||An Investigation of Chinese Character Complexity and Legibility from Eye-Tracking
||Department of Industrial Design
透過二個實驗，實驗一操弄漢字的組塊類型，探究影響漢字視認性的關鍵因素，發現字形結構是影響視認性的主要因素，漢字的不同組塊類型與字形特徵會明顯影響眼動行為，並以結構方程模式（structural equation modeling, SEM）分析探討漢字特徵複雜度與視認性關係，得知筆劃複雜度的筆劃數、節點數與筆畫密度，會直接影響眼動訊息的凝視次數與跳視幅度，並建立適當的漢字複雜度與眼動訊息模式。實驗一的漢字交叉有無探討漢字交叉特徵與視認性影響，發現交叉特性是漢字的突出視覺特徵，有較多視覺的焦點及訊息量，凝視時間較長、凝視次數較多，會引起更強烈複雜感受並影響識別。
Past studies found that character structure affects character legibility and perception (Cai, 2000; Yeh, 2000), but no empirical evidence indicates how it affects the cognitive processes of viewing. This study investigated the legibility of Chinese character complexity (number of strokes, amount of nodes, and image density) and eye movement information (saccade amplitude and number of fixations) to explore the viewing process of Chinese characters to understand the vision distribution and saccade amplitude of the character viewing process and analyze the key correlation factors between character feature complicacy and legibility.
This study investigated the correlations between the form features and legibility of Chinese characters by employing the eye tracking method in two experiments: It was found that character structure is a key influencer of character legibility, as different types of character arrangements and character form features was shown to significantly affect eye movement behavior. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was applied to explore the relationship between Chinese character feature complicacy and legibility, and it was found that the number of strokes in the character, the number nodes, and stroke density can directly affect the number of fixation and saccadic amplitude of eye movement. A suitable Chinese character complicacy scale and an eye movement model were established. Experiment 1 examined factors affecting Chinese character legibility with character modules; and identified the correlations between the visual feature and legibility of crossing strokes.
Experiment 2 examined the effect of crossing strokes on subjective complicacy perception in both Chinese characters and English letters. This study determined that enclosed Chinese characters affect subjective complicacy perception and reduce saccadic amplitude. In addition, greater the number of crossing strokes produced higher subjective complicacy perceived for both Chinese characters and English letters. The results of this study serve as a reference for predicting Chinese character legibility and assessing type design superiority.
TABLE OF CONTENTS 6
LIST OF TABLES 8
LIST OF FIGURES 9
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 11
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 13
2.1 Chinese character strokes and features 13
2.2 Chinese character form and structure 15
2.3 Character Legibility 19
2.4 Character Recognition 22
2.5 Feature Integration Theory and the Microgenetic Method 23
2.6 Properties of Chinese Character Stroke Crossings 24
2.7 Properties of enclosed Chinese Characters 25
2.8 Character recognition learning 27
2.9 Typography design and application 28
2.10 Eye Movement 30
2.11 Research Variables 36
2.12 Elaboration on Research Variables 38
2.13 Hypotheses 38
CHAPTER 3 Experiment 1: The effect of Chinese character module types and cross-stroke structures on legibility 42
3.1 Method and process 42
3.1.1 Participants 42
3.1.2 Apparatus and materials 42
3.1.3 Environment and equipment 44
3.1.4 Procedure 46
3.1.5 Assessment of Subjective Complicacy 49
3.1.6 Data analysis and procedures 50
3.2 Results 51
3.2.1 Chinese character module type and eye movement analysis 51
3.2.2 Structural Equation Modeling Analysis of Chinese Character Complicacy 58
3.2.3 Chinese character cross-stroke structures and eye movement analysis 60
3.2.4 ANOVA of characters with and without crossings and module types 61
CHAPTER 4 Experiment 2: The effect of crossing structures on subjective complicity 66
4.1 Method and process 66
4.1.1 Participants 66
4.1.2 Materials 66
4.2 Results 68
4.2.1 English letter crossings and complicity ANOVA 68
4.2.2 Chinese character crossings and complicity ANOVA 69
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION 71
5.1 Left to Right Characters and Legibility 71
5.2 Enclosed Characters and Complicacy 72
5.3 Features of Chinese Character Crossings and their Effect on Legibility 73
5.4 Further Research and Suggestion 74
Appendix A: Stimulus set used in experiments in this study 87
Appendix B: The different indicators by goodness of overall model fit measurements of SEM 99
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