目錄 VII
表目錄 VI
第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究動機與目的 1
1.2 研究方法與流程 1
1.3 論文架構 2
第二章 文獻回顧 5
2.1 臺灣河川生態環境 5
2.2 河川環境對魚類的影響 8
2.3 魚類分類及監測 10
2.3.1 魚類分類 10
2.3.2 魚類監測 13
2.4 時空尺度 14
2.5 特有魚種的保護與外來魚種的入侵 20
2.6 梯度分析方法 23
第三章 研究方法與理論 28
3.1 河川環境調查內容 28
3.2 魚類調查方法 30
3.3 統計分析方法 31
第四章 研究地點與資料建置 35
4.1 資料庫之建置及選取 35
4.2 研究區域河川環境特性 39
4.3 魚類群落分佈 47
4.4 統計使用程序 49
第五章 結果與討論 52
5.1 環境因子與特有魚種和外來魚種之關係 57
5.2 環境因子與測站之關係 70
5.2.1 測站位於河川中不同河段 70
5.2.2 測站位於不同淡水魚動物地理區 74
5.3 測站之時間變異 77
第六章 結論與建議 87
6.1 結論 87
6.2 建議 89
參考文獻 90
附錄 98
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