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系統識別號 U0026-2408201011253300
論文名稱(中文) 自閉症候群學齡兒童之臉部情緒覺知能力探討
論文名稱(英文) Facial Emotion Perception in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 職能治療學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Occupational Therapy
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生(中文) 曾怡真
研究生(英文) Yi-Chen Tseng
學號 t7697103
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 173頁
口試委員 指導教授-李易清
口試委員-施陳美津
口試委員-蔡佩倫
口試委員-林豪鏘
中文關鍵字 自閉症候群  情緒辨識  視覺搜尋方式 
英文關鍵字 autism spectrum disorders  emotion recognition  visual scanning pattern 
學科別分類
中文摘要 溝通障礙、社會互動障礙、以及有限、重複與固著的行為模式或興趣是自閉症候群兒童最為人知的核心問題行為。而眼神接觸過少、無法適當的察覺他人情緒並適時做出反應,也對於社交互動具有重要的影響力。研究指出自閉症候群患者對於物體的辨識能力優於臉孔辨識能力,對於物體的興趣多過於臉孔,造成觀察臉孔特徵或相關訊息的機會減低,影響臉孔辨識與情緒覺知能力。
一般人在處理臉孔訊息時,以整體外觀輪廓的資訊為辨識臉孔的方式,主要的觀察區域為眼睛。近年來有眾多文獻探討自閉症候群患者之臉部情緒辨識能力及視覺搜尋方式,但研究結果分歧,缺乏一致性結論。而文獻研究所採用的視覺刺激物種類與呈現方式設計不同,也會影響研究結果。為了釐清過去文獻不一致之處,並提供更多相關的實證醫學證據。本研究採用頭戴式場景攝影機眼球追蹤系統來紀錄兒童之眼球動作表現,藉以比較自閉症候群學齡兒童與一般學齡兒童,對於不同形式臉孔之臉部情緒覺知能力表現。
受試者為8-12足歲之自閉症候群學齡兒童與一般學齡兒童,各25位,所有兒童的詞彙理解能力屬正常範圍。本研究的視覺刺激物乃依據臉孔種類、影片播放形式、與色彩等因素來加以考量,共分為7類。每一個種類的刺激源包含基本情緒6種(快樂、驚訝、難過、討厭、生氣、害怕)與複雜情緒4種(害羞、驕傲、無聊、擔心)。過程中以隨機方式決定播放順序,請兒童進行臉部情緒辨識的任務。
本研究證實自閉症候群學齡兒童與一般兒童在臉部情緒覺知能力上有差異。高功能自閉症候群學齡兒童與一般兒童皆能夠辨識臉部基本情緒,而自閉症候群學齡兒童對於負向基本情緒的辨識能力比一般學齡兒童差,同時對於複雜情緒的區辨表現也較一般學齡兒童差。自閉症候群學齡兒童在臉孔與情緒處理歷程及視覺搜尋方式與一般兒童相異。包括對於眼睛區域的凝視次數、凝視時間、與單一凝視點凝視時間較短,第一眼也較少凝視眼睛區域,離開螢幕的注視時間較長。而視覺刺激源的類型也可能會影響兒童的視覺搜尋策略,尤其是臉孔的種類影響較為顯著。
本研究以大腦功能異常及心智理論功能不佳來解釋自閉症候群學齡兒童的表現。本研究結果可增進臨床專業人員對此族群情緒辨識能力的了解並提供社交互動學習訓練時的活動設計參考。未來應進一步擴大自閉症候群兒童的涵蓋範圍,並且檢測更多種類的複雜情緒及視覺刺激物類型,以期能對自閉症候群兒童的臉部情緒辨識能力能有更全面性、更完整的瞭解。
英文摘要 The core features of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are social interaction dysfunction, communication impairment, and repetitive, stereotyped behaviors. Moreover, abnormal eye contact and facial emotion recognition impairment make a great impact on social competence of children with ASD. Children with ASD pay more attention to objects than human faces and it leads to the difficulty of recognizing the information in facial expressions. Generally, normal person scan people’s face with holistic processing strategy and stare the core features of faces more, especially the eyes. Numerous studies have investigated the issues about facial emotion perception in ASD and results were inconsistent due to the methodological variations.
This study was conducted to investigate the emotion perception capabilities of school-aged children with ASD in various types of facial presentation. Head-mounted eye tracking system (ViewPoint Eye Tracker) was used to record the eye movement data. 25 children with ASD and 25 typical developing children, aged 8 to 12, were recruited. All subjects’ verbal comprehension were within normal range. 7 types of facial presentation were used. The images portrayed 6 basic emotions (happy, sad, angry, disgust, surprise, and afraid) and 4 complex emotions (pride, worry, shy, and bored). All children were requesteds to identify the facial emotion expressions.
The results indicated that children with ASD were as capable as controls in processing basic emotional expressions. However, Complex emotion recognition was impaired in children with ASD relative to the controls. Atypical facial processing was found in children with ASD, including reduced fixations in the eyes, less first fixations in eyes, and longer off-screen time. The visual scanning strategies were also affected by the types of facial presentation. The malfunction of amygdala and impaired theory of mind in ASD were referred. The investigation of low-functioning ASD children and other types of complex emotion were suggested to the future study.
論文目次 中文摘要 I
Abstract III
誌謝 V
目錄 VI
表目錄 X
圖目錄 XIV
附錄目錄 XV

目錄

第一章、緒論 1
第一節、研究動機與重要性 1
壹、動機 1
貳、重要性 1
第二節、研究目的 3
第三節、研究問題 4
第四節 研究假設 5
第五節 研究架構 6
第六節 操作型名詞定義 7
第二章、文獻回顧 10
第一節、自閉症候群簡介 10
第二節、臉孔與情緒辨識相關理論 12
壹、心智理論 12
貳、中央連貫理論 13
第三節、神經影像學之證據 16
第四節、自閉症候群之臉孔辨識能力 20
壹、臉孔與物體 20
貳、臉孔辨識能力 21
第五節、自閉症候群之情緒覺知能力 22
壹、何謂情緒 22
貳、情緒覺知能力 23
參、基本與複雜情緒 26
第六節、自閉症候群之訊息處理歷程 28
壹、正常人之訊息處理歷程 28
貳、支持自閉症候群臉孔訊息處理歷程異常相關研究 28
參、支持自閉症候群臉孔訊息處理歷程正常相關研究 29
肆、倒置效應 30
伍、熟悉與陌生臉孔 31
第七節、自閉症候群對不同形式視覺刺激物之反應 32
壹、動態影片與靜態照片 32
貳、真實臉孔與卡通 33
參、視覺情境提示與否 34
第三章、研究方法 36
第一節、研究對象 36
第二節、視覺刺激物 38
第三節、研究工具與設備 41
第四節、研究流程 45
第五節、資料分析 46
第六節、前驅研究 47
第四章、結果 49
第一節、基本人口學資料 49
第二節、情緒辨識正確率與總凝視次數與總凝視時間 51
第三節、各觀測區域凝視次數之分析 52
第四節、各觀測區域凝視時間之分析 54
第五節、各觀測區域單一凝視點平均凝視時間之分析 57
第六節、第一眼凝視位置百分比之分析 59
第七節、離開螢幕注視時間之分析 61
第八節、各觀測區域凝視時間百分比之分析 62
第九節、以情緒種類分析兩組兒童視覺搜尋方式之異同 64
第十節、各觀測區域變項與組別、影片形式之分析 66
第五章、討論 67
第一節、情緒辨識正確率與總凝視次數與總凝視時間 67
第二節、各觀測區域凝視次數之分析 71
第三節、各觀測區域凝視時間之分析 73
第四節、各觀測區域單一凝視點平均凝視時間之分析 76
第五節、第一眼凝視位置百分比之分析 77
第六節、離開螢幕注視時間之分析 79
第七節、各觀測區域凝視時間百分比之分析 80
第八節、以情緒種類分析兩組兒童視覺搜尋方式之異同 83
第九節、各觀測區域變項與組別、影片形式之分析 84
第十節、總結 86
第六章、結論 89
第一節、總結 89
第二節、臨床應用 90
第三節、研究限制與未來研究建議 91
參考文獻 93
參考文獻 中文參考文獻
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