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系統識別號 U0026-2407201421112600
論文名稱(中文) 利用複合式量測方法推估河川流量之研究
論文名稱(英文) Estimation of river discharge by using a novel composite measurement method
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 水利及海洋工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Hydraulics & Ocean Engineering
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 林穎志
研究生(英文) Ying-Chih Lin
學號 N88981088
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 128頁
口試委員 指導教授-呂珍謀
口試委員-蔡長泰
口試委員-王裕民
口試委員-詹勳全
口試委員-李明靜
口試委員-簡仲和
中文關鍵字 流速比  流量  連續波微波雷達表面流速儀  聲波都普勒流速儀 
英文關鍵字 Velocity ratio  Discharge  Continuous wave radar  ADCP 
學科別分類
中文摘要 高河川流量值為規劃設計及洪災管理所需之重要資料,而現行河川流量的推估主要是利用人工觀測方式,直接量測河川的水深與流速,進而計算平均流速與斷面之通水面積。惟台灣河川洪水期間之流況水位漲退變化快速且河面寬廣,採此人工作業方式相當費時費力且量測準確度與時效性均不足,加上風強雨驟及洪流湍急並夾雜大量漂流物,人員與機具暴露於此惡劣天候環境下極具風險。故考量人員及設備儀器之安全,颱洪期間鮮少進行現場連續流量實測作業,颱洪期間之高流量資料多藉由水位流量率定曲線推計而得,因此傳統流量觀測作業方式對洪水期間流量變化掌握存有相當大之不確定性。
為能安全即時地獲取河川之實測流速分佈與推估流量,近年來已陸續研究發展數種實測水流流速之儀器,並逐漸應用於實務量測作業。然而以往研究所使用之儀器皆有其適用性與限制性,並假設河川垂向流速分布符合理論的流速律,但若河川流速並非遵循固定之流速律公式,則在計算上勢必產生誤差進而影響流量推估的準確性。本文以非接觸式連續波微波雷達表面流速儀及接觸式聲波都普勒流速儀(ADCP)為主體建構之複合式量測系統進行流量觀測,利用實測流速分佈資料進行平均流速與表面流速關係(流速比)之探討,顯示曾文溪橋下游河道深槽之流速比會隨著水深增加而趨近於0.89,左岸高灘及右岸高灘則趨近於0.77及0.76,且配合對數律流速分佈理論進行河道底床糙度推估,以 為底床粗糙高度所推得之水深-流速比關係與實測值最為接近,此為傳統流量觀測作業不易獲取之資訊。
依據試驗結果顯示不同量測方法因觀測原理及適用流況條件不同,推估之流量成果也會有所差異,需配合現場流況採用不同量測方法以得到更準確的流量資料,故研擬之河川流量複合式量測方法如下:低流量(<50cms)時水面波紋受風吹的影響很大,應採接觸式量測儀器為主;中流量(50cms~1000cms)時表面流速與流況皆呈現穩定狀態,可採接觸式與非接觸式儀器同步進行觀測並探討流速比關係;高流量(>1000cms)時因流況紊亂且流速過大,導致接觸式流速儀不易定位觀測水深與流速,應採用非接觸式儀器進行量測。本文利用天秤颱風等颱洪事件之資料進行實測驗證,顯示此複合式量測方法具有全天候觀測流量能力,能掌握洪水過程流量變化並克服傳統量測作業未能取得高流量實測資料之瓶頸,故可大幅提高觀測效率與準確度及工作人員之安全性,應為可行之現場全洪程流量觀測方法。
關鍵詞:流速比、流量、連續波微波雷達表面流速儀、聲波都普勒流速儀
英文摘要 SUMMARY

River flood control and water management highly prioritize the use of high flow data. This work presents a composite measurement system, composing of Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) and continuous wave radar, as an alternative flow measurement. Experimental results indicate that the velocity ratio achieves to 0.89 as increasing water depth in main channel. The left and right riverbank also achieve to 0.77 and 0.76 as increasing water depth. Moreover, analysis of field velocity data and log-law reveals that is equal to . Furthermore, the discharge measurement system has already been successfully implemented during a typhoon. Therefore, in contrast with the traditional measurement method, the proposed composite measurement method is more safe, acceptable and feasible in flood discharge applications.

Keywords: Velocity ratio, Discharge, Continuous wave radar, ADCP.
論文目次 中文摘要 I
EXTENDED ABSTRACT III
誌謝 VI
目錄 VII
表目錄 IX
圖目錄 X
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 研究背景 1
1-2 文獻回顧 3
1-3 論文組織架構 6
第二章 河川流量量測技術之探討 8
2-1 水位量測 8
2-2 流速量測 12
2-3水深量測 18
2-4 量測技術之適用性探討 19
第三章 複合式量測方法之建立 24
3-1 流量測定方法及原理 24
3-2 複合式流速量測儀器及原理 35
3-3 複合式量測方法之建立 42
第四章 現地試驗與結果分析 44
4-1 試驗場地 44
4-2試驗儀器與設備 48
4-3試驗方法 53
4-4 試驗結果分析 56
第五章 結論與建議 80
5-1 結論 80
5-2 建議 82
參考文獻 83
附錄-實測流速比 與理論流速比 計算成果表 94
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