||An experimental heat transfer study of impinging jet arrays issued from nozzle plates with web-patterned grooves
||Department of Systems and Naval Mechatronic Engineering
Impingement Jet Array
Small Separation Distance
Grooved Nozzle Plate
本實驗研究探討於噴嘴陣列孔板設置凹槽對其熱傳性能之影響。實驗採用穩態紅外線熱傳檢測技術，量測自平滑及設置兩種網絡凹槽噴嘴陣列孔板之衝擊噴柱陣列熱傳性能。對自平滑或設置凹槽噴嘴陣列孔板射出之衝擊噴柱陣列，其實驗檢測之噴柱雷諾數（Rej）範圍為1500< Rej <20000，噴嘴出口與衝擊面分離距(S)則介於0.1至8倍之噴嘴直徑(dj)。研究結果顯示，當S/dj<0.3，由於噴嘴陣列孔板與衝擊面距離過近，致使對衝擊後之流體產生侷限效應(confinement effect)，導致自平滑噴嘴陣列孔板射出之衝擊噴柱陣列熱傳性能，隨S/dj自0.3減少至0.1時出現熱傳係數降低之現象。藉由於噴嘴孔板上刻劃網絡式凹槽，鬆弛侷限效應，並導引衝擊後流體沿幅向流出噴嘴孔板與衝擊面之空間，顯著提升S/dj<0.3時之熱傳性能，且當隨S/dj自0.3減少至0.1時，其熱傳係數持續上升。另外由於噴嘴孔板上凹槽網絡能有效緩和噴柱間之相互干涉，因此於噴嘴孔板上刻劃網絡式凹槽，亦能於較小之S/dj條件，改善其噴柱衝擊面之熱傳分布均勻性。應用本實驗研究產生之熱傳數據庫，以統計回歸方法，推導出三組熱傳係數實驗公式，分別計算自平滑噴嘴陣列孔板，及兩組網絡凹槽噴嘴陣列孔板射出之噴柱陣列，其衝擊面中央區域之平均紐塞數。
The present experimental study explores the heat transfer impacts caused by the grooves on the nozzle plate of the impinging jet arrays. The heat transfer performances for the impinging jet arrays issued from the smooth and the grooved nozzle plates are detected using the steady state infrared thermography method. With both the smooth and grooved nozzle plates through which the impinging jet arrays are issued, the jet Reynolds numbers (Rej) are in the range of 1500< Rej <20000 and the nozzle-to-plate separation distances (S) fall between 0.1 and 8 jet diameters (dj). With S/dj<0.3, the research results show that the heat transfer performances are undermined by the strong confinement effects due to the small separation distances when the impinging jet array is emitted from the smooth nozzle plate, leading to the decreased heat transfer rates as S/dj reduces from 0.3 to 0.1. By way of relaxation of the spent flow confinement between the nozzle plate and the impinging surface using the patterned grooves via which the spent fluids flow radially outward, the heat transfer performances at S/dj<0.3 are considerably improved with the heat transfer rates keep increasing as S/dj reduces from 0.3 to 0.1. In addition, as the grooves on the nozzle plate effectively moderate the jet-to-jet interferences, the heat transfer uniformity at small S/dj over the impinging surface can be improved. Based on the heat transfer data generated by the present study, three set of heat transfer correlations are generated to evaluate the average Nusselt number over the central jet region of the impinging jet arrays issued from the smooth nozzle plate and the nozzle plates with two different groove patterns.
Table of Contents VI
List of Tables VIII
List of Figures IX
Chapter 1. Introduction 1
1.1. Introduction to impinging jet 1
1.2. Background of industrial application 4
1.3. Research goals 8
Chapter 2. Literature review 10
2.1. Single impinging jet 10
2.2. Multi-jet impingement 19
Chapter 3. Experimental methods 34
3.1. Experimental facilities 34
3.2. Data Reduction methods 40
3.3. Experimental uncertainties 46
Chapter 4. Results and discussion 54
4.1. Spent flow conditions 54
4.2. Heat transfer characteristics 56
4.3. Heat transfer uniformities 72
4.4. Averaged heat transfer performance 74
4.5. Heat transfer correlation 80
Chapter 5. Conclusions and recommendations 84
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