進階搜尋


   電子論文尚未授權公開,紙本請查館藏目錄
(※如查詢不到或館藏狀況顯示「閉架不公開」,表示該本論文不在書庫,無法取用。)
系統識別號 U0026-2407201417135100
論文名稱(中文) 遠端橈骨骨折之療效追蹤研究:分期介入的效益
論文名稱(英文) The effectiveness of stage-based rehabilitation program on patients with distal radius fracture
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 物理治療學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Physical Therapy
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 何昇勳
研究生(英文) Sheng-Xun Ho
電子信箱 qwerasdf426@gmail.com
學號 T66001053
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 66頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳文玲
口試委員-林啟禎
口試委員-蔡一如
中文關鍵字 遠端橈骨骨折  階段式復建計畫  徒手水腫鬆動術  神經鬆動術 
英文關鍵字 Distal radius fracture  Stage-based rehabilitation  Manual edema mobilization  Nerve mobilization 
學科別分類
中文摘要 研究背景: 遠端橈骨骨折為上肢最常見之骨折類型,流行率並隨著社會高齡化日益提升,而其可能衍生之後遺症更是老人慢性疼痛的禍首之一。然有關遠端橈骨骨折術後之復健治療計畫至今仍缺乏明確的建議,且鮮有研究於骨折早期即開始介入術後復健以減少相關後遺症狀。目的: 針對遠端橈骨骨折患者,早期介入階段式復建計畫(stage-based rehabilitation program),以達到初期降低水腫與預防神經病變,後期鬆弛軟組織緊繃以及增加肌肉力量的目標。方法: 本研究共延攬16名遠端橈骨骨折病患 (早期階段式介入組8人,年齡:57±17歲;傳統居家治療組8人,年齡:64.4±9歲) ,於術後2週開始進行首次評估與居家運動之衛教與諮商。早期介入組並於術後初期(第2至6週)額外接受每週兩次之徒手水腫鬆動術與神經鬆動術,及於後期(第7至9週)接受每週一次的軟組織鬆動術治療計畫。除了首次評估外,所有受試者均於術後4、6以及12週後分別接受3次評估,評估項目包含疼痛、握力、手指活動度、手指腫脹程度、手指溫度及上肢功能評估,此外,並於術後第4週開始進行神經活動度檢測(第4、6、12週),且於術後第6週開始手掌容積測量(第6、12週)。最後,於術後第12週進行相關後遺症狀況評估,另外,並有部分患者於術後六週時接受健側與患測的肩胛控制策略檢測。結果: 大體上,早期介入組與傳統治療組於術後第6週結束時在握力、手指腫脹程度及手指活動度等方面皆已呈現顯著進步(p<0.05)。其中,不同於傳統治療組,在握力方面,早期介入組在術後4週即開始出現顯著進步,且於術後12週更顯著優於傳統治療組,而其動作疼痛強度與神經活動度亦有所改善,且於第12週結束治療後呈現顯著進步(p<0.05)。另一方面,傳統治療組於動作疼痛強度方面在術後第6週不減反增,到術後第12週才呈現顯著改善,且於神經活動度方面,直到術後12週均未呈現顯著進步。另外,有關後遺症狀的表現,於術後第12週並未呈現顯著組間差異,而就肩胛控制策略而言,術後6週的評估結果顯示兩組均未呈現顯著異常。結論: 本研究結果發現,針對遠端橈骨骨折患者,早期介入階段式治療計畫,相較於傳統居家治療計畫,對於握力表現、疼痛與神經活動度方面能夠提供更顯著的療效。而不論是有無接受階段式治療,自我居家復健計畫仍足以改善遠端橈骨骨折患者術後指力、手指腫脹程度、手指活動度及上肢功能之情形。因此在針對遠端橈骨骨折術後病人的復健計畫給予上,之後可針對病人之需求,來設計所需之復健計畫。此外,本研究也顯示出早期介入於遠端橈骨骨折病人之重要性。
英文摘要 Background: Distal radius fractures (DRF) were the most common upper limb fractures and the prevalence was increased with age. In addition, the complications following DRF might be the cause of chronic pain in elderly. Although there were varies studies that investigated the effect of different rehabilitations on DRF patients, the findings were controversial and no standard rehabilitation protocol has been recommended. In particular, little has been done to investigate the effects of early intervention or complications prevention following DRF. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a stage-based rehabilitation program that aimed at edema reduction and neuropathy prevention in the immobilization stage and at improving soft tissue tightness and muscle power in the post-immobilization stage for patients with DRF. Methods: 16 DRF participants were included and assigned into the experimental group (n=8, age: 57±17.2 years) and control group (n=8, age: 64.4±8.6 years). All subjects participated in the initial assessment and a general home program at 2 weeks after DRF. An additional stage-based rehabilitation protocol was provided to the experimental group including manual edema mobilization and nerve mobilization program twice a week from week 2 to week 6 after DRF and soft tissue mobilization once a week from week 7 to week 9 after DRF. Re-assessments were arranged for both experimental and control group at the end of week 4, 6, and 12 after DRF, respectively. Pain, grip strength, finger mobility, swelling, finger temperature and functional performance of the upper limb were evaluated regularly and additional measurements for nerve mobility were arranged starting from weeks 4 after DRF (at week 4, 6 and 12 after DRF) and for hand volume starting from week 6 after DRF (at week 6 and 12 after DRF). Finally, complication following DRF was assessed at the end of the study. Results: Significant improvements were found in both groups since 6 weeks after DRF in the measurements of grip strength, finger swelling and finger mobility (p<0.05). On the other hand, an earlier improvement was found in the measurement of grip strength at week 4 after DRF for the experimental group in comparison of the control group and the recovery rate of grip strength was significantly better in the experimental group at week 12 after DRF. In addition, significant improvement in motion pain and nerve mobility were only found in the experimental group at 12 weeks after DRF (p<0.05). On the contrary, the control group demonstrated increased motion pain at week 6 after DRF before the occurrence gradual reduction in the later stage. Finally, no significant group differences were found in the occurrence of complications at 12 weeks after DRF. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated favorable outcomes of the stage-based rehabilitation program in patients with DRF, especially in the grip strength, motion pain and nerve mobility. On the other hand, the general home program provided in this study has also shown significant improvements in the finger swelling, finger mobility and the functional performance of upper limbs. This study has provided evidence to support the early intervention program focusing on the edema control and nerve mobilization followed by a 3-week program of soft tissue mobilization. On the other hand, for the convenience of patients’ needs, a general home exercise program was also recommended starting from week 3 after DRF though with less significant improvements.
論文目次 摘要 I
Abstract III
誌 謝 VI
Content VII
Table list XI
Figure list XII
Chapter 1 Literature review 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Rehabilitation for DRF 3
1.2.1 The effect of ROM exercise and passive mobilization on subjects with DRF 3
1.2.2 The effect of manual edema mobilization (MEM) on subjects with DRF 5
1.2.3 The effect of multiple rehabilitation protocols for DRF 6
1.3 The usage of upper limb neurodynamic technique in peripheral neuropathy 9
1.3.1 Upper limb neurodynamic technique in testing peripheral neuropathy 10
1.3.2 Upper limb neurodynamic technique in treating peripheral neuropathy 11
1.4 Research motivation 13
1.5 Purpose 14
1.6 Hypothesis 15
Chapter 2 Materials and Methods 16
2.1 Subjects 16
2.2 Data collection and Instrument 16
2.3 Procedures 19
2.3.1 Assessments 19
2.3.2 Rehabilitation program 20
2.4 Measurements 20
2.4.1 Pain intensity 21
2.4.2 Grip strength 21
2.4.3 Nerve mobility 22
2.4.4 Finger mobility 22
2.4.5 Hand swelling 24
2.4.6 Hand temperature 25
2.4.7 Functional performance of upper limbs 25
2.4.8 Complications following DRF 26
2.4.9 Shoulder-scapular kinematics 26
2.5 Stage-based rehabilitation program 29
2.5.1 Manual edema mobilization (MEM) 29
2.5.2 Neurodynamic technique 30
2.5.3 Soft tissue mobilization 31
2.6 Home program 31
2.7 Shoulder-scapular kinematics processing 32
2.8 Statistical analysis 34
Chapter 3 Results 36
3.1 Basic characteristics 36
3.2 The effect of stage-based rehabilitation program within group 37
3.2.1 Pain intensity 37
3.2.2 Grip strength 38
3.2.3 Swelling 39
3.2.4 Nerve mobility 41
3.2.5 Hand temperature 41
3.2.6 Finger mobility and functional performance 42
3.2.7 ROM of wrist at 12 weeks after DRF 44
3.2.8 Complications following DRF 45
3.3 The effect of stage-based rehabilitation program between groups 45
3.4 Shoulder-scapular kinematics in patients with DRF 46
Chapter 4 Discussion 49
References 56
Appendix Ⅰ 63
Appendix Ⅱ 65
參考文獻 1. Cummings SR, Black DM, and Rubin SM. Lifetime risks of hip, Colles', or vertebral fracture and coronary heart disease among white postmenopausal women. Arch Intern Med, 1989. 149(11): p. 2445-8.
2. Cummings SR, Kelsey JL, Nevitt MC, and O'Dowd KJ. Epidemiology of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. Epidemiol Rev, 1985. 7: p. 178-208.
3. O'Neill TW, Cooper C, Finn JD, Lunt M, Purdie D, Reid DM, Rowe R, Woolf AD, and Wallace WA. Incidence of distal forearm fracture in British men and women. Osteoporos Int, 2001. 12(7): p. 555-8.
4. Tsai CH, Muo CH, Fong YC, Lo WY, Chen YJ, Hsu HC, and Sung FC. A population-based study on trend in incidence of distal radial fractures in adults in Taiwan in 2000-2007. Osteoporos Int, 2011. 22(11): p. 2809-15.
5. Dennison E and Cooper C. Epidemiology of osteoporotic fractures. Horm Res, 2000. 54 Suppl 1: p. 58-63.
6. Nguyen TV, Center JR, Sambrook PN, and Eisman JA. Risk factors for proximal humerus, forearm, and wrist fractures in elderly men and women: the Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study. Am J Epidemiol, 2001. 153(6): p. 587-95.
7. Oyen J, Brudvik C, Gjesdal CG, Tell GS, Lie SA, and Hove LM. Osteoporosis as a Risk Factor for Distal Radial Fractures A Case-Control Study. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume, 2011. 93A(4): p. 348-356.
8. Kelsey JL, Prill MM, Keegan THM, Tanner HE, Bernstein AL, Quesenberry CP, and Sidney S. Reducing the risk for distal forearm fracture: preserve bone mass, slow down, and don't fall! Osteoporosis International, 2005. 16(6): p. 681-690.
9. Kelsey JL, Browner WS, Seeley DG, Nevitt MC, and Cummings SR. Risk factors for fractures of the distal forearm and proximal humerus. The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Am J Epidemiol, 1992. 135(5): p. 477-89.
10. Mallmin H, Ljunghall S, Persson I, and Bergstrom R. Risk-Factors for Fractures of the Distal Forearm - a Population-Based Case-Control Study. Osteoporosis International, 1994. 4(6): p. 298-304.
11. Ivers RQ, Cumming RG, Mitchell P, and Peduto AJ. Risk factors for fractures of the wrist, shoulder and ankle: The Blue Mountains Eye Study. Osteoporosis International, 2002. 13(6): p. 513-518.
12. Melton LJ, Achenbach SJ, O'Fallon WM, and Khosla S. Secondary osteoporosis and the risk of distal forearm fractures in men and women. Bone, 2002. 31(1): p. 119-125.
13. Chiu J and Robinovitch SN. Prediction of upper extremity impact forces during falls on the outstretched hand. Journal of Biomechanics, 1998. 31(12): p. 1169-1176.
14. Chapman DR, Bennett JB, Bryan WJ, and Tullos HS. Complications of Distal Radial Fractures - Pins and Plaster Treatment. Journal of Hand Surgery-American Volume, 1982. 7(5): p. 509-512.
15. McKay SD, MacDermid JC, Roth JH, and Richards RS. Assessment of complications of distal radius fractures and development of a complication checklist. The Journal of Hand Surgery, 2001. 26(5): p. 916-922.
16. Esenwein P, Sonderegger J, Gruenert J, Ellenrieder B, Tawfik J, and Jakubietz M. Complications following palmar plate fixation of distal radius fractures: a review of 665 cases. Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, 2013. 133(8): p. 1155-1162.
17. Bienek T, Kusz D, and Cielinski L. Peripheral nerve compression neuropathy after fractures of the distal radius. The Journal of Hand Surgery: Journal of the British Society for Surgery of the Hand, 2006. 31(3): p. 256-260.
18. Goris RJ, Leixnering M, Huber W, Figl M, Jaindl M, and Redl H. Delayed recovery and late development of complex regional pain syndrome in patients with an isolated fracture of the distal radius: prediction of a regional inflammatory response by early signs. J Bone Joint Surg Br, 2007. 89(8): p. 1069-76.
19. Gelberman RH, Szabo RM, and Mortensen WW. Carpal-Tunnel Pressures and Wrist Position in Patients with Colles Fractures. Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection and Critical Care, 1984. 24(8): p. 747-749.
20. Field J, Protheroe DL, and Atkins RM. Algodystrophy after Colles Fractures Is Associated with Secondary Tightness of Casts. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-British Volume, 1994. 76B(6): p. 901-905.
21. Zollinger PE, Tuinebreijer WE, Breederveld RS, and Kreis RW. Can Vitamin C Prevent Complex Regional Pain Syndrome in Patients with Wrist Fractures? A Randomized, Controlled, Multicenter Dose-Response Study. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 2007. 89(7): p. 1424-1431.
22. Michlovitz SL, LaStayo PC, Alzner S, and Watson E. Distal radius fractures: Therapy practice patterns. Journal of Hand Therapy, 2001. 14(4): p. 249-257.
23. Handoll HH, Madhok R, and Howe TE. Rehabilitation for distal radial fractures in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2006(3): p. CD003324.
24. Cooper A, The effects of early intervention for patients following fractured distal radius [MSc thesis]. 2001, Univ. of Derby: Derby (UK).
25. Millett PJ and Rushton N. Early mobilization in the treatment of Colles' fracture: a 3 year prospective study. Injury, 1995. 26(10): p. 671-5.
26. Dias JJ, Wray CC, Jones JM, and Gregg PJ. The value of early mobilisation in the treatment of Colles' fractures. J Bone Joint Surg Br, 1987. 69(3): p. 463-7.
27. Kay S, Haensel N, and Stiller K. The effect of passive mobilisation following fractures involving the distal radius: a randomised study. Aust J Physiother, 2000. 46(2): p. 93-101.
28. Artzberger S, Manual edema mobilization: treatment for edema in the subacute hand., in Rehabilitation of the Hand and Upper Extremity. 5th ed., C.A. Mackin EJ, Skirven TM, Schneider LH, Osterman AL, Editor. 2002: St. Louis, MO: Mosby. p. 899-913.
29. Priganc VW and Ito MA. Changes in edema, pain, or range of motion following manual edema mobilization: a single-case design study. J Hand Ther, 2008. 21(4): p. 326-35.
30. Knygsand-Roenhoej K and Maribo T. A Randomized Clinical Controlled Study Comparing the Effect of Modified Manual Edema Mobilization Treatment with Traditional Edema Technique in Patients with a Fracture of the Distal Radius. Journal of Hand Therapy, 2011. 24(3): p. 184-194.
31. Wakefield AE and McQueen MM. The role of physiotherapy and clinical predictors of outcome after fracture of the distal radius. J Bone Joint Surg Br, 2000. 82(7): p. 972-6.
32. Maciel JS, Taylor NF, and McIlveen C. A randomised clinical trial of activity-focussed physiotherapy on patients with distal radius fractures. Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, 2005. 125(8): p. 515-520.
33. Kay S, McMahon M, and Stiller K. An advice and exercise program has some benefits over natural recovery after distal radius fracture: a randomised trial. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, 2008. 54(4): p. 253-259.
34. Krischak GD, Krasteva A, Schneider F, Gulkin D, Gebhard F, and Kramer M. Physiotherapy After Volar Plating of Wrist Fractures Is Effective Using a Home Exercise Program. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2009. 90(4): p. 537-544.
35. Christensen OM, Kunov A, Hansen FF, Christiansen TC, and Krasheninnikoff M. Occupational therapy and Colles' fractures. International Orthopaedics, 2001. 25(1): p. 43-45.
36. Souer JS, Buijze G, and Ring D. A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Occupational Therapy with Independent Exercises After Volar Plate Fixation of a Fracture of the Distal Part of the Radius. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (American), 2011. 93(19).
37. Butler D, The sensitive nervous system. 2000, Adelaide: Noigroup. 431 p.
38. Shacklock MO, Clinical neurodynamics : a new system of musculoskeletal treatment. 2005, Edinburgh: Elsevier/Butterworth-Heinemann. xiv, 251 p.
39. Walsh MT. Upper Limb Neural Tension Testing and Mobilization. Journal of Hand Therapy, 2005. 18(2): p. 241-258.
40. Kleinrensink GJ, Stoeckart R, Mulder PGH, Van der Hoek G, Broek T, Vleeming A, and Snijders CJ. Upper limb tension tests as tools in the diagnosis of nerve and plexus lesions - Anatomical and biomechanical aspects. Clinical Biomechanics, 2000. 15(1): p. 9-14.
41. Ellis RF and Hing WA. Neural mobilization: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials with an analysis of therapeutic efficacy. J Man Manip Ther, 2008. 16(1): p. 8-22.
42. Kleinrensink GJ, Stoeckart R, Vleeming A, Snijders CJ, and Mulder PG. Mechanical tension in the median nerve. The effects of joint positions. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon), 1995. 10(5): p. 240-244.
43. Kleinrensink GJ, Stoeckart R, Vleeming A, Snijders CJ, Mulder PGH, and Vanwingerden JP. Peripheral-Nerve Tension Due to Joint Motion - a Comparison between Embalmed and Unembalmed Human Bodies. Clinical Biomechanics, 1995. 10(5): p. 235-239.
44. Lewis J, Ramot R, and Green A. Changes in mechanical tension in the median nerve: possible implications for the upper limb tension test. Physiotherapy, 1998. 84(6): p. 254-261.
45. Talebi GA, Oskouei AE, and Shakori SK. Reliability of upper limb tension test 1 in normal subjects and patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil, 2012. 25(3): p. 209-14.
46. Vanti C, Bonfiglioli R, Calabrese M, Marinelli F, Guccione A, Violante FS, and Pillastrini P. Upper limb neurodynamic test 1 and symptoms reproduction in carpal tunnel syndrome. A validity study. Manual Therapy, 2011. 16(3): p. 258-263.
47. Nee RJ, Jull GA, Vicenzino B, and Coppieters MW. The Validity of Upper-Limb Neurodynamic Tests for Detecting Peripheral Neuropathic Pain. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 2012. 42(5): p. 413-424.
48. Coppieters MW and Butler DS. Do ‘sliders’ slide and ‘tensioners’ tension? An analysis of neurodynamic techniques and considerations regarding their application. Manual Therapy, 2008. 13(3): p. 213-221.
49. Elvey RL. Physical evaluation of the peripheral nervous system in disorders of pain and dysfunction. J Hand Ther, 1997. 10(2): p. 122-9.
50. Boyd BS. Common Interlimb Asymmetries and Neurogenic Responses during Upper Limb Neurodynamic Testing: Implications for Test Interpretation. Journal of Hand Therapy, 2012. 25(1): p. 56-64.
51. Schmid AB, Brunner F, Luomajoki H, Held U, Bachmann LM, Kunzer S, and Coppieters MW. Reliability of clinical tests to evaluate nerve function and mechanosensitivity of the upper limb peripheral nervous system. BMC Musculoskelet Disord, 2009. 10: p. 11.
52. Wainner RS, Fritz JM, Irrgang JJ, Delitto A, Allison S, and Boninger ML. Development of a clinical prediction rule for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2005. 86(4): p. 609-618.
53. Coppieters MW, Hough AD, and Dilley A. Different Nerve-Gliding Exercises Induce Different Magnitudes of Median Nerve Longitudinal Excursion: An In Vivo Study Using Dynamic Ultrasound Imaging. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 2009. 39(3): p. 164-171.
54. Schmid AB, Elliott JM, Strudwick MW, Little M, and Coppieters MW. Effect of splinting and exercise on intraneural edema of the median nerve in carpal tunnel syndrome-an MRI study to reveal therapeutic mechanisms. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 2012. 30(8): p. 1343-1350.
55. Rozmaryn LM, Dovelle S, Rothman ER, Gorman K, Olvey KM, and Bartko JJ. Nerve and tendon gliding exercises and the conservative management of carpal tunnel syndrome. J Hand Ther, 1998. 11(3): p. 171-9.
56. De-la-Llave-Rincon AI, Ortega-Santiago R, Ambite-Quesada S, Gil-Crujera A, Puentedura EJ, Valenza MC, and Fernández-de-las-Peñas C. Response of Pain Intensity to Soft Tissue Mobilization and Neurodynamic Technique: A Series of 18 Patients With Chronic Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 2012. 35(6): p. 420-427.
57. Tal-Akabi A and Rushton A. An investigation to compare the effectiveness of carpal bone mobilisation and neurodynamic mobilisation as methods of treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome. Manual Therapy, 2000. 5(4): p. 214-222.
58. Pinar L, Enhos A, Ada S, and Gungor N. Can we use nerve gliding exercises in women with carpal tunnel syndrome? Advances in Therapy, 2005. 22(5): p. 467-475.
59. Bialosky JE, Bishop MD, Price DD, Robinson ME, Vincent KR, and George SZ. A Randomized Sham-Controlled Trial of a Neurodynamic Technique in the Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 2009. 39(10): p. 709-723.
60. Richards L and Palmiter-Thomas P. Grip strength measurement: a critical review of tools, methods, and clinical utility. Crit Rev Phys Rehabil Med, 1996. 8(1-2): p. 87-109.
61. Lagerstrom C, Nordgren B, and Olerud C. Evaluation of grip strength measurements after Colles' fracture: A methodological study. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 1999. 31(1): p. 49-54.
62. Lagerstrom C, Nordgren B, and Rahme H. Recovery of isometric grip strength after Colles' fracture: a prospective two-year study. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 1999. 31(1): p. 55-62.
63. Espana-Romero V, Ortega FB, Vicente-Rodriguez G, Artero EG, Rey JP, and Ruiz JR. Elbow position affects handgrip strength in adolescents: validity and reliability of Jamar, DynEx, and TKK dynamometers. J Strength Cond Res, 2010. 24(1): p. 272-7.
64. Lefevre-Colau MM, Poiraudeau S, Oberlin C, Demaille S, Fermanian J, Rannou F, and Revel M. Reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the modified kapandji index for assessment of functional mobility of the rheumatoid hand. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2003. 84(7): p. 1032-1038.
65. Farrell K, Johnson A, Duncan H, Offenbacker T, and Curry C. The intertester and intratester reliability of hand volumetrics. J Hand Ther, 2003. 16(4): p. 292-9.
66. Liang HW, Wang HK, Yao G, Horng YS, and Hou SM. Psychometric evaluation of the Taiwan version of the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, 2004. 103(10): p. 773-779.
67. Beaton DE, Wright JG, and Katz JN. Development of the QuickDASH: comparison of three item-reduction approaches. J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2005. 87(5): p. 1038-46.
68. Gummesson C, Ward MM, and Atroshi I. The shortened disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire (QuickDASH): validity and reliability based on responses within the full-length DASH. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 2006. 7.
69. Meskers CG, van der Helm FC, Rozendaal LA, and Rozing PM. In vivo estimation of the glenohumeral joint rotation center from scapular bony landmarks by linear regression. J Biomech, 1998. 31(1): p. 93-6.
70. Wu G, van der Helm FCT, Veeger HEJ, Makhsous M, Van Roy P, Anglin C, Nagels J, Karduna AR, McQuade K, Wang XG, Werner FW, and Buchholz B. ISB recommendation on definitions of joint coordinate systems of various joints for the reporting of human joint motion - Part II: shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand. Journal of Biomechanics, 2005. 38(5): p. 981-992.
71. Vermeulen HM, Stokdijk M, Eilers PHC, Meskers CGM, Rozing PM, and Vlieland TPMV. Measurement of three dimensional shoulder movement patterns with an electromagnetic tracking device in patients with a frozen shoulder. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 2002. 61(2): p. 115-120.
72. Oskarsson GV, Hjall A, and Aaser P. Physiotherapy: An overestimated factor in after-treatment of fractures in the distal radius? Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, 1997. 116(6-7): p. 373-375.
73. Watt CF, Taylor NF, and Baskus K. Do Colles' fracture patients benefit from routine referral to physiotherapy following cast removal? Arch Orthop Trauma Surg, 2000. 120(7-8): p. 413-5.
74. Kuo LC, Yang TH, Hsu YY, Wu PT, Lin CL, Hsu HY, and Jou IM. Is progressive early digit mobilization intervention beneficial for patients with external fixation of distal radius fracture? A pilot randomized controlled trial. Clinical Rehabilitation, 2013. 27(11): p. 983-993.
75. Lau EMC, Woo J, Leung PC, and Swaminthan R. Low Bone-Mineral Density, Grip Strength and Skinfold Thickness Are Important Risk-Factors for Hip Fracture in Hong-Kong Chinese. Osteoporosis International, 1993. 3(2): p. 66-70.
76. Stalenhoef PA, Diederiks JPM, Knottnerus JA, Kester ADM, and Crebolder HFJM. A risk model for the prediction of recurrent falls in community-dwelling elderly: A prospective cohort study. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 2002. 55(11): p. 1088-1094.
77. Mallmin H, Ljunghall S, Persson I, Naessen T, Krusemo UB, and Bergstrom R. Fracture of the Distal Forearm as a Forecaster of Subsequent Hip Fracture - a Population-Based Cohort Study with 24 Years of Follow-Up. Calcified Tissue International, 1993. 52(4): p. 269-272.
78. Araujo BF, do Nascimento CM, Busarello FD, Moreira NB, Baroni MP, de Carvalho AR, and Bertolini GRF. Assessment of Handgrip Strength after Neural Mobilization. Revista Brasileira De Medicina Do Esporte, 2012. 18(4): p. 242-245.
79. Waldo B. Grip Strength Testing. Strength and Conditioning, 1996. 18(5): p. 32-35.
80. Papalia I, Tos P, d'Alcontres FS, Battiston B, and Geuna S. On the use of the grasping test in the rat median nerve model: a re-appraisal of its efficacy for quantitative assessment of motor function recovery. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 2003. 127(1): p. 43-47.
81. Harden RN, Bruehl S, Stanton-Hicks M, and Wilson PR. Proposed New Diagnostic Criteria for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. Pain Medicine, 2007. 8(4): p. 326-331.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2019-08-04起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw