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系統識別號 U0026-2407201818150800
論文名稱(中文) 全球價值鏈對國家觀光碳競爭力的影響
論文名稱(英文) The Impact of Global Value Chains on National Tourism Carbon Competitiveness
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 交通管理科學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Transportation & Communication Management Science
學年度 106
學期 2
出版年 107
研究生(中文) 許姵汶
研究生(英文) Pei-Wen Hsu
學號 R56051193
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 147頁
口試委員 指導教授-黃郁雯
口試委員-林珮珺
口試委員-潘明珠
中文關鍵字 觀光GDP  觀光碳排放  全球價值鏈  多區域環境延伸投入產出模型 
英文關鍵字 Tourism GDP  Tourism carbon emissions  Global value chains  Environmentally extended input-output model 
學科別分類
中文摘要 國與國之間的經濟互動日益頻繁,產生全球價值鏈 (Global Value Chains,以下簡稱GVCs)的概念。觀光產業同步受到GVCs的影響,對於環境與經濟面產生正負面影響。本研究首先利用多區域環境延伸投入產出模型計算2011年18個國家在全球價值鏈下取得觀光GDP與觀光CO2的比例,以及該國觀光碳排放效率 (CO2/GDP)。接著分析觀光消費細項,了解國家各部門表現。接著判定目的地國家是否受益於全球價值鏈的參與,比較其在碳排效率上的絕對優勢與相對優勢。最後探討三個關鍵因子,包含已開發/開發中國家、現行參與區域貿易協定的數量以及物流表現對於觀光碳競爭力的正負向影響。研究結果總結如下:
1.國家本身的觀光碳排放效率,奧地利的表現最好,為0.1008 (CO2 kg/GDP $US),印度最差,為1.2199。在全球價值鏈中,國家取得觀光GDP與CO2比例,奧地利取得最高比例的觀光GDP與最低比例的觀光CO2,表現最好,而在此兩指標中,台灣表現最差。
2.在18個國家中,住宿與餐飲部門占全國觀光GDP的比例較高,約在20~30%。航空運輸部門則是占全國觀光CO2的比例較高,約在30%以上。而各部門的碳排放效率,航空運輸部門的數值較其他部門高。
3.愛沙尼亞、台灣與印度在碳排效率上雖然不具有絕對優勢與相對優勢,但此三國可以積極利用全球價值鏈之形成,藉由增加進口品或服務來減少國家的觀光相關碳排放量。
4.“現行參與的區域貿易協定數量”對於全球價值鏈中國家取得觀光碳排放比例有顯著負向影響,對於國家觀光碳排放效率有顯著提升影響。LPI對於全球價值鏈中國家取得觀光GDP比例有顯著正向影響;對於全球價值鏈中國家取得觀光碳排放比例有顯著正向影響,但對於國家觀光碳排效率沒有影響。
英文摘要 National economics have become inter-connected, and the concept of global value chains (GVCs) emerged. Tourism is affected by GVCs and result in economic and environmental impacts. The study first uses multi-regional environmentally extended input-output model to calculate the share of tourism GDP and CO2 obtained by 18 destination countries in GVCs in 2011, and their tourism carbon efficiency (CO2/GDP). Next tourism consumption is used to access performance of various sectors. In addition, whether destination countries can benefit from participation of GVCs is examined. Finally, positive or negative effects of three key factors on tourism carbon competitiveness are explored.
The results include four parts. First, regarding country’s tourism carbon efficiency, Austria is the best and India is the worst. And the share of tourism GDP and CO2 obtained by countries in GVCs, Austria obtains the highest share of tourism GDP and the lowest share of tourism CO2 and performs best. However, Taiwan performs the worst. Second, hotels and restaurants sector accounts for a higher share of national tourism GDP and air transport sector accounts for a higher share of national tourism CO2. Air transport sector has higher carbon efficiency than other sectors. Third, Estonia, Taiwan, and India have no absolute and relative advantages in carbon efficiency. Last, the number of regional trade agreements in force is a key factor to improve tourism carbon competitiveness.
論文目次 第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究目的 6
1.3 研究貢獻 7
1.4 研究流程 7
第二章 文獻回顧 9
2.1 全球價值鏈 9
2.1.1 全球價值鏈概念 9
2.1.2 全球價值鏈對國家的影響 10
2.2 影響國家參與全球價值鏈的因素 11
2.2.1 國家結構特徵 11
2.2.2 貿易與其他政策 17
2.2.3 小結 24
2.3 觀光連結與流失 24
2.3.1 觀光連結 (tourism linkage) 24
2.3.2 觀光流失 (tourism leakage) 26
2.3.3 小結 29
2.4 全球價值鏈評估方法 30
第三章 研究方法 32
3.1 資料蒐集與研究範圍界定 32
3.2 分析架構 37
3.2.1 指標 37
3.2.2 EEIO計算公式 40
3.3 多元迴歸分析 (Multiple Regression Analysis) 41
第四章 實證研究 44
4.1 18個目的地國家的觀光統計資料 44
4.2 EEIO模型計算結果與分析 46
4.2.1 2011年18個目的地國家之觀光GDP與觀光CO2 46
4.2.2 國家碳排效率差異解釋 (奧地利vs.印度) 53
4.2.3 全球價值鏈中國家取得觀光GDP與CO2比例差異解釋 (奧地利vs.台灣) 56
4.2.4 其他國家碳排效率優於目的地國家 (加拿大、英國、中國、台灣、印度)解釋 61
4.3 觀光消費細項分析 64
4.3.1 國家部門觀光GDP與CO2占國家整體比例以及部門觀光碳排放效率 65
4.3.2 全球價值鏈中,國家部門取得觀光GDP與CO2的比例 71
4.4 判定目的地國家是否受益於全球價值鏈的參與 78
4.5 多元迴歸分析結果 87
4.5.1 自變數與依變數 (碳排效率)之多元迴歸模型 89
4.5.2 自變數與依變數 (全球價值鏈中,國家取得之觀光GDP比例)之多元迴歸模型 91
4.5.3 自變數與依變數 (全球價值鏈中,國家取得之觀光CO2比例)之多元迴歸模型 93
第五章 結論與建議 96
5.1 研究結論 96
5.2 研究建議 99
5.3 研究貢獻 108
5.4 研究限制 108
參考文獻 110
附錄 1 : 奧地利與印度觀光部門之遊客消費比例(∆Y )、各部門碳排係數(C)、部門附加價值比例差異(V)與產業結構((I-A)-1) 118
附錄 2 : 奧地利與台灣觀光部門之遊客消費比例(∆Y )、各部門碳排係數(C)、部門附加價值比例差異(V)與產業結構((I-A)-1) 122
附錄 3 : 5個目的地國家與其他國家各部門之碳排效率 128
附錄 4 : 各國部門之觀光GDP與碳排放占國家整體比例 131
附錄 5 : 全球價值鏈中,國家部門取得觀光GDP與CO2比例 133
附錄 6 : 各國部門觀光GDP與CO2占國家整體比例與碳排效率排序 135
附錄 7 : 多元迴歸模型基本假設 141
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