||Biomechanical Analysis of Dominant Arm in Armwrestling
||Institute of Physical Education, Health & Leisure Studies
shoulder internal rotator
本研究藉由肌電圖觀察慣用側之上肢肌電活化大小對於腕力較勁之影響；使用動態捕捉系統觀察腕力較勁中勝方與負方上肢各肢段的運動變化；類似腕力較勁動作模式下，最大等速肌力測試之評估與比較。30位一般健康男性（一般組）與30位上肩經過訓練之男性（訓練組）為本研究之受試者。本實驗欲觀察之肌群包括三條肩內旋肌群（胸大肌、闊背肌與前三角肌）與手肘屈肌（肱二頭肌短頭）。受試者在腕力實驗兩天前接受等速肌力測定儀之肩內旋肌力量測，角速度設定為45 °/sec與60 °/sec。研究結果發現，腕力較勁中一般組與訓練組比較勝負雙方在胸大肌、闊背肌、前三角肌與肱二頭肌短頭之肌電活化以及在預先活化之肌電訊號皆無顯著差異。腕力較勁中從關節角度變化圖與關節活動角度 (range of motion; ROM) 可發現勝方與負方之肩關節與肘關節差異甚大。不管是在一般組或是訓練組皆可發現腕力較勁中勝方之肩關節呈現伸展、內旋以及水平外展之趨勢；負方並無明顯之趨勢且關節活動甚小。勝負雙方之腕關節皆呈現偏向伸展的運動模式，此外負方之腕關節似乎有較不穩定的情況。比較肩內旋肌力在45 °/sec (離心收縮：P=.001<.05; 向心收縮：P =.004<.05) 與 60 °/sec (離心收縮：P =.032; 向心收縮：P =.041) 角速度之下之最大力矩值達顯著差異。在實際腕力較勁中與較勁前，選手皆盡力收縮上肢肌群之肌纖維包括胸大肌、闊背肌、前三角肌與肱二頭肌短頭，因此勝負雙方之肌肉活化程度並無顯著差異。腕力較勁之中，一般組與訓練組之勝負雙方之闊背肌肌肉活化達到顯著正相關 (一般組：r=0.62, P =.03；訓練組：r=0.65, p=.04)，顯示闊背肌為腕力較勁一勝方與負方相互直接抗衡之肌群。一般組與訓練組之勝負雙方之肩關節 (一般組：伸展／屈曲：P <.001；內旋／外旋：P =.11；外展／內收：P =.035；訓練組：伸展／屈曲：P =.004；內旋／外旋：P =.028) 與肘關節 (一般組：伸展／屈曲：P =.018；訓練組：伸展／屈曲：P =.09 接近顯著) 角度活動在腕力較勁之中有明顯的差異，且勝方的肩關節角度活動趨勢明顯且規律，顯示勝負雙方之運動學之差異性。負方處於失敗位置時必須伸展肘關節以碰觸軟墊；勝方則顯示肘屈曲以取得優勢位置。因此肘關節活動度的過小或肌力不足將會影響傷害之形成；而肘關節屈肌肌力會影響較勁勝負。本研究對於腕力較勁選手、教練或訓練員有助於發展有效訓練與評估方式，亦可藉由本研究預防可能造成之運動傷害。
The current study was to evaluate the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the upper limbs in real arm wrestling (AW). Motion capture system was utilized to evaluate joint movement of upper limbs between winner and loser and to compare the maximum isometric strength test between winner and loser in the posture resembling AW. Thirty healthy normal males and thirty healthy males who trained on shoulder internal rotators were recruited for this study. Three muscles of shoulder internal rotators, pectoralis major (PMJ), anterior deltoid (AD) and latissmus dorsi (LSD), and elbow flexor short head of biceps brachii (BB) were analyzed in this study. Prior to the AW experiment, subjects would be tested for strength of shoulder internal rotation with 45 °/sec and 60 °/sec by isokinetic dynamometer. The results of EMG during match and prior to match showed no significant differences between winner and loser in the four muscles in both groups. The shoulder and elbow patterns of kinematic were totally different between winner and loser in both groups. Significant difference in the range of motion (ROM) of shoulder (normal group, P <.001 in flexion / extension; p=.11 in internal rotation / external rotation; P =.035 in abduction / adduction; training group, P =.004 in flexion / extension; P =.028 in internal rotation / external rotation) and elbow (normal group, P =.018 in flexion / extension; training group, P =.09 close to statistical level) between winner and loser were observed. In winner, the trend of extension, internal rotation and abduction in shoulder joints could be found in both groups; no specific trend and less ROM during match in shoulder of loser were observed. Elbow joint showed flexion in winner and extension in loser. The trend of wrist extension during match could be found in winner and loser in both groups. In addition, unstable situations in joint of wrist during match in loser of both groups were found. The strength of shoulder internal rotation at angular velocity of 45°/sec (p=.001 in eccentric contraction; P =.004 in concentric contraction) and 60 °/sec (p=.032 in eccentric contraction; P =.041 in concentric contraction) indicated significant differences between winner and loser in overall. AW is a sport which exhausts all upper extremity strength, therefore comparison of upper extremity of muscles’ electric activity could not show the differences between winner and loser. The LSD had positive correlation between winner and loser in both groups (r=0.62, P =.03 in normal group; r=0.65, P =.04 in training group). The results showed difference in kinematics between winner and loser. The loser in losing position must extend elbow to touch the side pad; winner trend to flex elbow in order to obtain the advantaged position. Therefore, limited ROM of elbow joint or weak strength may affect to injury; strength of elbow flexor may affect outcome of the match. This study contributes to the development of effective training and assessment methods for AW players, coaches or trainers. In addition, with the kinematics pattern evaluation in current study, AW injuries may be more predictable and more likely to prevent.
1. INTRODUCTION 1
2. BACKGROUND 2
2.1 Related EMG study of arm wrestling in muscles activity 2
2.2 Related motion analysis study of arm wrestling 3
2.3 Injuries by arm wrestling 3
2.4 Summary 4
3. PURPOSE AND HYPOTHESIS 5
4. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD 7
4.1 Operational definition and rules 7
4.1.1 Operational definition 7
4.1.2 Rules 8
4.2 Participant 9
4.3 Instrument and environment 9
4.3.1 Hardware 9
4.3.2 Experiment environment 13
4.4 Procedures 13
4.4.1 Exam of maximum strength of shoulder internal rotation 14
4.4.2 Preliminary work 14
4.4.3 Arm wrestling match set and data collection 15
4.5 Kinematics 16
4.6 Data processing and analysis 18
4.6.1 Shoulder internal strength analysis 18
4.6.2 Arm wrestling motion analysis 19
4.6.3 EMG analysis 19
4.6.4 Statistical analysis 19
5. RESULTS 20
5.1 Kinematics 22
5.1.1 Normal group 23
5.1.2 Training group 26
5.1.3 Angular velocity of shoulder rotation 30
5.2 EMG 31
5.2.1 Normal group 31
5.2.2 Training group 32
5.2.3 The pairs have no winner/loser 34
5.2.4 Time domain in EMG value of first peak 35
5.3 Strength 35
5.3.1 Normal group 36
5.3.2 Training group 37
5.3.3 EMG value cross with strength 39
6. DISCUSSION 41
6.1 Kinematics 41
6.1.1 Shoulder 42
6.1.2 Elbow 48
6.1.3 Wrist 48
6.2 EMG 49
6.2.1 EMG during match 49
6.2.2 Muscle pre-activity 52
6.3 Strength 53
6.4 Training guideline 55
6.5 Avoid injury during arm wrestling 56
6.6 Summary 57
6.7 Limitations 58
7. CONCLUSION 58
Appendix A 64
Appendix B 66
Appendix C 68
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