||The Relationships between Cognitive Dissonance and Job Burnout: Moderating Effects of Psychological and Social Contexts
||The Relationships between Cognitive Dissonance and Job Burnout: Moderating Effects of Psychological and Social Contexts
||Institute of International Management (IIMBA--Master)
This study employs the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model to examine the relationship between cognitive dissonance and job burnout as well as the moderating roles of psychological empowerment, psychological safety, leader-member exchange (LMX), and team-member exchange (TMX) on this relationship. Research results based on a sample collected from 231 employees at the National Cheng Kung University show that cognitive dissonance produces a positive effect on employee’s job burnout; however, all moderating effects are not supported. Additionally, the result shows that workload is a key contributor of employee’s job burnout. Specifically, employees are concerned more with the volume of their daily tasks instead of the working environment.
Based on the findings, implications and suggestions are proposed in order for preventing university employees from the issue of job burnout. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed as well.
TABLE OF CONTENTS III
LIST OF TABLES VI
LIST OF FIGURES VII
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background and Motivations. 1
1.2 Research Objectives and Expected Contributions. 4
1.3 Research Scope. 6
1.4 Research Procedure and Research Structure. 6
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 9
2.1 Theoretical Background. 9
2.1.1 Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) Model. 9
2.1.2 Cognitive Dissonance. 15
2.1.3 Job Burnout. 17
2.1.4 Psychological Empowerment. 20
2.1.5 Psychological Safety. 24
2.1.6 Leader-Member Exchange (LMX). 26
2.1.7 Team-Member Exchange (TMX). 30
2.2 Development of Research Hypotheses. 32
2.2.1 The Relationships between Cognitive Dissonance and Job Burnout. 32
2.2.2 Psychological Empowerment as a Moderator. 33
2.2.3 Psychological Safety as a Moderator. 34
2.2.4 Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) as a Moderator. 35
2.2.5 Team-Member Exchange (TMX) as a Moderator. 36
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 37
3.1 Conceptual Model. 37
3.2 Description of Sample. 38
3.3 Summary of Hypotheses. 39
3.4 Definitions and Measures of Variables. 40
3.4.1 Cognitive Dissonance. 42
3.4.2 Job Burnout. 42
3.4.3 Psychological Empowerment. 44
3.4.4 Psychological Safety. 45
3.4.5 Leader-Member Exchange (LMX). 45
3.4.6 Team-Member Exchange (TMX). 46
3.5 Controlling Variables. 47
3.5.1 Age. 47
3.5.2 Gender. 48
3.5.3 Marital/Family Status. 48
3.5.4 Number of Years of Working Experience. 48
3.5.5 Employee Type. 49
3.5.6 Job Position. 49
3.5.7 Education Level. 49
3.5.8 Workload. 49
3.5.9 Personal Expectations. 50
3.6 Methods of Analysis. 50
3.6.1 Descriptive Statistics. 50
3.6.2 Pearson Correlation Analysis. 50
3.6.3 Reliability Test. 51
3.6.4 Confirmatory Factor Analysis. 51
3.6.5 Hierarchical Multiple Regression. 52
3.6.6 Common Method Bias. 52
CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH RESULTS 53
4.1 Descriptive Analysis. 53
4.2 Assessing Full Measurement Model. 55
4.3 Mean, Standard Deviation, and Pearson Correlation. 68
4.4 Hierarchical Multiple Regression. 71
4.5 Common Method Bias. 74
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS 75
5.1 Discussions and Conclusions. 75
5.1.1 Theoretical Implications. 75
5.1.2 Managerial Implications. 79
5.2 Research Limitations and Future Directions. 81
Appendix 1 Research Questionnaire in English. 95
Appendix 2 Research Questionnaire in Chinese. 99
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