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系統識別號 U0026-2501201112445600
論文名稱(中文) 台灣東部海岸山脈中段樂合殘留弧前盆地之構造演化以及利吉混雜岩體成因探討: 微體古生物與黏土礦物證據
論文名稱(英文) Evolution of the Loho remnant forearc basin and origin of the Lichi Melange of the Coastal Range: Micaropaleontological and clay mineral evidences
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 地球科學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Earth Sciences
學年度 99
學期 1
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 林彥均
研究生(英文) Yen-Chun Lin
學號 l4697106
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 58頁
口試委員 指導教授-黃奇瑜
口試委員-紀文榮
口試委員-林慶偉
口試委員-鄧屬予
中文關鍵字 海岸山脈  樂合盆地  利吉混雜岩  微體化石  黏土礦物 
英文關鍵字 Coastal Range  Loho basin  Lichi mélange  microfossil  clay mineral 
學科別分類
中文摘要 臺灣東部海岸山脈為斜向弧陸碰撞的造山結果,它由四個殘留弧前盆地與兩個火山島組成。樂合盆地位於海岸山脈中段,空間上連結了南-北兩個殘留弧前盆地 (泰源盆地及水璉盆地),及南-北兩個火山島(成廣澳及奇美火山島),於海岸山脈弧前盆地沈積及構造演化扮演樞紐的地位。樂合盆地出露利吉混雜岩,都巒山層與大港口層。
詳細野外地質調查並採集不同地層的岩石樣本,進行浮游有孔蟲、鈣質超微化石及黏土礦物組合分析,完成兩萬五千分之一比例尺之樂合殘留弧前盆地地質圖,以瞭解樂合殘留弧前盆地的演化與利吉混雜岩之地質意義:
1. 樂合盆地中利吉混雜岩之基質泥岩與盆地中心兩側大港口層沈積地質時間一致,均為早上新世 (4.2 ~ 3.65 Ma;浮游有孔蟲化石N19 ~ 20帶;鈣質超微化石NN14 ~ NN15帶)。利吉混雜岩具強烈剪裂斷層構造,混合了不同岩性、不同來源之剪裂岩塊。微體古生物分析結果,否定了樂合殘留弧前盆地中存在向斜構造的可能性。
2. 大港口層及利吉混雜岩中,均含依萊石(45 %)及綠泥石(38%)黏土礦物。但利吉混雜岩含13~17 %高嶺石,但同時間沉積的大港口層,只含極少量(< 3%)的高嶺石,指示利吉混雜岩並不是與大港口層成犬牙交錯的崩滑沈積成因。
3. 利吉混雜岩中高嶺石的來源並非由北呂宋火山島弧風化侵蝕而來。由於利吉混雜岩中凝灰岩塊含極高含量的膨潤石(83 ~ 100 %),而利吉混雜岩中只含非常少量膨潤石(< 2 %),顯示利吉混雜岩中的高嶺石也不是源自火山噴發層序的凝灰岩。由現代南海北坡黏土礦物組成分佈特徵,推論利吉混雜岩中的高嶺石可能源由東南中國大陸紅土區經河流侵蝕帶入南海北坡-中央海盆,而後隨南海海洋地殼向東隱沒時進入增生楔底俯衝通道,於初期弧陸碰撞過程中再經背逆衝構造進入花東海脊,然後花東海脊於成熟期弧陸碰時再向西逆衝剪裂,而存在於利吉混雜岩中。
4. 野外地質調查結果、微體古生物(浮游有孔蟲與鈣質超微化石)分析及黏土礦物組成分析結果,顯示樂合盆地與海岸山脈臺東縱谷東側利吉混雜岩沈積年代相同、化石組合相似、黏土礦物組成類似,應可視為同一地質單元。
5. 樂合殘留弧前盆地的盆地演化如下:
a. 南海海洋地殼於晚中新世向東隱沒後,中央山脈增生楔逐漸形成(~5 Ma),並出露於海平面之上,成為北呂宋海槽弧前盆地的沈積物來源。初期弧陸碰撞早期 (4.3-3.3 Ma),北呂宋火山島弧成為菲律賓海板塊向西前進的backstop,使得北呂宋海槽弧前盆地西側發生向東背衝斷層,產生花東海脊(~3.5-3.3 Ma)。
b. 由於奇美火山島的右旋構造及部分花東海脊的抬升,堵塞住了位於奇美火山島及成廣燠火山島間的北呂宋海槽,使之分隔成北邊的水璉殘留弧前盆地、奇美火山島-成廣澳火山島間的樂合殘留弧前盆地,及南邊的泰源殘留弧前盆地。由於花東海脊的地形抬升,阻止弧前盆地沈積物繼續輸送至樂合殘留弧前盆地,因此於3.3 Ma時停止了沈積;
c. 成熟期弧陸碰撞時的初期 (~1.5 Ma),花東海脊被再次剪裂變形為利吉混雜岩,奇美火山島及樂合殘留弧前盆地以低角度向西逆衝於利吉混雜岩之上,成為北段的海岸山脈;於成熟期弧陸碰撞的後期(< 1 Ma),成廣澳火山島-泰源殘留弧前盆地亦隨後向西逆衝於南段的利吉混雜岩之上,成為南段海岸山脈。
d. 由於樂合殘留弧前盆地的大港口層只有早上新世地層,缺乏深海河道礫石堆積及沒有巨厚更新世濁流層沈積,並且晚更新世以來,由於海岸山脈的抬升及河流的侵蝕,使得低角度逆衝拆離斷層之下的利吉混雜岩,得以被侵蝕以開天窗方式出露於樂合殘留弧前盆地的中央。
英文摘要 An oblique collision between the Luzon volcanic arc and Asian continental margin results in accretions and deformations of the North Luzon Trough forearc basin and the North Luzon Arc as the Coastal Range in eastern Taiwan. Now the Coastal Range is composed of four remnant forearc basins and two volcanic islands. The Loho remnant forearc basin in the middle part of the Coastal Range is located at a special position that connects the Shulien remnant forearc basin to the north and the Taiyuan remnant forearc basin to the south, and in the junction between Chimei volcanic island to the north and the Chengkuangao volcanic island to the south. For its special position, the sedimentation and structures of the Loho basin plays an important role for understanding the geohistory of the Coastal Range. The Lithostratigraphic units of Loho basin include the Tuluanshan Formation (volcanic sequence), Takangkou Formation (stratified forearc turbidites) and Lichi Mélange (sheared sequences).
Field survey, clay mineral analysis and micropaleontology of planktic foraminifers and calcareous nannofossils are studied to explore the stratigraphy and structure, especially the mechanism responsible for formation of the Lichi Mélange, of the Loho Basin:
1. In Loho basin, both the Takangkou Formation and the Lichi Mélange have the same age of Late Early Pliocene (N19-N20 or NN14-NN15; 4.2-3.65 Ma). The Lichi Mélange is characterized by occurrence of broken formation facies and mélange facies of intensively shearing and mixing of polygenetic origins of tuff/sandstone/mafic/ultramafic blocks with discernible stratification. No syncline structure is found in the Loho basin.
2. Both Takangkou Formation (bedded turbidites) and Lichi Mélange contains illite and chlorite and rare semectite, however, the Takangkou Formation contains kaolinite less than 3% while the Lichi Mélange contains much rich kaolinite (13-17%). Both the Takangkou Formation and Lichi Mélange have the same age but contain different clay mineral assemblage, indicating that the Lichi Mélange is unlikely to be a submarine-slumping facies coeval to the Takangkou Formation.
3. The mélange exposed in the Loho basin has east of Tuluanshan fault the same depositional age (NN14-15 Zone), microfossil assemblages and clay mineral composition as the type Lichi Mélange west of the Tuluanshan fault in the southern Coastal Range, suggesting a similar stratigraphic unit.
4. Clay minerals in volcanic blocks of the Lichi Mélange are predominated by semectites (83 ~ 100%), which are almost absent in both the Takangkou Formation and the sheared mudstones of the Lichi Mélange. This indicates that the source of kaolinite in the Lichi Mélange is unlikely derived from the volcanic blocks as it was suggested. Distribution patterns of clay minerals in the South China Sea indicate that kaolinites (10-20%) in the modern hemipelagic muds of the Central Basin above the oceanic crust are primarily derived from the laterite soils weathered from granites in southern China. Taking the clay mineral distribution pattern of the South China Sea as an analog, we interpret that in the early Pliocene similar hemi-pelagic muds might have been entered the subduction channel when the South China Sea oceanic crust was subducted beneath the Taiwan accretionary prism since the late Miocene. They were then tectonically moved into Lichi Mélange by back-thrusting in the western forearc basin during the incipient arc-continent collision at ~3.5 Ma.
5. The structure evolution of the Loho basin has involved several geodynamic processes:
(1) In the Late Miocene, the SCS oceanic crust was subducted eastward beneath the Philippine Sea plate along the Manila Trench. The subduction was followed by an oblique arc-continent collision in early Pliocene. When the Philippine Sea Plate continuously moved westward, back-thrusting occurred along the western part of North Luzon forearc basin and the lower forearc sequences (4.3 ~ 3.6 Ma B.P.) were deformed to develop the incipient Lichi Mélange (~3.5 Ma) like to modern Huatung Ridge.
(2) Meantime, a clockwise rotation of the Chimei volcanic island in the north and the uplifting of the Huatung Ridge by end of Pliocene separated the North Luzon Trough into three remnant forearc basins, from north to south: Shulien basin, Loho basin, Taiyuan basin and Taitung basin. Deformation and thrusting-uplifting of the Huatung Ridge at the junction between the Chimei volcanic island and the Chengkuangao volcanic island would play like a sedimentary dame to block more than 3 km-thick Late Pliocene - Pleistocene deep-sea conglomerates and the associated low fan turbidites derived from the north in the Shuilien remnant forearc basin, and therefore only Late Early Pliocene turbidites were found in the Loho Basin.
(3) At the early stage of the advanced arc-continent collision (~1.5 Ma B.P.), the Huatung Ridge was furthermore westward thrust and deformed to become the modern Lichi Mélange. The Shuilien remnant forearc basin-Chimei volcanic island and Loho basin were thrust over the Lichi Mélange along a low-angle decollement as the modern northern Coastal Range. At the late stage of the advanced arc-continent collision (< 1 Ma B.P.), the Taiyuan basin, the Chengkuangao volcanic island and the Taitung basin were further thrust and accreted westward onto the Lichi mélange to develop the southern Coastal Range.
(4) During the late Pleistocene, the Coastal Range was uplifted. Active river erosions in the Loho basin resulted in exposures of the Lichi Mélange beneath the low-angled decollement to appear a “structure window” in the center of the Loho basin.
論文目次 第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 地理位置與地形 4
1.3 研究區域之地質背景 7
1.3.1 地層劃分 7
1.3.2 構造 7
1.3.3 利吉混雜岩 (Lichi Mélange) 概述 11
1.3.3.1 海岸山脈利吉混雜岩體的成因 11
1.3.3.2 樂合殘留弧前盆地之利吉混雜岩體成因 14
1.4 臺灣東南海域地質單元 16
1.5 研究目的 16
第二章 研究方法 18
2.1 野外地質調查 18
2.1.1 地質圖的製作 18
2.1.2 標本採集 18
2.2 微體化石與超微體化石分析 20
2.2.1 有孔蟲化石標本處理 20
2.2.2 鈣質超微體化石標本處理 21
2.3 黏土礦物樣本分析處理 21
2.3.1 樣本處理 22
2.3.2 X 光粉末繞射分析 22
第三章 研究結果 23
3.1 野外地質調查 23
3.1.1 航空照片判釋 23
3.1.2 野外調查結果 23
3.2 微體化石與超微體化石鑑定 25
3.2.1 浮游有孔蟲年代分析 25
3.2.2 超微體化石年代分析 28
3.3 黏土礦物分析結果 32
第四章 討論 34
4.1 樂合殘留弧前盆地中存在向斜構造嗎? 34
4.2 樂合殘留弧前盆地內利吉混雜岩與台東縱谷東側利吉混雜岩的關係及成因機制 36
4.3 利吉混雜岩中高嶺石的來源 37
4.4 樂合殘留弧前盆地構造演化及利吉混雜岩在海岸山脈構造演化的角色 40
第五章 結論 42
參考文獻 44
附錄 51
野外照片 52
鈣質超微體化石圖版 57
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