進階搜尋


   電子論文尚未授權公開,紙本請查館藏目錄
(※如查詢不到或館藏狀況顯示「閉架不公開」,表示該本論文不在書庫,無法取用。)
系統識別號 U0026-2501201600411200
論文名稱(中文) 以眼球追蹤法探討漢字字形複雜度與視認性之研究
論文名稱(英文) An Investigation of Chinese Character Complexity and Legibility from Eye-Tracking
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 工業設計學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Industrial Design
學年度 104
學期 1
出版年 104
研究生(中文) 莊賢智
研究生(英文) Hsien-Chih Chuang
學號 P38961160
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 105頁
口試委員 指導教授-馬敏元
召集委員-陳國祥
口試委員-謝毓琛
口試委員-何俊亨
口試委員-陳璽任
中文關鍵字 眼球追蹤  漢字  交叉  辨識  複雜感  視認性 
英文關鍵字 Eye tracking  Chinese character  stroke crossings  recognition  complicacy  legibility 
學科別分類
中文摘要 過去文獻已知漢字的字形結構會影響辨識視認性與知覺(Cai,2001;Yeh,2000),但是如何影響觀看認知過程,尚缺乏實驗證據,運用眼球追蹤工具探索中文字的觀看過程,了解觀看文字過程的凝視分佈與跳躍幅度,本研究的目的在探討漢字字形複雜度(筆劃數、節點數與筆畫密度)與眼動訊息(跳視幅度、凝視次數)的特性,探究影響漢字視認性與複雜度的關鍵因素。

透過二個實驗,實驗一操弄漢字的組塊類型,探究影響漢字視認性的關鍵因素,發現字形結構是影響視認性的主要因素,漢字的不同組塊類型與字形特徵會明顯影響眼動行為,並以結構方程模式(structural equation modeling, SEM)分析探討漢字特徵複雜度與視認性關係,得知筆劃複雜度的筆劃數、節點數與筆畫密度,會直接影響眼動訊息的凝視次數與跳視幅度,並建立適當的漢字複雜度與眼動訊息模式。實驗一的漢字交叉有無探討漢字交叉特徵與視認性影響,發現交叉特性是漢字的突出視覺特徵,有較多視覺的焦點及訊息量,凝視時間較長、凝視次數較多,會引起更強烈複雜感受並影響識別。

實驗二驗證中英文字的交叉特徵對主觀認知複雜度影響,得知無論在中文、英文字形的交叉特徵對認知複雜度有顯著影響,本研究推論交叉特徵的字具有光滲作用(Irradiation)。因此透過本研究了解不同的漢字特徵與眼動行為關聯性,可提供中文辨識與中文字形設計之參考,以提升使用者的視認性。
英文摘要 Past studies found that character structure affects character legibility and perception (Cai, 2000; Yeh, 2000), but no empirical evidence indicates how it affects the cognitive processes of viewing. This study investigated the legibility of Chinese character complexity (number of strokes, amount of nodes, and image density) and eye movement information (saccade amplitude and number of fixations) to explore the viewing process of Chinese characters to understand the vision distribution and saccade amplitude of the character viewing process and analyze the key correlation factors between character feature complicacy and legibility.

This study investigated the correlations between the form features and legibility of Chinese characters by employing the eye tracking method in two experiments: It was found that character structure is a key influencer of character legibility, as different types of character arrangements and character form features was shown to significantly affect eye movement behavior. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was applied to explore the relationship between Chinese character feature complicacy and legibility, and it was found that the number of strokes in the character, the number nodes, and stroke density can directly affect the number of fixation and saccadic amplitude of eye movement. A suitable Chinese character complicacy scale and an eye movement model were established. Experiment 1 examined factors affecting Chinese character legibility with character modules; and identified the correlations between the visual feature and legibility of crossing strokes.

Experiment 2 examined the effect of crossing strokes on subjective complicacy perception in both Chinese characters and English letters. This study determined that enclosed Chinese characters affect subjective complicacy perception and reduce saccadic amplitude. In addition, greater the number of crossing strokes produced higher subjective complicacy perceived for both Chinese characters and English letters. The results of this study serve as a reference for predicting Chinese character legibility and assessing type design superiority.
論文目次 摘要 3
SUMMARY 4
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 5
TABLE OF CONTENTS 6
LIST OF TABLES 8
LIST OF FIGURES 9

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 11

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 13
2.1 Chinese character strokes and features 13
2.2 Chinese character form and structure 15
2.3 Character Legibility 19
2.4 Character Recognition 22
2.5 Feature Integration Theory and the Microgenetic Method 23
2.6 Properties of Chinese Character Stroke Crossings 24
2.7 Properties of enclosed Chinese Characters 25
2.8 Character recognition learning 27
2.9 Typography design and application 28
2.10 Eye Movement 30
2.11 Research Variables 36
2.12 Elaboration on Research Variables 38
2.13 Hypotheses 38

CHAPTER 3 Experiment 1: The effect of Chinese character module types and cross-stroke structures on legibility 42
3.1 Method and process 42
3.1.1 Participants 42
3.1.2 Apparatus and materials 42
3.1.3 Environment and equipment 44
3.1.4 Procedure 46
3.1.5 Assessment of Subjective Complicacy 49
3.1.6 Data analysis and procedures 50
3.2 Results 51
3.2.1 Chinese character module type and eye movement analysis 51
3.2.2 Structural Equation Modeling Analysis of Chinese Character Complicacy 58
3.2.3 Chinese character cross-stroke structures and eye movement analysis 60
3.2.4 ANOVA of characters with and without crossings and module types 61

CHAPTER 4 Experiment 2: The effect of crossing structures on subjective complicity 66
4.1 Method and process 66
4.1.1 Participants 66
4.1.2 Materials 66
4.2 Results 68
4.2.1 English letter crossings and complicity ANOVA 68
4.2.2 Chinese character crossings and complicity ANOVA 69

CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION 71
5.1 Left to Right Characters and Legibility 71
5.2 Enclosed Characters and Complicacy 72
5.3 Features of Chinese Character Crossings and their Effect on Legibility 73
5.4 Further Research and Suggestion 74

REFERENCES 75
APPENDIX 86
Appendix A: Stimulus set used in experiments in this study 87
Appendix B: The different indicators by goodness of overall model fit measurements of SEM 99
VITA 103
LIST OF PUBLICATION 104
參考文獻 Adana Press Club. (2001). History of movable-type printing. Tokyo: Robundo.
Ai, W. (1965). Problem of traditional Chinese. Taipei, Taiwan: National Translation and Compilation Center.
Amadieu F., Mariné C. & Laimay C. (2011). The attention-guiding effect and cognitive load in the comprehension of animations. Computers in Human Behavior, 27, 36-40.
Bagozzi, R. P. & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation for structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16, 74-94.
Baker, M. A. & Loeb, M. (1973). Implications of measurement of eye fixations for a psychophysics of form perception. Perception & Psychophysics, 13(2), 185-192.
Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 238-246.
Bentler, P. M. (1992). On the fit of models to covariance and methodology to the bulletin. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 400-404.
Cai, D. (1998). A study on the formula for predicting visual angle of Chinese character with its image descriptors. Journal of Science and Technology, 8, 145-156.
Cai, D. (2001). The application of image descriptors to the assessment of the legibility for characters. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan.
Cai, D., Chi, C. F. & You, M. (2008). Assessment of English letters’ legibility using image descriptors. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 107(1), 618-628.
Cai, D., Chi, C. F., & You, M. (2000). The Legibility Threshold of Chinese Characters in Three Type Styles, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 27, 9-17.
Cai, D., Chi, C. F., & You, M. (2001). The legibility threshold of Chinese characters in three-type styles. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 27, 9-17.
Chaffin, R., Morris, R. K. & Seely, R. E. (2001). Learning new word meanings from context: A study on eye movements. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27(1), 225-235.
Chan L. & Nunes T. (2001). Explicit teaching and implicit learning of Chinese characters. In Tolchinsky L, editor. Developmental aspects to learning to write. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Chao, C. Y. (2005). The gradation and mitigation for the complicacy of Chinese characters (Master’s thesis). Department of Industrial Design, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City, Taiwan.
Chen, C. & Huang, X. (1999). Research on characteristics of visual recognition to symmetrical structural Chinese characters. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 31(2), 154-161.
Chen, H. C., Chang, L. Y., Chiou, Y. S., Sung, Y. T. & Chang, K. E. (2011). Chinese orthographic database and its application in teaching Chinese characters. Bulletin of Educational Psychology, 43(5), 269-289.
Chen, H. C., Cheng, C. M., Tseng, C. C., Su, Y. J. & Jhan, Y. J. (2010). Effect on eye movement of regression inference of humor sentences. Paper presented at the 49th Annual Meeting of the Taiwanese Psychological Association, Chiayi City, Taiwan.
Chen, T. (2011). Effect of icon shape and character structure on the computer operation performance and brainwave of participants: an ergonomic perspective. Taipei, Taiwan: National Science Council.
Cheng, C. M. (1981). The progress of Chinese character cognition. Chinese Journal of Psychology, 23, 137-153.
Cheng, C. M. (1994). Teaching of Chinese language in overseas Chinese school. The World of Chinese Language. 72, 1-3.
Cheng, C. M. & Wu, S. C. (1994). Orthographic satiation and disorganization in reading Chinese characters. In H. W. Cang, J. T. Huang, E. W. Hue, & O. J. L. Tzeng (Eds.), Advances in the study of Chinese language processing (pp. 1-29). Taipei, Taiwan: Department of Psychology.
Chi, C. F., Shih, Y. C. & Chen, W. L. (2012). Effect of cold immersion on grip force, EMG, and thermal discomfort. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 42, 113-121.
Chi, Chi-Fen., Cai, Dengchuan & You, Manlai (2003). Applying Image descriptors to the assessment of legibility in Chinese characters, Ergonomic, 46(8),763-779.
Chia, M. T. (2001). A Study of Legibility and Visual Direction for Dynamic Chinese Character on LCD (Master’s thesis). Department of Visual Communication Design, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin, Taiwan.
Chiu, Y. F. (1991). Study of typography. Taipei: Yi Fong Tang publisher.
Chua, F. K. (1999). Phonological recoding in Chinese logograph recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 25, 876-891.
De Koning B., Tabbers H., Rikers R. & Paas F. (2010). Attention guidance in learning from a complex animation: Seeing is understanding? Learning and Instruction, 20, 111-122.
Duchowski, A. T. (2003). Eye tracking methodology: theory and practice. Verlag London Limited, 86-187.
Feldman, L. B. & Siok, W. W. T. (1999). Semantic radicals contribute to the visual identification of Chinese characters. Journal of Memory and Language, 40, 559-576.
Fitts, P. M., Jones, R.E. & Milton, J.L. (1950). Eye movements of aircraft pilots during instrument-landing approaches. Aeronautical Engineering Review, 9(2), 24-29.
Flavell, J. H. & Draguns, J. (1957). A microgenetic approach to perception and thought. Psychological Bulletin, 54, 199-217.
Fukuda, T. & Watanabe, T. (1996). Considering foreign language teaching from learner’s eye movement. Humanscape, 4, 138-152.
Gevins, Alan, Michael E. Smith, Harrison Leong, Linda McEvoy, Susan Whitfield, Robert Du & Georgia Rush. (1998). Monitoring working memory load during computer-based task with EEG pattern recognition methods. Human Factors 40(1). 79-91.
Gibson, E. J. (1969). Principles of perceptual learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Goldberg, J. H. & Kotval, X. P. (1999). Computer interface evaluation using eye movements: Methods and constructs. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 24, 631-645.
Goldberg, J.H. & Kotval, X.P. (1998). Eye movement-based evaluation of the computer interface. In S.K. Kumar (Ed.), Advances in Occupational Ergonomics and Safety. 529-532. Amsterdam: ISO Press.
Gould, J. D. & Schaffer, A.(1965). Eye movements parameters in pattern recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 74, 521-535
Gu, D. W. (1994). A study on the standardization of Chinese characters. Chinese World, 36, 33-36.
Guan Y. & Fang F. X. (2000). The development of research on Chinese character recognition in China. Journal of Developments In Psychology , 8, 1-6.
Han B. X. (1998). The frequency effect of character constituents in the recognition of Chinese characters (in Chinese). Psychological science, 21, 193-200.
He H. & Jiao S. (1994). Part-set Cuing effect in visual identification, Acta Psychologica Sinica, 26, 264-271.
He, X. Z. & Liao, D. Z. (2011). Analysis of the potential designing elements of Chinese characters. Journal of Beijing Institute of Graphic Communication, 19(3), 73-75.
Henderson, J. M. & Hollingworth, A. (1999). High-level scene perception. Annual Review of Psycholgy, 50, 243-271.
Ho S. H., Ng T. T. & Ng W. Y. (2003). A “radical” approach to reading development in Chinese: The role of semantic radicals and phonetic radicals, Journal of Literacy Research, 35, 849-878.
Hornby, A. S. (1972). The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, 2nd
Hsu, S. H., Peng, Y. & Wu, S. P. (1991). Ergonomics. Taipei, Taiwan: Yang-Chih Press.
Hu, Y. S. (1992). Modern Chinese. Hong kong: Joint Publishing.
Huang J. T. & Wang M. Y. (1992). From unit to Gestalt: Perceptual dynamics in recognizing Chinese characters. Advances in Psychology, 90, 3-35.
Huang, J. S. & Ma, M. Y. (2007). A study on the cognitive of complexity and difficulty of Chinese characters when reading and recognizing. Displays, 28, 8-25.
Hyona, J., Lorch, R. F., & Kaakinen, J. K. (2002). Individual differences in reading to summarize expository text: evidence from eye fixation patterns. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 44-55.
Inhoff, A. W. & Radach, R. (1998). Definition and computation of oculomotor measures in the study of cognitive processes. In G. Un- derwood (Ed.), Eye guidance in reading, driving and scene perception, New York, NY: Elsevier.
Jacob R. J. K. & Karn K. S. (2003). Eye Tracking in Human-Computer Interaction and Usability Research: Ready to Deliver the Promises (Section Commentary), in The Mind's Eye: Cognitive and Applied Aspects of Eye Movement Research, ed. by J. Hyona, R. Radach, and H. Deubel, 573-605, Amsterdam, Elsevier Science, 2003.
Jacobson, J. Z. & Dodwell, P. C. (1979). Saccadic eye movements during reading. Brain and Language, 8, 303-314.
Jöreskog, K. G. & Sörbom, D. (1992). LISREL: a guide to the program and applications. (3rd ed.) Chicago: Scientific Software International.
Just, M. A. & Carpenter, P. A. (1976). The role of eye-fixation research in cognitive psychology. Behavior Research Methods & Instrumentation, 8, 139-143.
Kaakinen J. K., Hyönä J. & Keenan J. M. (2003). How prior knowledge, working memory capacity, and relevance of information affect eye-fixations in expository text. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 29, 447-457.
Kliegl, R., Nuthmann, A. & Engbert, R. (2006). Tracking the mind during reading: The influence of past, present, and future words on fixation durations. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 135, 12-35.
Koga, K. & Groner, R. (1989). Japanese character recognition and eye movements in non-Japanese subjects. In H. Mandl & J. R. Levin (Eds.), Knowledge acquisition from texts and pictures (pp.279-291). Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier.
Krauzlis, R. J. (2005). The control of voluntary eye movements: new perspectives. The Neuroscientist, 11(2), 124-137.
Kwok E. & Chan L. (2008). Preschool children’s visual perception of Chinese characters. Journal of Basic Education, 17, 59-71.
Lin, F. Z. (1996). A study on visual search patterns and visual fatigue using eye-movement method. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan.
Lin, K. F. (2007). Establishment of Chinese characters as standard printing typefaces. Journal of Design Science, 10, 19-34.
Lin, L. N. (1996). Creat Fonts.Tokyo, Japan: JustSystems Corporation.
Lin, P. C. (2004). Typography. Taipei, Taiwan: Star Fox Press.
Liu M. (1994). Correlations between visual representation and form learning of Chinese. Proceeding of 6th International Conference on Cognitive Processing of Chinese, 113-126.
Liu, In-Mao & Yeh Yei-Yu. (1977). Studies of Chinese Anagrams: I. Anagrams of One-Character Words. Psychological Testing, 24, 24-31.
Loftus, G. R. & Mackworth, N. H. (1978). Cognitive determinants of fixation location during picture viewing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 4, 565-572.
Lu, C. F. (1984). Form Principles. Taipei: lionart publisher.
Ma, X.F. & Liu, Y. (2007). On the affecting factors and theory of the processing of font of Chinese characters. Journal of Heze University, 29, 87-89.
MackWorth, N. H., & Bruner, J. S. (1970). How adults and children search and recognize pictures. Human development, 13, 149-177.
Mackworth, N. H. & Morandi, A. J. (1967). The gaze selects informative details within pictures. Perception and Psychophysics, 2, 547-552.
McConkie, G. W. & Rayner, K. (1975). The span of the effective stimulus during a fixation in reading. Perception & Psychophysics, 17(6), 578-586.
McGinnies E., Comer P. B. & Lacey O. L. (1952). Visual-recognition thresholds as a function of word length and word frequency. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 44, 65-69.
Megaw, E. D. & Richardson, K. (1979). Eye movements and industrial inspection. Applied Ergonomics, 10(3), 145-154.
Nattkemper, D. & Prinz, W. (1987). Saccade amplitude determines fixation duration: Evidence from continuous search. In J. K. O'Regan & A. Lévy-Schoen (Eds.), Eye movements: From physiology to cognition, 285-292. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Neboit, M. & Richardson, J. (1987). Eye movement recording in ergonomics and applied research. Eye Movements: from physionlogy to Cognition. Elsevier Science Publishers B. V., North-Holland, Pp.551-561.
Norton, D. & Stark, L. W. (1971). Scanpaths in saccadic eye movements while viewing andrecognizing patterns. Vision Research, 11,929-942.
Peng R. X. & Zhang W. T. (1982). Some characteristics in tachistoscopic recognition of Chinese characters. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 16(01), 52-57.
Peng, D. L. & Wang, C. M. (1997) Basic processing unit of Chinese character recognition: evidence from stroke number effect and radical number effect. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 29(1), 8-16.
Peng, R. X. & Yu, B. L. (1983). Recognition of Chinese characters with different structures. In Chinese Society of General Psychology and Experimental Psychology (Ed.), Selected papers on general psychology and experimental psychology (pp. 182-184). Gansu, China: Gansu People’s Publishing.
Peng, Rui-Xiang & Wu-Tian Zhang. (1984). Some characteristics in tachistoscopic recognition of Chinese characters. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 16, 52-57.
Perugini M. & Banse R. (2007). Personality, implicit self-concept and automaticity. European Journal of Personality, 21, 257-261.
Poole, A. & Ball, L. J. (2006). Eye tracking in human-computer interaction and usability research: current status and future prospects. In C. Ghaoui (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human computer interaction. Hershey, PA: Idea Group. 211-219.
Qiu F. & Zhang Z. (2007). Psychology paradigm for Chinese cognitive research. The Study of Chinese Characters, 1, 237-240.
Rayner, K. (1998). Eye movements in reading and information processing: 20 years of research. Psychological Bulletin, 124(3), 372-422.
Rayner, K. & McConkie, G. W. (1976). What guides a reader’s eye movements? Vision Research, 16, 829-837.
Rayner, K. & Pollatsek, A. (1989). The psychology of reading. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Reichle, E. D., Pollatsek, A., Fisher, D. F. & Rayner, K. (1998). Toward a model of eye movement control in reading. Psychological Review, 105, 125-156.
Rumelhart, D. E. & McClelland, J. L. (1982). An interactive activation model of context effects in letter perception: Part 2. The contextual enhancement effect and some tests and extensions of the model. Psychological Review, 89, 60-94.
Saito, S. (1992). Does fatigue exist in a quantitative measurement of eye movements?. Ergonomics, 35(5), 607-615.
Sanders, M. S. & McCormick, E. J. (1987). Human factors in engineering and design. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Shen, M. W. (1992). Process of Chinese form identification (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Hangzhou University, Zhejiang, China.
Shen, M. & Zhu, Z. (1995). A study on the cognitive process of identification of Chinese characters with single component. Chinese Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 43-48.
Shen, M. & Zhu, Z. (1997). A study of the similarity of single-component Chinese characters. Psychological Science, 20(5), 401-405.
Shu H. & Anderson R. C. (1997). Role of radical awareness in the character and word acquisition of Chinese children, Reading Research Quarterly, 32, 78-89.
Snyder, H. L. & Taylor, D.F. (1976). Computerized of eye movements during Static display visual search. Areospace Medical Research Laboratory Report, AMRL-TR-75-91, Ohio.
Stallings, W.W. (1976). Approaches to Chinese Character Recognition, Pattern Recognition, Pergamon Press, 8, 87-98, Great Britain.
Su, T. H. (1988). Lettering and Typography. Taipei: Yellow Lemon publishing.
Tamaoka, K. & Yamada, H. (2000). The effects of stroke order and radicals on the knowledge of Japanese kanji orthography, phonology and semantics. Psychologia, 43, 199-210.
Treisman, A. & Gelade, G. A. (1980). A feature integration theory of attention. Cognitive Psychology, 12, 97-136.
Treisman, A. & Schmidt, H. (1982). Illusory conjunction in the perception objects. Cognitive Psychology, 14, 107-141.
Tsai J. L. (2000) The reading processing of eye movements in Chinese: Serial studies with eye movement contingent display technique. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, National Chengchi University, Taipei, Taiwan.
Tsai, D. C., Huang, H. F. & Yu, W. L. (2001). A study of the legibility of simplified Chinese character and traditional Chinese character. Paper present at 2001 Annual Meeting of the Ergonomics Society of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan.
Tsai, J. L., Yen, M. H. & Wang, C. A. (2005) Recoding on eye movements and its application on Chinese reading. Research in Applied Psychology, 28, 91-104.
Tsao C. Y. & Shen Y. (1963). The recognition of Chinese characters under tachistoscopic condition in primary school children. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 3, 203-213.
Tse, S. K. (2002). Comprehensive and effective teaching and learning of Chinese characters. Hong Kong: Greenfield Enterprise Ltd.
Verdonschot, R. G., La Heij, W., Tamaoka, K., Kiyama, S., You, W. P. & Schiller, N. O. (2013). The multiple pronunciations of Japanese kanji: A masked priming investigation. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 66 (10), 2023-2038.
Verdonschot, R. G., Lai, J., Feng, C., Tamaoka, K. & Schiller, N. O. (2015). Constructing initial phonology in Mandarin Chinese: syllabic or sub-syllabic? A masked priming investigation. Japanese Psychological Research, 57 (1), 61-68.
Wang, M. Y. (1997). The evaluation of perceptual and semantic characteristics for a set of object contour pictures. Chinese Journal of Psychology, 39(2), 157-172.
Wang, Ming-Shean (1985). The Application of Art and Design towards Traffic Signs, Taipei: five continental publishing.
Williams, L. M., Loughland, C. M., Green, M. J., Harris, A. W. F. & Gordon, E. (2003). Emotion perception in schizophrenia: An eye movement study comparing the effectiveness of risperidone vs. haloperidol. Psychiatry Research, 120(1), 13-27.
Wu, S. P., Hu, S. H. & Peng, Y. (1998). Sanders: Human Factors in Engineering. Taichung, Taiwan: Tsang Hai Book Publishing Co., Ltd.
Xiao C. & Huang X. (1998). Frame structure effects in single Chinese character recognition, Psychological science, 3, 221-225.
Yang, H. M. & McConkie, G. W. (1999). Reading Chinese: Some basic eye movement characteristics. In J. Wang, A. W. Infhoff, & H. C. Chen (Eds.), Reading Chinese script: A cognitive analysis (pp. 207-220). Mahwah, NJ: Lawerence Erlbaum Associates.
Yarbus, A. L. (1967). Eye movements and Vision. Plenum Press, New York.
Yeh, S. L. (2000). Structure detection of Chinese characters: visual search slope as an index of similarity between different-structured characters. Chinese Journal of Psychology, 42(2), 191-216.
Yeh, S. L. (2009). Word recognition. In: Su IW et al., editors. Language and Cognition. Taipei, 289-320.
Yeh, S. L. & Li, J. L. (2002). Role of structure and component in judgments of visual similarity of Chinese characters. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 28, 933-947.
Yeh, S. L., Jing, L. L., Takeuchi, T., Sun, V. C. & Liu, R. (2003). Effects of learning experience and age on the form categorization of Chinese characters. Visual Cognition, 210(6), 729-764.
Yeh, S. L., Li, J. L. & Chen, I. P. (1997). The perceptual dimensions underlying the classification of the shapes of Chinese characters. Chinese Journal of Psychology, 39, 47-74.
Yeh, S. L., Li, J. L. & Chen, K. M. (1999). Classification of the shapes of Chinese characters: verification by different pre-designated categories and varied sample sizes. Chinese Journal of Psychology, 40, 67-87.
Yu B. (1998). Effects of morphologically perceptual integrity of Chinese characters on the cognition of components. Psychological science, 4, 306-310.
Yu, B., Cao, H., Feng, L. & Li, W. (1990). Effect of morphological and phonetic whole perception of Chinese characters on the perception of components. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 22, 232 -239.
Yu, B., Feng, L., Cao, H. & Li, W. (1990). Visual perception of Chinese characters-effect of perceptual task and Chinese character attributes. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 22, 141-147.
Yu, W. L., Tsai, T. C. & Chen, W. C. (1996). Effect of Chinese character forms on legibility. Taoyuan, Taiwan: National Science Council.
Zhang J., Wang H., Zang M. & Zhang H. (2002). The effect of the complexity and repetition of the strokes on the cognition of the strokes and the Chinese characters. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 34, 449-453.
Zhang, J. J. & Zhang, H. C. (2001). The relationship between the wholes and their parts in recognition of Chinese characters. Chinese Journal or Applied Psychology, 7(3), 57−62.
Zhang, J. & Sheng, H. (1999). Study on the influence of the relationship of the wholes and their parts in the perceptual separation of Chinese characters. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 31(4), 369-376.
Zheng, Z. (1982). The process of recognition of Chinese characters and words. In S. R. Gao & Z. M. Zheng (Eds.), Psychological studies of the Chinese language. Hong Kong, China: Wenhe Publishing Company.
Zhou, J. Q. (2004). Illusion. Guangxi, China: Guang xi fine arts publishing.
Zhu, X. P. (1992). Current status of Chinese character recognition, Psychological Science, 1, 40-45.
Zhu Ying (2002). Experimental Psychology. Taipei: Wu-Nan Book.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2026-12-31起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw