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系統識別號 U0026-2407202010153500
論文名稱(中文) 脈衝式雷射點焊之雷射對焦對焊接品質與應力分佈影響
論文名稱(英文) Effects of the laser focusing for the welding quality and stress distribution in pulsed laser spot welding
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 機械工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Mechanical Engineering
學年度 108
學期 2
出版年 109
研究生(中文) 陳韋廷
研究生(英文) Wei-Ting Chen
學號 N16071419
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 116頁
口試委員 指導教授-林震銘
口試委員-陳鐵城
口試委員-鍾俊輝
中文關鍵字 脈衝雷射焊接  焊接品質  應力分佈  雷射對焦系統 
英文關鍵字 Pulse laser welding  Welding quality  Stress distribution  Laser focusing system 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究採用脈衝式Nd-YAG雷射對304不銹鋼試片進行焊接加工,探討雷射對焦條件對於焊接品質與應力分佈的影響。實驗中透過自行開發的對焦機構與影像處理系統找出最佳的雷射焦點位置,達到自動化整合雷射製成的目的。
首先實驗中使用不同夾持力進行焊接測試,探討其對於焊接品質的影響。透過焊接形貌量測及抗拉試驗發現使用足夠的夾持力進行雷射焊接時,能夠獲得良好的焊接品質。同時經過動力計量測與數值模擬結果的相互比較驗證。進一步探討偏轉角度與離焦距離對於焊接品質之影響。隨著偏轉角度與離焦距離的增加將導致抗拉強度降低等現象。經由焊接接點的剖面金相分析發現,偏轉角度與離焦距離的增加將降低熱影響區及增加脆性金相結構的比例。相較電池多極柄的電阻焊應用,本文的脈衝雷射焊接系統具有較完整的製程參數及自動化整合的特性。
英文摘要 In this study, Nd-Yag pulsed laser was used to conduct a welding experiment with 304 stainless steel plates, and the effects of the laser focusing for the welding quality and stress distribution were discussed in details. In the experiment, the laser spot was detected by a focusing mechanism and image processing system. The automatic focusing had been achieved for the laser spot welding.

Firstly, the welding test was carried out with different clamping forces and its influences on the welding quality were discussed. According to the weld contour measurement and tensile test, it was found that a good welding quality could be achieved with a sufficient clamping force in welding. In comparison with the results of dynamic force measurement and numerical simulation, it is to verify the effects of laser heating and thermal stress induced in pulsed laser spot welding. Finally, the influences of the laser beam angle and focusing condition on the welding quality were further discussed. As the laser beam angle and defocusing distance were increased, the tensile strength and the heat affected zone of the weld were decreased. Corresponding to the microstructures of welding zone the portion of the brittle phase increases with the beam angle and the defocusing distance, and it might reduce the weld tensile strength. Furthermore a comparison between the electric resistance welding and pulsed laser welding has been made for the multi-electrode battery welding applications, the pulsed laser system developed in the study provides a possible way with a complete set of the process parameters to achieve an automatic welding process
論文目次 摘要 I
英文延伸摘要 II
致謝I X
目錄 X
表目錄 XVI
圖目錄 XVIII
符號說明 XXIV
第一章 緒論 1
1-1研究背景 1
1-2文獻回顧 2
1-2.1脈衝雷射參數對於電池焊接之影響 2
1-2.2電阻電池焊接比較與其適用性 8
1-2.3電阻焊接製程監測與焊接性質分析 9
1-2.4雷射自動對焦系統應用 11
1-3研究方法 14
1-4本文架構 14
第二章 相關製程理論 17
2-1雷射光特性[20] 17
2-1.1雷射光模態[20] 17
2-1.2高斯模態[21] 18
2-1.3雷射於傾斜板上的光束特徵[21] 19
2-2雷射加熱變形的機制 20
2-3機器視覺影像處理[25] 22
2-3.1像素(Pixel)邏輯運算[26] 23
2-3.2直方圖處理(Histogram Processing)[26] 23
2-3.3二值化處理[26] 24
2-3.4影像灰階處理[27] 24
2-3.5影像補洞處理(Hole Filling)[28] 25
2-3.6膨脹與侵蝕處理[28]、[29] 26
2-3.6.1影像膨脹處理(Dilation) [28]、[29] 26
2-3.6.2影像侵蝕處理(erosion)[28]、[29] 28
2-3.7影像平滑化[30] 30
2-3.7.1均質濾波(Mean Filter)[30] 30
2-3.7.2高斯濾波(Gaussian Filter)[30] 30
第三章 數值計算與對焦系統測試 32
3-1熱傳模擬 32
3-1.1ANSYS軟體簡介 32
3-1.2幾何試件尺寸與網格設定 33
3-1.3材料性質設定 34
3-1.4模擬基本假設[31]、[32] 36
3-1.5雷射熱源與邊界條件 36
3-1.6試件溫度分佈與時間之關係 39
3-1.7試件的正向應力與時間之變化關係 42
3-2自動對焦系統分析 44
3-2.1 LabVIEW 44
3-2.1.1人機介面 44
3-2.1.2軟體程式 45
3-2.2自動對焦參數設定 46
3-2.3自動對焦流程 47
3-2.4全域性與即時性的雷射對焦系統比較 48
3-2.4.1垂直表面對焦校正結果 50
3-2.5斜向表面對焦校正結果 52
3-2.5.1旋轉補正 53
3-3結果與討論 55
3-3.1數值分析結果與討論 55
3-3.2自動對焦系統結果與討論 55
第四章 實驗 57
4-1實驗設備介紹與配置 57
4-2雷射點焊實驗參數及條件 61
4-3雷射點焊接實驗流程 63
4-4夾持力對於焊接品質之測試 63
4-4.1焊點形貌 63
4-4.1.1焊點形貌之分析結果 64
4-4.2焊道動態應力量測 66
4-4.2.1焊道動態應力之結果分析 67
4-4.2.2實驗與數值模擬比較 68
4-4.3點焊試件抗剪強度分析 70
4-4.3.1拉伸試驗設備與配置 70
4-4.3.2拉伸試件之幾何條件 71
4-4.3.3不同夾持力之點焊抗剪強度結果 71
4-5斜向與離焦對於焊接品質之影響 73
4-5.1焊點形貌分析 73
4-5.1.1焊點形貌分析結果與討論 74
4-5.2偏轉與離焦之焊點抗剪強度分析 75
4-5.3點焊試件之斷面量測分析 77
4-5.3.1不同雷射能量下之熱影響區差異 78
4-5.3.2偏轉角度與離焦距離之熱影響區差異 79
4-5.4金相組織觀察結果與討論 83
4-5.4.1斜向金相組織觀察結果 84
4-5.4.2離焦金相組織觀察結果 85
4-6三層電極雷射焊接的應用 86
4-6.1雷射焊接與電阻焊接之差異 87
4-6.2焊接試件之斷面分析 88
4-6.3多層焊接試件之微觀組織 89
4-7結果與討論 90
第五章 綜合結果與建議 94
5-1綜合結果 94
5-2未來發展與相關建議 98
參考文獻 99
附錄A 103
附錄B 104
附錄C 108
附錄D 110
附錄E 112
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