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系統識別號 U0026-2408201719122600
論文名稱(中文) 台灣閩南語轉折副詞「反倒轉(來)」與「顛倒」的研究
論文名稱(英文) On Adversative Adverbs hoan2-to3-tng2-(lai5) ‘contrarily’ and tian1-to3 ‘contrarily’ in Taiwan Southern Min
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 外國語文學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Foreign Languages & Literature
學年度 105
學期 2
出版年 106
研究生(中文) 劉佳箴
研究生(英文) Chia-Chen Liu
學號 K26031141
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 114頁
口試委員 指導教授-李惠琦
口試委員-王本瑛
口試委員-黃漢君
中文關鍵字 轉折副詞  情態副詞  反倒轉(來)  顛倒  台灣閩南語 
英文關鍵字 adversative adverbs  mood adverbs  hoan2-to3-tng2-(lai5)  tian1-to3  Taiwan Southern Min 
學科別分類
中文摘要 轉折的定義是指前、後子句的命題內容形成對比(Rudolph 1996),而根據Halliday and Hasan (1999)的定義,轉折是指與期望不同。本篇論文主要探討兩個台灣閩南語轉折副詞:「反倒轉(來)」與「顛倒」。根據教育部臺灣閩南語常用詞辭典,這兩個轉折副詞是近義詞,他們的詞義都近似於華語的「反而」。為了要更瞭解「反倒轉(來)」以及「顛倒」的相同與不同之處,本文從句法、語義以及語用方面進行研究。本文所研究的語料以書面語為主。
就句法而言,「反倒轉(來)」與「顛倒」的相同之處在於:當兩者都是轉折副詞時,他們出現在補詞層,並且為評價情態副詞。兩者在語法方面的不同之處也有研究,其中一個不同的地方在於:「反倒轉(來)」很少出現於在否定陳述子句以及疑問句當中,但是「顛倒」並非如此。
另外,就語義而言,我們整理並採用Lakoff (1971)、Halliday and Hasan (1976)、Rudolph (1996)以及L. Chang (2011)對轉折詞的研究來探討此兩個轉折副詞在子句與子句之間的語義關係。本文不僅研究轉折副詞的語義,也有提到「反倒轉(來)」亦可當作非轉折義的副詞。當「反倒轉(來)」為非轉折語意的副詞時,「反倒轉(來)」不會出現在補詞層,而是作為連接副詞,通常出現在第二個子句的前面以便連接前、後兩句語義相反的子句。
最後,就語用而言,本文觀察「反倒轉(來)」以及「顛倒」常搭配的詞彙;除此之外,還發現「反倒轉(來)」能夠連接較長又多的句子以及段落,也討論了「反倒轉(來)」在上下文當中扮演的功能為何。
本研究期望藉由此分析,瞭解這兩個近義詞「反倒轉(來)」與「顛倒」的語法、語義和語用特色以及比較兩者的相同與差別之處。
英文摘要 Adversativity means that a relationship between the preceding and following content contrasts with each other (Rudolph 1996), and, according to Halliday and Hasan (1999), adversativity primarily refers to things being contrary to expectation. The thesis primarily investigates two adversative adverbs in Taiwan Southern Min; that are, hoan2-to3-tng2-(lai5) 反倒轉(來) ‘contrarily’ and tian1-to3 顛倒 ‘contrarily’. Based on Jiao4yu4bu4 Tai2wan1 min3nan2yu3 chang2yong4ci2 ci2dian3 教育部臺灣閩南語常用詞辭典 ‘A dictionary of frequently-used words in Taiwan Southern Min by the Ministry of Education’, hoan2-to3-tng2-(lai5) 反倒轉(來) ‘contrarily’ and tian1-to3 顛倒 ‘contrarily’ are near-synonyms, for both are equivalents of fan3-er2 反而 ‘contrarily’ in Mandarin Chinese. In order to further observe the two adverbs, the thesis compares and contrasts them from the perspective of syntactic features, semantic relations and functions in context. The thesis mainly focuses on analyzing written data of the two adverbs.
With respect to syntax, the similarities between hoan2-to3-tng2-(lai5) 反倒轉(來) ‘contrarily’ and tian1-to3 顛倒 ‘contrarily’ are that they occupy the complementizer layer, and are evaluative mood adverbs when both are adversative adverbs. The syntactic differences between them are also investigated, and one of the differences is that hoan2-to3-tng2-(lai5) 反倒轉(來) ‘contrarily’ rarely appears in negative declarative clauses and interrogative clauses, but tian1-to3 顛倒 ‘contrarily’ does.
Furthermore, semantic relations of the two adversative adverbs are investigated based on previous analyses by Lakoff (1971), Halliday and Hasan (1976), Rudolph (1996) and L. Chang (2011). In addition to adversative relations, the thesis also probes into the relation of non-adversative adverb hoan2-to3-tng2-(lai5) 反倒轉(來) ‘contrarily’, which is a linking adverb indicating the relation of semantic opposition.
Last but not the least, when it comes to functions in context, we observe words that frequently co-occur with hoan2-to3-tng2-(lai5) 反倒轉(來) ‘contrarily’ and tian1-to3 顛倒 ‘contrarily’. Moreover, we observe that unlike tian1-to3 顛倒 ‘contrarily’, hoan2-to3-tng2-(lai5) 反倒轉(來) ‘contrarily’ can be adopted for connecting huge discourse chunks such as more complex sentences or paragraphs, and its functions are also discussed in the thesis.
We hope the study can not only reveal the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic features of the two near-synonyms, but also find out the similarities and differences between them.
論文目次 摘要 i
Abstract ii
Acknowledgements iv
Table of Contents v
List of Abbreviations viii
List of Tables ix
List of Figures ix
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 The data for analysis 5
1.3 Organization of the thesis 9
Chapter 2 Literature review 11
2.1 Types of adversative relations in English 11
2.1.1 Two basic types proposed by Lakoff (1971) 11
2.1.2 Types proposed by Halliday and Hasan (1976) 14
2.1.3 Types proposed by Rudolph (1996) 17
2.2 Adversative adverbs in Mandarin Chinese 21
2.3 Hierarchical structure of adverbs 30
2.3.1 Adverbs and modal adverbs 30
2.3.2 Functional projections 33
2.4 Diachronic development of fan3-guo4-lai2 反過來 ‘contrarily’ and dian1-dao3 顛倒 ‘contrarily’ in Chinese 38
2.5 Relevant studies about hoan2-to3-tng2-(lai5) 反倒轉(來) ‘contrarily’ and tian1-to3 顛倒 ‘contrarily’ 40
2.5.1 M. Chang (2008) 40
2.5.2 Lien (2011) 41
2.6 Summary 43
Chapter 3 Syntactic and semantic features 44
3.1 Introduction 44
3.2 Syntactic features of adversative adverbs 48
3.2.1 Interaction with future modal verb e7 會 ‘will’ 48
3.2.2 Interaction with qualification adverbs 51
3.2.3 Clause types 53
3.2.4 Hierarchy of the two adversative adverbs 57
3.2.5 Summary 60
3.3 Semantic relations of adversative adverbs 60
3.3.1 Correction 61
3.3.2 Progressive reverse 62
3.3.3 Contrast 64
3.3.4 Cause-progressive reverse 65
3.3.5 Cause reverse 67
3.4 Features of non-adversative adverb hoan2-to3-tng2-(lai5) 反倒轉(來) ‘contrarily’ 69
3.5 Summary 74
Chapter 4 Pragmatic features 80
4.1 Presuppositions 80
4.2 Co-occurrence 84
4.2.1 Co-occurrence with m7-na7 毋但 ‘NEG-only’ and koh4 閣 ‘also’ 84
4.2.2 Co-occurrence with soah4 煞 ‘instead’ 88
4.2.3 Co-occurrence with the conjunction m7-koh4 毋閣 ‘but’ 90
4.2.4 Co-occurrence with si7 是 ‘be’ 92
4.3 The greater use of hoan2-to3-tng2-(lai5) 反倒轉(來) ‘contrarily’ 95
4.3.1 Shifting to the major topic 96
4.3.2 Making an opposition 98
4.4 Summary 102
Chapter 5 Conclusion 104
References 110
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