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系統識別號 U0026-2408201713451500
論文名稱(中文) 氣候變遷下易感族群住宅調適策略之研究
論文名稱(英文) Study on Adjustment Strategies of Residential Building for Susceptible Populations under Climate Change
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 建築學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Architecture
學年度 105
學期 2
出版年 106
研究生(中文) 盧美辰
研究生(英文) Mei-Chen Lu
電子信箱 mei101546@gmail.com
學號 N76041254
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 81頁
口試委員 指導教授-蔡耀賢
口試委員-林子平
口試委員-黃瑞隆
中文關鍵字 氣候變遷  易感族群  既有建築改善  建康風險 
英文關鍵字 Susceptible Population  Health Risk  Reformed Strategies  EnergyPlus 
學科別分類
中文摘要 近年來在氣候變遷影響下極端事件發生的頻率逐漸升高,以極端事件後的急診率與就診率便可以發現劇烈的氣候波動將會導致人體健康受到危害。而過去討論建築物改善之研究多以能源及防災角度探討,甚少關切於健康風險之議題。隨著外界氣候條件愈趨惡劣,易感族群在健康條件與行動的限制下,對於環境的調適性便遠不及青壯年,因此本研究以易感族群為評估對象,在氣候變遷的條件下,分別探討現在之一般氣候與未來極端事件頻繁發生的情況下,對於室內熱環境與居住者的健康影響。希望能了解台灣住宅建築之室內環境於氣候變遷下將面臨之氣候衝擊程度,並嘗試提出可行之改善策略,做為未來因應劇烈氣候變化之建築物改造參考。
本研究使用EnergyPlus為模擬軟體,探討台北氣候下連棟住宅與公寓住宅兩種不同住宅型態之室內熱環境。首先以敏感度分析找出通風策略、外殼隔熱、玻璃熱性能及遮陽裝置等手法之有效改善因子,接著進一步對具有健康風險的既有建築物進行改善,並以超過健康溫度範圍之累積日數以及超過低、中、高閾值之總日數來評估各種改善策略所能降低室內風險暴露時間與暴露強度之效果,探討如何減緩易感族群面對極端事件時的健康衝擊。
研究結果顯示連棟式住宅與公寓住宅之改善策略結果於趨勢上相似,透過敏感度分析顯示增加流量係數、降低太陽日射取得率、水平遮陽與降低建築外殼之熱傳透率為敏感度較高之設計因子。而以當前氣候條件下之模擬結果顯示,比較熱季與冷季暴露於風險的日數比例發現,冷季暴露於風險的比例較熱季高出許多,顯示臺灣位處亞熱帶區,居民對於冷的適應能力較高溫差,因此建議設計者在降低熱季室內太陽輻射熱得的同時,建築外殼之隔熱保溫設計為必要之策略,建議採用雙層玻璃並降低外殼之熱傳透率之改善策略。
另外,綜合考量現在住宅使用之至未來之效益,由未來氣象資料分析結果顯示,不論2030及2050年熱季之外氣溫度及高溫事件皆顯著提升,而冷季氣溫也呈現增加的趨勢,寒流事件則顯著減少,但仍有日較差極大之現象產生。因此除了現況下建議之改善策略外,於未來建議增加流量係數,以確保住宅得以於現況降低過多之過冷風險,並當此改善後住宅使用至2030年時,能有效降低顯著增加之過熱風險,亦可免於極大日較差所導致之健康風險,使室內風險維持於接近現況之水平,進而減緩氣候變遷之影響。
英文摘要 In recent years, the frequency of extreme weather events has gradually increased in many areas under the impact of climate change. Dramatic change of climate have been found to cause human health problems at hospital emergency visits and attendance rate after the occurrence of extreme events. Previous studies manly focused on the issue of energy and disaster, but not health. However, compared to the healthy adult, susceptible populations are more vulnerable to heat exposure. The objective of this study is to propose reformed strategies of existing residential under the impact of climate change. It is expected to adjust the climate and decrease the health risk of the susceptible population.
EnergyPlus was used as the simulation software to study the influence of changing building construction/material to adjust the indoor thermal environment of townhouse and apartment. Sensitivity analysis was carried out to select the design strategies which sensitive to indoor temperature. We then combined these strategies to simulate the effect of adjusting indoor temperature. Finally, the number of days that exceed the threshold were used to evaluate the improvement of indoor environment and their effect on the health risk of susceptible populations.
The sensitivity analysis results show that discharge coefficient, solar heating gain coefficient, insulation and shading are more sensitive to adjust indoor temperature. The simulation results in TMY3 show that days of overcool are much more than overheat. It means that the effect of insulation is necessary to improve the adjustment of overcool in Taiwan currently. Then, considering the effect of reformed strategies until 2030, the future weather data shows that the health risk will increase, especially in the hot season. So, the double low-e glass, increasing discharge coefficient and reducing the U value of construction were the adjusting strategies that suggested. It is expected to reduce the days of overcool currently by insulation and also decrease the days of overheat in 2030 by reducing indoor solar heat gain and increasing the effect of ventilation.
論文目次 第一章 緒論 1
1-1 研究背景與動機 1
(一) 氣候變遷對室外氣候環境之影響 1
(二) 氣候變遷對室內品質之影響 1
(三) 室內環境品質評估 2
(四) 易感族群之調適能力 2
(五) 氣候變遷衝擊下的建築調適設計 2
1-2 研究目的 3
(一) 在臺灣氣候條件下,提出建築物之調適改善策略 3
(二) 評估改善之易感族群健康風險 3
1-3 研究範圍與流程 4
(一) 研究範圍 4
(二) 研究流程 5
第二章 文獻回顧與相關理論 7
2-1 氣候變遷之氣候變化對人體健康之影響 7
2-1-1 全球氣候變遷 7
2-1-2 極端溫度事件 8
2-1-3 極端溫度與相關疾病之關係 8
2-2 氣候變遷對室內之影響 10
2-3 住宅調適設計手法 11
2-4 未來氣候資料應用 12
第三章 研究方法 15
3-1 住宅熱環境模擬 15
3-1-1 臺灣住宅現況 15
3-1-2 EnergyPlus計算說明 16
3-2 TMY3標準氣象年說明 18
3-3 未來氣象資料 18
3-4 敏感度分析 21
3-5 室內溫度對健康之影響風險估算 23
3-5-1 長期室內溫度預測模式建置 23
3-5-2 室內溫度估計值對急診量之風險評估 25
第四章 住宅調適策略探討 – 連棟式住宅 29
4-1 模擬條件設定 29
4-1-1模擬建立與空間設定 29
4-1-2 建材設定 29
4-1-3 其他設定 29
4-2 敏感度分析 31
4-2-1調適策略因子設定 31
4-2-2敏感度分析結果 33
4-2-3各因子效益評估結果 34
4-3 調適策略模擬 36
4-3-1 調適策略因子參數設定 36
4-3-2 模擬結果 37
4-4 未來氣候應用 44
4-5 調適策略小結 – 連棟式住宅 50
第五章 住宅調適策略探討 – 公寓住宅 53
5-1 模擬條件設定 53
5-1-1模擬建立與空間設定 53
5-2 敏感度分析 54
5-2-1調適策略因子設定 54
5-2-2敏感度分析結果 54
5-2-3各因子效益評估結果 56
5-3 調適策略模擬 59
5-3-1 調適策略因子參數設定 59
5-3-2 模擬結果 60
5-4 未來氣候應用 67
5-5 調適策略小結 – 公寓住宅 73
第六章 結論與建議 75
6-1 研究結論 75
6-2 後續研究建議 77
參考文獻 79
(一) 中文文獻 79
(二) 外文文獻 79
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