||Research on Case Studies of Energy-Saving Technology Applications for Vessels
||Department of Systems and Naval Mechatronic Engineering
第二個案例是在小型船舶中實現以超級電容器做為儲能元件的系統，並提出預測超級電容模組等效電路的方法。此超級電容模組係由Maxwell BCAP3000-P270-T04單顆3000法拉或可由NessCap ESHSR-1600C0-002R7A5T單顆1600法拉，以串聯、並聯或串並聯組合而成，該模組等效電路參數係由零充電至額定電壓時，在超過30分鐘時間使其內部電荷再分佈，進而透過量測其端電壓來決定。由模擬與實驗驗證，本論文所提預測超級電容模組等效電路參數之方法是可行且有效的。藉由實船裝設測試結果，超級電容儲能系統搭配風力與太陽能發電，確實可以減少油耗，達到節能減碳之目的。
This dissertation presents three case studies of application on energy-saving technologies for sea-going vessels. The first case is to calculate the potential energy savings in ship’s cooling circuits based on a container vessel. A simulation model of frequency-controlled seawater (SW) pumps is proposed and has been verified by measurements. The SW pumps operating at a minimum frequency of 30 Hz have a maximum energy reduction of almost 79% under both full and partial load conditions when the SW intake is below 32°C. The frequency-controlled drive of the container vessel has a calculated return-on-investment period of only a few months.
The second case is to implement a supercapacitor-based energy storage system (SESS) on a small vessel and a method of predicting equivalent-circuit parameters for supercapacitor modules is presented. The module consists of a single supercapacitor made by Maxwell BCAP3000-P270-T04 with a capacitance of 3000 F and NessCap ESHSR-1600C0-002R7A5T with a capacitance of 1600 F in series, in parallel, or the combination of the both. The equivalent-circuit parameters are identified by charging the module from zero to the rated voltage and by measuring its terminal voltage during the internal charge redistribution over the time of 30 minutes. Simulations and experiments reveal that prediction of equivalent-circuit parameters for a supercapacitor module is feasible and effective. The measurement results shows the SESS installed in a vessel with wind and solar power can indeed reduce fuel consumption to achieve the purpose of energy conservation and carbon reduction.
Furthermore, the third case is to add power factor (PF) correction capacitors on two fishing vessels to increase energy efficiency since low PF of marine electrical systems due to motor loads is often overlooked. Three alternative methods for predicting alternator fuel consumption in vessels before and after adding PF correction capacitors are investigated, and results of the field verification effort are presented. In addition, the return-on-investment period for installing PF correction capacitors on two fishing vessels is analyzed to determine the critical parameters governing the economics of PF corrections in marine electrical systems. Test results show that the payback period for installing PF corrections will significantly depend on the number of alternator running hours per year and the price of fuel oils.
摘 要 i
誌 謝 iv
Table of Contents v
List of Tables vii
List of Figures viii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background and Motivation 1
1.2 Problem Description 2
1.3 Literature Review 3
1.4 Dissertation Contributions 5
1.5 Dissertation Overview 6
Chapter 2 Description of Three Case Studies 8
2.1 Introduction 8
2.2 Basic Concepts of a Ship Power System 8
2.3 Energy-Saving Strategies in Marine Electrical Systems 10
2.4 The Use of Green Power in Ships 12
2.5 Energy Savings with VFDs in a Ship’s Cooling Water System 14
2.6 Supercapacitor-based Energy Storage System 16
2.6.1 Principles and Characteristics of Supercapacitor Energy Storage 16
2.6.2 The Supercapacitor Modular Used in a Fishing Vessel 20
2.7 Energy Savings with PF Correction 21
2.7.1 Technologies for PF Improvement 21
2.7.2 Relationship of PF Correction and Energy Savings 22
2.7.3 Design Considerations for PF Correction Unit 24
2.8 Concluding Remarks 26
Chapter 3 Analysis of Energy Savings for Three Case Studies 27
3.1 Introduction 27
3.2 Model of the Small-Scale Ship’s Cooling Water System 27
3.2.1 Model of the 3-Way Valve with a PID Controller 27
3.2.2 Model of the Plate Heat Exchanger 29
3.2.3 Model of the Total Heat Load 31
3.3 Identification of Equivalent-Circuit Parameters for a DLC Module 32
3.3.1 Mathematical Model 32
3.3.2 Measurement of Supercapacitor Parameters 38
3.4 Economic Evaluation of PF Correction for Marine Electrical Systems 46
3.4.1 Predicting Alternator Fuel Consumption 46
3.4.2 Calculation of the Payback Period on PF Correction Unit 51
3.5 Concluding Remarks 52
Chapter 4 Results and Discussions 53
4.1 Introduction 53
4.2 Results of the First Case 53
4.2.1 Simulation Results 53
4.2.2 Implementation of Frequency-Controlled Cooling-Water Circuit 59
4.2.3 Measurement of Energy Savings 61
4.2.4 Rate of Return 65
4.3 Results of the Second Case 66
4.3.1 Verification of the Equivalent-Circuit Model 66
4.3.2 Implementation of the Designed SESS 70
4.3.3 Energy Savings and Rate of Return 74
4.4 Results of the Third Case 75
4.4.1 Field Test Results 75
4.4.2 Economic Evaluation of the PF Correction Unit 80
4.4.3 Economic and Sensitivity Analysis of the Implemented PF Correction Unit 87
4.5 Concluding Remarks 89
Chapter 5 Conclusions and Recommendations 91
5.1 Conclusions 91
5.2 Recommendations 92
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