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系統識別號 U0026-2408202016311200
論文名稱(中文) 應用區塊鏈技術開發另類房地產交易平台
論文名稱(英文) Using the Blockchain Technology to Develop the Alternative Real Estate Trading Platform
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 土木工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Civil Engineering
學年度 108
學期 2
出版年 109
研究生(中文) 林亞蓁
研究生(英文) Ya-Jhen Lin
學號 N66074598
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 101頁
口試委員 指導教授-馮重偉
口試委員-吳獻堂
口試委員-王裕仁
中文關鍵字 房地產  交易平台  區塊鏈  智能合約 
英文關鍵字 Real Estate  Trading Platforms  Blockchain  Smart Contracts 
學科別分類
中文摘要 房地產買賣及租賃過程繁瑣,大多依靠第三方仲介公司來完成交易,除了需額外支付仲介費用外,還需要承擔交易糾紛之風險;而現今房價越來越高使得購屋者負擔過大,交易狀況相對不穩健;對於資訊不對等問題,政府自101年8月實行實價登錄制度,然而,房仲業者所登錄的價格卻可能與事實不符,例如透過裝潢費用將交易總額墊高,或是將條件比較好的高價登錄物件價格作為開價標準,實價登錄反而成為業者抬價的依據;交易安全相關議題上,不動產買賣詐騙案例層出不窮,新聞媒體時常報導出偽造相關證件,進而冒名申請所有權狀及盜賣土地等案例等等。
近年來區塊鏈技術蓬勃發展,在許多產業中也越來越多人使用新創的加密貨幣進行交易,甚至成為投資的商品。區塊鏈技術以去中心化、無法竄改等特點聞名,利用密碼學機制做為基礎,將每一筆交易附加可信的時間戳,透明公開的紀錄交易相關資訊,其特性非常適用於金流交易。
區塊鏈應用於房地產交易的研究也逐漸增加,然而搜索目前區塊鏈與智能合約的相關文獻,發現內容大部分僅探討區塊鏈與智能合約的適用性,作業項目的描述不夠詳盡,其流程架構也僅是概念圖;區塊鏈技術應用層面的重要環節是建立分散式應用程式,然而將此用於案例驗證的相關文獻鮮少,使得部分文獻對於房地產交易導入區塊鏈的應用無法計算實質的效益;目前智能合約在交易的應用,較無制定交易規則,大多是價金匯款的交易紀錄,然而現今房價即便扣除委任仲介的所有費用,其房屋本身價格對買房者而言依然造成很大的負擔。
因此本研究將建立新型之交易模式,導入區塊鏈技術建立房地產交易平台,解決資訊不透明、交易安全之問題,並利用另類的交易機制減輕買房者的負擔。首先統整出當前房地產交易流程所面臨到的問題,接著回顧相關文獻解析交易流程,歸納出平台中相關利益者之互動關係並建立另類的交易機制以結合區塊鏈智能合約技術。並以此交易機制為基礎建立相關智能合約的函式及前端使用者介面開發,最終完成區塊鏈另類房地產交易平台。
本研究所開發之區塊鏈交易平台,能透過智能合約自動執行交易流程,去仲介化的方式能有效減少人為上的疏失;而智能合約所執行的交易明細,將自動上傳至區塊鏈上,達到完全的資訊公開透明;透過案例驗證模擬各種交易情境,結果顯示平台的交易機制確實能體現各方獲利之效益,其中購屋者透過此交易機制所獲得的回饋金,將依照參與交易的人數提高而增加,其金額確實能減輕購屋負擔,進而改善現行的房地產市場交易成效問題。
英文摘要 The real estate transaction process is complicated, and most of people rely on the third-party intermediary company to complete the transaction. In addition to the intermediary fees, they also need to bear the risk of transaction disputes. However, nowadays, the house price is getting higher and higher, which makes the homebuyer overburdened and the transaction condition is relatively unstable. Regarding information asymmetry, the government has implemented the real-price registration system since 2012. However, the prices may not be consistent with the facts, such as increasing the transaction through decoration fees, and the registration of the real price becomes the basis for the manufacturer to raise the price.
Blockchain technology has been booming in recent years, and in many industries, more and more people are using newly created cryptocurrencies for transactions and even as investment commodities. Blockchain technology is famous for its decentralized and unchangeable features. Based on the cryptography mechanism, it attaches a trusted timestamp to each transaction and records transaction related information transparently and publicly. Its features are very suitable for cash flow transactions.
Therefore, this study will use the blockchain and smart contract technology to establish a new trading model, and develop a set of alternative real estate trading mechanism, to solve the problem of price difference between buyers and sellers, and at the same time, enable all the participants to obtain due benefits. The blockchain trading platform in this study will integrate the front-end user interface and smart contract scripts based on a decentralized application, so that users can easily trigger smart contracts through the Web, and automatically determine the transaction status through smart contracts to complete real estate transactions in the form of disintermediation. The development and application of this real estate transaction system will improve the current transaction effectiveness of the real estate market.
論文目次 摘要 I
Abstract III
誌謝 VI
目錄 VIII
表目錄 XII
圖目錄 XIV
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3 研究範圍 4
1.4 研究流程 4
1.5 論文架構 7
第二章 問題陳述與文獻回顧 8
2.1 研究問題陳述 8
2.1.1 房地產交易之房價相關問題 8
2.1.2 房地產交易安全相關問題 9
2.1.3 房地產交易糾紛問題 9
2.1.4 房地產交易資訊不對等相關問題 10
2.2 房地產交易 11
2.2.1 房地產交易流程介紹 11
2.2.2 目前房地產交易去中介化之探討 13
2.3 區塊鏈技術之探討 14
2.3.1 區塊鏈之資料組成介紹 14
2.3.2 區塊鏈之模型架構介紹 15
2.3.3 區塊鏈之演進過程及應用 16
2.4 智能合約應用於交易系統 17
2.4.1 智能合約應用於交易平台 17
2.4.2 智能合約應用於房地產交易 19
2.5 小結 22
第三章 研究方法 24
3.1 需求分析工具 24
3.1.1 IDEF0 24
3.1.2 Use Case 26
3.2 智能合約開發工具 27
3.2.1 以太坊智能合約之介紹 27
3.2.2 Remix 28
3.2.3 Ganache 28
3.3 前端使用者介面開發工具 30
3.3.1 去中心化應用程式之介紹 30
3.3.2 Matamask 30
3.3.3 Visual Studio Code 31
3.3.4 Web3.js 31
3.3.5 Pixi.js 32
3.3.6 Microsoft Azure 32
3.4 小結 32
第四章 發展區塊鏈房地產交易平台架構 33
4.1 解析房地產交易平台作業 35
4.1.1 解析房地產交易平台作業之資訊需求 35
4.1.2 解析房地產競標流程 39
4.1.3 解析交易平台中角色與平台的互動方式 41
4.2 建立交易機制 42
4.2.1 建立募資與循環經濟之共享機制 42
4.2.2 建立獲利規則 44
4.3 開發區塊鏈房地產交易平台 49
4.3.1 系統開發環境配置 49
4.3.2 開發智能合約資料庫 50
4.3.3 開發平台使用者介面 60
4.3.4 連結平台介面與智能合約資料庫 65
4.3.5 交易平台上架及上鏈程序 69
4.4 小結 70
第五章 案例驗證 71
5.1 操作流程介紹 71
5.1.1 頁面轉換流程介紹 71
5.1.2 競標操作流程介紹 74
5.2 模擬交易流程 76
5.2.1 案例一:人數不足流標 76
5.2.2 案例二:無人出價流標 78
5.2.3 案例三:交易成功 79
5.3 數據分析與結果 82
5.3.1 計算獲利比例 82
5.3.2 原始交易機制參數分析 84
5.3.3 入場費隨人數變動之參數分析 90
5.4 小結 94
第六章 結論與建議 95
6.1 結論 95
6.2 未來研究之建議 96
參考文獻 99

參考文獻 英文文獻
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中文文獻
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