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系統識別號 U0026-2407201816192900
論文名稱(中文) 應用可及性指標於公共設施空間公平性之研究-以原臺中市都市公園為例
論文名稱(英文) The Study of Spatial Equity of Public Facilities by using the Accessibility Measures-A case study of the Urban Parks in Taichung City
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 都市計劃學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Urban Planning
學年度 106
學期 2
出版年 107
研究生(中文) 高郁婷
研究生(英文) Yu-Ting Gau
學號 P26054169
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 92頁
口試委員 指導教授-林漢良
口試委員-陳建元
口試委員-石豐宇
口試委員-陳坤宏
中文關鍵字 空間公平  個體可及性  公共設施  都市公園 
英文關鍵字 Spatial Equity  Individual Accessibility  Public Facilities  Urban Parks 
學科別分類
中文摘要 公共設施的數量與配置會因街道路網所造成的阻隔或連結關係產生不公平之議題。公共服務分配的不合理與不平等不僅將加劇既有收入差異、資源不均的「社會不公平」問題,更可能阻礙都市的永續發展。都市規劃或地理學領域中,「空間公平」研究即在探討個人、群體或地區是否因其享有之交通設施不同或所在之地理位置差異而得到不同之機會。「空間公平」應被視為重要的規劃內涵,於規劃過程中考慮設施配置問題以實踐公平、永續的理念。臺中市與其他城市皆面臨公共設施保留地解除編定之議題,而其中又以公園與綠地為大宗。了解服務不公平之地區、評估公共設施保留地可能提升之公平程度以掌握都市公園的空間公平狀態對此發展階段而言相當重要。
回顧過往研究,公共設施空間公平性多採用可及性 (Accessibility) 指標進行運算,因可及性能夠藉由設定起點、起點與之間的連結形式來分別反映設施服務之需求、供給點位與到達公共設施的旅行模式。然而指標之運算皆採用基於分區 (Zone-based) 的計算方法,其假設分區內的所有個體具有與質心相同的可及能力,而因此忽略研究單元內的空間差異,無法檢測出分區中的細微差異。故本研究將以基於個體 (Individual-based) 之尺度取代傳統研究區劃的方法進行可及性之度量。採用「道路線分段」為空間單元,分段中心為出發點位計算至現有服務設施之最短路網距離作為可及性指標,並應用羅倫茲曲線 (Lorenz Curve) 與吉尼係數 (Gini Coefficient) 之概念,將各個體之可及能力自小累積至大,以產出空間不公平指數來評估臺中市整體空間不公平之程度。
研究結果顯示若使用分區計算,最嚴重將造成可及性兩千公尺之高估或一千公尺之低估,而基於分區與基於個體兩類可及性計算之結果在臺中市的屯區,包含南屯區、西屯區與北屯區有顯著的差異。此外,以個體可及性度量可發現市中心區包括中、東、南、西、北區普遍具有較好的數值,僅中區與西區交界、北區與東區交界、北區與北屯區交界三處至都市公園之可及能力較差、數值大於500公尺。最後,加入未開闢都市公園進行計算可得知可及性結果將在屯區有較明顯之改善。而以個別設施納入計算則能夠了解每處設施興建後對整體空間不公平之影響與可及性提升之地區和其範圍。
英文摘要 The amount and configuration of public facilities in city would generate the issue of “Spatial Inequity” owing to the barrier or link relations caused by street network. If public services are distributed inappropriately and unequally, it could become a factor which prevents the city from sustainable development. Consequently, “Spatial Equity” should be regarded as an important planning concept and be considered in planning process in order to practice the goal of equity and sustainability.
In previous research, accessibility measures are common methods to conduct a spatial equity study since they have complete concept of availability and spatial distribution of public services. However, these approaches are zone-based methods, which can’t detect the fine difference within a zone. Therefore, this study took the individual accessibility measure, adopted the centers of road segments as services origin points, counted the shortest distance to closest facility through Network Analysis in the ArcGIS and took it as accessibility value.
The study results show that the accessibility of urban parks would produce error if we adopt zone-based method. The Gini coefficient coming from individual accessibility value helped us figure out the integral spatial inequity over Taichung city. It shows that administrative districts in central Taichung have better accessibility. Besides, the spatial inequity could be improved if undeveloped urban parks are constructed. Ultimately, by adding undeveloped park separately, we could gave an overall suggestion of urban parks and confirmed which service is important for integral spatial equity.
論文目次 第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與目的 1
第二節 研究範疇 2
第三節 研究內容與流程 5
第二章 相關理論與文獻回顧 7
第一節 空間公平性 7
第二節 可及性作為空間公平之量測 16
第三節 公共設施 23
第三章 研究設計與方法 30
第一節 研究概念 30
第二節 研究資料 38
第三節 研究設計 42
第四章 都市公園空間不公平分析 49
第一節 基於分區與基於個體可及性 49
第二節 現況已開闢設施與計畫設施之差異 60
第五章 未開闢都市公園空間公平評估 71
第一節 區位與使用現況 72
第二節 敘述性統計與空間型態 74
第三節 可及性於空間中之差異 76
第三節 空間不公平指數 79
第六章 結論與建議 81
參考文獻 83
附錄 92
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潘國雄(2001)。大規模地震災害時防災公園評估基準之研究。中央警察大學消防科學研究所學位論文。
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