系統識別號 U0026-2502202000464700
論文名稱(中文) 戴奧辛/呋喃之大氣沈降對台灣中部沿海水生生態系統之影響及其管理策略
論文名稱(英文) Influence and Management Strategies of Atmospheric Depositions of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans on the Aquatic Ecosystem in Central Taiwan Coast
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 海洋科技與事務研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Ocean Technology and Marine Affairs
學年度 108
學期 1
出版年 108
研究生(中文) 唐世宗
研究生(英文) Shih-Tsung Tang
學號 NA8011033
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 69頁
口試委員 指導教授-張懿
中文關鍵字 戴奧辛/呋喃  大氣沈降  沿海地區  水生生態系統  底泥  管理策略 
英文關鍵字 PCDD/Fs  atmospheric deposition  coastal area  aquatic ecosystem  sediment  management strategies 
中文摘要 本研究為調查大氣中戴奧辛/呋喃的乾濕沈降作用對台灣水生生態系統的潛在影響,乃於2013、2014年檢測台灣中部沿海地區水產養殖動物和底泥中17種戴奧辛/呋喃同系物的含量並進行探討。分析結果顯示台灣鯛、文蛤、鱸魚及牡蠣所測得戴奧辛/呋喃的平均總含量分別為0.432、0.671、0.244和0.727 pg g-1,總戴奧辛/呋喃毒性當量則分別為0.070、0.015、0.024和0.018 pg WHO2005-TEQ g–1。淺海底泥的總戴奧辛/呋喃含量72.63 ng kg-1遠高於魚塭底泥的29.53 ng kg-1,但淺海底泥的戴奧辛/呋喃毒性當量值為0.545 ng WHO2005-TEQ kg–1卻低於魚塭底泥的0.655 ng WHO2005-TEQ kg-1。結果並顯示淺海及魚塭之水生動物和底泥中戴奧辛/呋喃質量分佈主要由高氯數取代基之戴奧辛/呋喃(如OCDD和OCDF)佔優勢,毒性當量則以1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD和2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF等低氯數取代基之戴奧辛/呋喃為主。
經模擬結果,因大氣中戴奧辛/呋喃之沈降作用,將使淺海及魚塭表層10公分的底泥在30至60年的時間內累積之戴奧辛/呋喃含量達9.27〜18.53 ng WHO2005-TEQ kg-1;而表層15公分的底泥在30至60年的時間內累積之戴奧辛/呋喃含量則介於6.18〜12.36 ng WHO2005-TEQ kg-1。而這些戴奧辛/呋喃在其沉降的底泥中,會被生物所吸食而進入食物鏈,由於生物累積作用,使水系食物鏈的戴奧辛/呋喃濃度就愈來愈高,進而提高民眾暴露於戴奧辛之危害風險,故本研究亦提出因應之管理管制策略。首先,應該將空氣、水、底泥、土壤等環境介質監測、食品檢驗、人體血液檢驗、農畜水產品及飼料檢測、查緝非法行為、教育宣導等列為政府食品安全重要政策,並依短、中、長三階段執行管理措施。短期(1〜3年)工作如蒐集國際相關管制資訊並研提管制分析及建議、建置農業廢棄物再利用媒介平台、健康風險評估、工廠污染防治及減量輔導等;中期(4〜6年)工作包括污染整治、訂定減量目標、訂定回收再利用目標、法規檢討與修正(例如提高固定污染源戴奧辛檢測頻率、加嚴煉鋼業電弧爐戴奧辛管制排放標準)、推展製程改善、污染防治技術改善及輔導等;長期(7年〜)工作與目標包括落實斯德哥爾摩公約降低或排除POPs釋放於環境中,並推動以環保、效率、成本考量之永續產業政策,以期農業資源永續利用、建立優質農漁畜產品安全生產模式、構築食品藥物安心消費環境。
英文摘要 This study investigated the potential effects of the atmospheric dry and wet deposition of PCDD/Fs on the aquatic ecosystem in Taiwan. The dioxin content and congener profiles of 17 PCDD/Fs in Central Taiwan in 2013 and 2014 were assessed for the aquatic system, including both aquaculture animals and sediments. For Taiwan tilapia, clam, bass, and oyster, the values of total averaged mass content of PCDD/Fs were found to be 0.432, 0.671, 0.244, and 0.727 pg g–1, respectively, and those of the corresponding total PCDD/Fs-TEQ were 0.070, 0.015, 0.024, and 0.018 pg WHO2005-TEQ g–1, respectively. The total PCDD/Fs value in the sediment was much higher in the coastal area (72.63 ng kg–1) than in the fishponds (29.53 ng kg–1), but the corresponding WHO2005-TEQ value in the coastal area (0.545 ng WHO2005-TEQ kg–1) was lower than that in the fishponds (0.655 ng WHO2005-TEQ kg–1). The dominant features in the mass PCDD/F congener profiles for the aquatic animal and sediment samples obtained from both fishponds and coastal areas were identified as highly chlorinated PCDD/F congeners, such as OCDD and OCDF. However, the equivalent toxicities were dominated by the less-chlorinated PCDD/F congeners, such as 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF.
Over time periods ranging from 30 to 60 years, the modelled PCDD/F contents in the sediment ranged between 9.27 and 18.53 ng WHO2005-TEQ kg–1 for an assumed soil depth of 10 cm, and the PCDD/F contents from 6.18 to 12.36 ng WHO2005-TEQ kg–1 for an assumed soil depth of 15 cm. The PCDD/Fs sinking to bottom sediments can enter the food chain through ingestion by organisms. Through food chains and bioaccumulation processes, therefore, the PCDD/Fs content in aquatic food is bound to increase, exposing the public to the hazard and risk of PCDD/Fs. Accordingly, this study aims to delay the accumulation of PCDD/Fs in sediments with management strategies laid out as follows. In terms of staging the implementation of management policies, it is imperative to list the following as continuous work: monitoring environmental media, such as air, water, soil, and sediment; running tests on food, human blood, and agricultural, livestock, and aquatic products and feeds; checking and countering illegal activities; and strengthening education and policy promotion. Short-term (1-3 years) tasks include collecting relevant international regulatory information; researching regulatory analyses and recommendations; establishing mediation platforms for recycling agricultural wastes; assessing health risks; and providing guidance on the prevention and reduction of factory pollution. Mid-term (4-6 years) tasks include pollution remediation; target-setting for reduction, recycling, and reuse; reviews and revisions of regulations, such as increasing the inspection frequency of PCDD/Fs from stationary pollution sources and tightening the PCDD/Fs control and emission standards for the steelmaking industry electric arc furnace; promoting process improvement; and facilitating the advancement and adoption of pollution prevention technologies. Long-term (7 years and up) tasks and targets include limiting the manufacture, import, sale, and use of industrial raw materials that contain dioxins; acting in alignment with the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants to reduce or eliminate the release of POPs into the environment; and proposing sustainable industrial policies in consideration of environmental protection, efficiency, and cost, with a view to achieving the sustainable use of agricultural resources, establishing a safe production model for high-quality agricultural and fishery products, and building a safe environment for food and drug consumption.
論文目次 摘要 II
Abstract IV
致謝 VII
Contents VIII
List of Tables XII
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Chapter 2 Literature Review 4
2.1 Atmospheric Modeling 4
2.2 Sources and Characteristics of Particulate Matter 6
2.3 Physical and Chemical Properties of PCDDs/Fs 7
2.3.1 Physical Properties 7
2.3.2 Chemical Properties 7
2.3.3 Toxicity Equivalence Factors 9
2.4 Sources of Particulate Matters and PCDDs/Fs in the Environment and Their Trends 10
2.5 Modeling of dioxin concentration in the ambient air and its deposition 12
2.5.1 Gas-Particle Partitioning 12
2.5.2 Atmospheric Dry Deposition of PCDD/Fs 13
2.5.3 Theory of Scavenging Ratios 14
2.5.4 Determination of Wet Deposition Fluxes of PCDD/Fs 16
2.5.5 Summary of the Concentration of PCDD/Fs in the Ambient Air, Dry and Wet Deposition in the Central Region of Taiwan 17
2.6 Pathways 18
2.7 Degradation of Dioxins 19
Chapter 3 Methodology 20
3.1 Biota and Sample Collection from the Aquatic Systems 20
3.2 Sample Pretreatment 22
3.3 PCDDs/Fs in the Aquatic Environment 22
3.4 QA/QC 23
Chapter 4 Results and Discussion 25
4.1 PCDD/F Content in Aquatic Animals 25
4.2 PCDD/Fs Congener Profile for Aquatic Animals 28
4.3 PCDD/F Content in Sediment 33
Chapter 5 Management Strategies 45
5.1 Reduction of PCDD/Fs Emissions 46
5.1.1 Tightening Emission Standards 46
5.1.2 Developing and Implementing of Reduction Techniques 47
5.1.4 Strictly Checking and Countering Illegal acts 48
5.2 A Long-term Management System at the National Level 49
Chapter 6 Conclusions and Suggestions 52
6.1 Conclusions 52
6.2 Suggestions 54
References 55
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