進階搜尋


 
系統識別號 U0026-2407201323522400
論文名稱(中文) 氣功運動對有冠狀動脈疾病危險因子社區中老年人的生理及心理健康成效
論文名稱(英文) Effects of Qigong Exercise on Physiological and Psychological Health in Community-Residing Middle-and Older- Aged Adults with Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 健康照護科學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Allied Health Sciences
學年度 101
學期 2
出版年 102
研究生(中文) 洪瑄曼
研究生(英文) Hsuan-Man Hung
學號 TA8971042
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 249頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳彰惠
召集委員-葉美玲
口試委員-葉淑惠
口試委員-林麗娟
口試委員-馬慧英
口試委員- 楊奕馨
中文關鍵字 氣功  運動  中老年人  健康促進 
英文關鍵字 Qigong  exercise  middle-older aged adults  health promotion 
學科別分類
中文摘要 背景:心臟血管疾病是中老年人失能主因之慢性病,而氣功運動為全身性的有氧運動,常被作為中老年慢性病照護的輔助/另類介入措施。
目的:本研究旨為測試氣功運動對有冠狀動脈疾病危險因子社區中老年人在生理及心理等健康成效。
方法:本研究採叢組、單盲隨機控制試驗設計,共有145位研究對象參與本研究。以社區健康營造中心為單位,隨機分派為實驗組(n = 84)接受12週氣功運動介入措施或控制組(n = 61),採前測、6週、12週和追蹤一個月等連續性測量收集心理問卷(健康照護花費、面對老化態度量表、中國人健康問卷-12、簡易版老人憂鬱量表)、身體測量資料(血壓、脈搏速率、呼吸速率、體脂肪百分比、腰臀圍比值、身體質量指數及老人功能性適能測驗)及前、12週後測的血液生物檢驗資料:包含高敏感C反應蛋白、空腹血糖、醣化血色素、血脂肪組成(高密度脂蛋白、總膽固醇、三酸甘油脂、低密度脂蛋白和極低密度脂蛋白)。
結果:線性混合模式統計結果顯示:實驗組的收縮壓、脈搏速率、呼吸速率、體脂肪百分比、上下肢肌力、肩部/下背柔軟度、有氧耐力、動態平衡、心理健康(一般心理健康狀態、憂鬱情形)和血脂肪組成的改善程度(總膽固醇、三酸甘油脂、低密度脂蛋白和極低密度脂蛋白)顯著優於控制組。
結論/臨床應用:12週的氣功運動能修正冠狀動脈疾病病危險因子包含降低體脂肪、改善血脂肪組成及心理健康,達到預防之成效,研究結果可作為社區健康照護人員措施介入之參考。

英文摘要 Background: The major cause of disabilities among chronic illnesses is cardiovascular disease in middle-older aged adults. Qigong is a systematic aerobic exercise that serves as an intervention of complementary /alternative therapies (CAM)for chronic diseases care.
Purpose: The aims were to examine the effects of Qigong exercise on physiological and psychological health in community-residing middle-and older-aged adults with coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors.
Methods: A single blind, cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted. A total sample of 145 participated in the study. Health building centers of communities were randomly assigned to either experimental group (n = 84) with 12 weeks qigong exercise or control group (n = 61). Questionnaires (Health care costs, AttitudesToward Aiging Scale, Chinses Health Questionnire-12, Short-Form Geriatric Depression Scale) and Physical function (cardiorespiratory function, body composition and senior fitness test) were collected at baseline, 6-week, 12-week, and 16-week followed up. Biomakers (high sensitivity c-reactive protein, plasma fasting sugar, lipid profiles) were examined at baseline and 12-week.
Results: Linear mixed model analyses revealed that systolic blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate, body fat percentage, upper /lower limbs strength, shoulder /lower body flexibility, agility/ dynamic balance, aerobic endurance, psychological health (general mental health and depressed states) and lipid profiles (total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, and very low-density lipoprotein) of the participants in the experimental group had significantly improved after the gigong interventions than those in the control group (all p < .05).
Conclusions / Implications for Practice: 12-week Qigong exercise would be able to modify the CAD risk factors including body fat reduced, and lipid profiles and mental health improved, which results in preventing effects on CAD. The findings provide the references for community health professionals to develop interventions.

論文目次 目錄
中文摘要 ………………………………………………………… Ⅰ
英文摘要 ………………………………………………………… Ⅲ
致謝 ………………………………………………………………… Ⅴ
目錄 ……………………………………………………………… Ⅵ
表目錄 …………………………………………………………… Ⅸ
圖目錄 …………………………………………………………… XII
第一章 緒論……………………………………………………… 1~12
第一節 研究動機及重要…………………………… 1
第二節 研究目的………………………………………… 6
第三節 研究問題………………………………………… 8
第四節 研究假設………………………………………… 8
第五節 名詞定義………………………………………… 9
第二章 文獻查證……………………………………………… 13~66
第一節 氣功的起源與流派………………………………… 13
第二節 氣功的內涵、哲學觀及其護理知識建構 …… 16
第三節 氣功於生理健康成效之科學實證…………………… 23
第四節 氣功於心理健康成效之科學實證…………………… 46
第五節 文獻查證結論………………………………………… 55
第六節 理論/研究架構………………………………… 61
第三章 研究方法………………………………………………… 67~94
第一節 研究設計…………………………………………… 67
第二節 研究對象及選樣……………………………… 71
第三章 研究方法………………………………………………… 67~94
第三節 氣功運動訓練方案………………………… 72
第四節 研究工具及其信效度……………………… 79
第五節 倫理考量…………………………………………… 91
第六節 資料分析………………………………………………… 92
第四章 研究結果………………………………………………… 95~166
第一節 專家對「氣功運動方案」之意見及評估調查……… 94
第二節 參與對象之基本屬性分析………………………………… 97
第三節 氣功運動對有冠狀動脈疾病危險因子社區中老年人,在生理健康方面的成效…………………… 107
第四節 氣功運動對有冠狀動脈疾病危險因子社區中老年人,在心理健康方面的成效…………………… 158
第五章 討論…………………………………………………………………… 167~181
第一節 專家意見及評估調查………………………………… 167
第二節 氣功運動對有冠狀動脈疾病危險因子社區中老年人,在生理健康方面的成效…………… 168
第三節 氣功運動對有冠狀動脈疾病危險因子社區中老年人,在心理健康方面的成效…………… 178
第四節 研究限制……………………………………………………… 179
第六章 結論與建議……………………………………………………… 182~185
第一節 綜合重要研究發現…………………………………… 182
第二節 實務應用及建議…………………………………………… 182
第三節 未來研究方向………………………………………… 185
參考文獻 ………………………………………………………… 186~217
附錄一 個案篩選工具…………………………………… 218
附錄二 基本資料 ……………………………………… 219
附錄三 健康照護花費表……………………………… 221
附錄四 身體測量…………………………………………… 222
附錄五 面對老化的態度量表………………………… 223
附錄六 中國人健康問卷-12 ……………………… 224
附錄七 簡易版老人憂鬱量表………………………… 226
附錄八「面對老化的態度」授權使用同意書……………… 227
附錄九「中國人健康問卷-12」授權使用同意書 …… 228
附錄十 「簡易版老人憂鬱量表」授權使用同意書…… 229
附錄十一 實驗組受試者同意書……………………………………… 230
附錄十二 控制組受試者同意書……………………………………… 232
附錄十三 專家效度名單………………………………………………… 234
附錄十四 氣功運動方案………………………………………………… 235
附錄十五 氣功運動出席紀錄表………………………………… 249
參考文獻 內政部統計處(2013a)‧內政統計應用名詞定義‧2013年3月14日取自
http://www.moi.gov.tw/stat/list.aspx
內政部統計處(2013b)‧簡易生命表及平均餘命查詢‧
2013年3月13日取自
http://sowf.moi.gov.tw/stat/Life/T05-lt-quary.html
王唯工(2010).氣功的樂章.台北:大塊。
王崇行(1994).氣功防治心血管疾病.台北:老古。
方進隆、蔡秀華、林晉利、黃谷臣、卓俊辰等(2007).健康體適能
理論與實務(於卓俊辰總校閱).台中:華格納。
行政院衛生署(2012).國人肥胖定義及處理原則.
http://www.doh.gov.tw/CHT2006/DM/DM2_p01.aspx?class_no=25&now_fod_list_no=3942&level_no=2&doc_no=32
李作英、葉美玲(2005)‧氣功療法在健康照護上之應用‧護理雜誌,
52(3),65-70。
呂萬安(2003).佛教的養生功法─達摩「易筋經」.佛教與科學,
4(2),112-125。
林孝宗(1999).氣功的原理與方法.台北:傳文。
林錦蘭、章美英(2012).法鼓八式動禪對年長者平衡能力及生活品質影響之探討.中西醫結合護理雜誌,2,15-31。
林麗娟、巫靜怡(2010).健走運動對社區中老年人心血管危險因子影響.大專體育學刊,12(4),90-98。doi: 10.5297/ser.1204.010
吳長新(2001).氣功瑜伽述源與展望.歷史月刊,158,78-84。
吳麗芬(2007).周全性老人評估與護理.護理雜誌,54(6),61-66。
柳橋明人(1999).小周天健康法(於莊雯琳譯).台北:大展。
美國運動醫學會(2002).ACSM體適能手冊(於謝伸裕譯).台北:
九州。
星野稔(1994).氣功:自然療法.台北:創力。
洪瑄曼、陳桂敏(2007).銀髮太極健身操運動對都市老年人健康促進成
效之探討.實證護理,3(3),225-235。
悟覺妙天禪師(2009).禪定調心與佛相應.禪天下,84,114-115。
張素紅、楊美賞(1999).老人寂寞與其個人因素、自覺健康狀況、
社會支持之相關研究.高雄醫學科學雜誌,15,337-347。
張家銘、蔡智能(2003).老年人之周全性評估.台灣醫學,7(3),
364-374。
黃英哲(2006).氣功對人體生理反應之研究,台大體育學報,9,1-20。
黃英哲(2007).氣功運動對生理及心理影響之探討:腦波與心理量
表之印證.運動教練科學,8,105-123。
黃英哲、黃欽永、楊裕隆(2008).氣功對衰竭運動後乳酸反應之研
究.運動教練科學,9,1-11。
黃欽永(1999).氣功概說.台大體育,35,41-46。
曾雙郎(2004)‧氣功功法:調身之探討‧國立高雄海洋科科學,19,
123-143。
曾雙郎(2005a)‧氣功入靜意涵之探討‧國立高雄海洋科科學,20,
109-117。
曾雙郎(2005b)‧陰陽理論與氣功鍛練之探討‧國立高雄海洋科科學,
20,97-107。
曾雙郎、李宜芳(2002).氣功的內涵之探討.大專體育,61,155-161。
曾雙郎、李宜錫(2004).氣功功法;調心之探討,國立高雄海洋科科學,19,101-122。
陳方佩(2008a).討論氣功的氣與經絡的氣之異同.中華針灸醫學
雜誌,11(4),41-45。
陳右明(2008b).淺談氣功.台灣醫學,12(2),183-189。
陳在頤(1992).氣功對醫療保健功效的探討.中華體育,6(3),77-83。
陳在頤(1993).氣功科學的過去與未來.中華體育,8(2),81-87。
陳福濱(2010).《老子想爾注》「道」思想之探究.文化與哲學,37
(10),69-90。
陳國華(2004).身體與氣功.台大體育,43,3-20。
馬光亞、李家雄(2001).簡易健身功.台北:九思。
國民健康局(2009)‧健康體能的評量‧2011年2月24日取自國民
健康局http://www.bhp.doh.gov.tw/BHP/fileviewer
鄭仕一、鄭幸洵、蕭君玲(2004).“道法自然”之“變動規律”在
中國舞蹈教學之應用.中華體育季刊,18(1),115-119。
鄭建民、賴秋蓮、蔡金玲(2008).氣功養生運動在成年人腦α波
功率及生活品質的差異研究.大專體育學刊,10(3),99-111 。
帶津良一(1995).圖解養生氣功總匯(於楊鴻儒編譯)‧台北縣:世
茂。
郭子光(2005).中醫養生學概論(於劉楊、馬素華編著).台北:華
騰。
楊玉隆(2003).生物統計入門.台北:偉華。
慈悲服務社全球資訊網(2010).養生運動.2011年5月11日取自慈悲
服務社全球資訊網 http://www.csstaiwan.com/webguide/s3.aspx
劉貴傑(1999) .佛學與人生.台北:五南。
羅光(2000)‧儒家天人合一論‧哲學論集,33,1-30。
衛生署(2008).2020年健康國民白皮書.台北:衛生署。
衛生署(2009年5月20日).法規查詢.2011年2月22日取自行
政院衛生署http://dohlaw.doh.gov.tw/Chi/NewsContent.asp?msgid=2433&KeyWord=
衛生署中央健康保險局 (2010) .醫療費用執行報告.
2011年1月17日取自 http://www.nhi.gov.tw/webdata/webdata.asp?menu=17&menu_id=661&webdata_id=3267&WD_ID=
鞠鴻賓(2006).行功心法.高雄:謝文華。
Singer, P. A.(2004).臨床生命倫理學(蔡昌輔編譯).台北:財團
法人醫院評鑑暨醫療品質促進會。
Ajisaka, R. (2006). Recommendation for cardiovascular safety of
exercise in middle-aged and elderly people. International Journal of Sport and Health Science, 4(2), 360-369.
Alperson, S. Y. (2008). Tai Chi philosophy and nursing epistemology. Advance in Nursing Science, 31(1), E1-E15.
Astin, J. A., Berman, B. M., Bausell, B., Lee, W. L., Hochberg, M., &
Forys, K. L. (2003). The Efficacy of mindfulness meditation plus Qigongmovement therapy in the treatment of fibromyalgia: A randomized controlled trial. The Journal of Rheumatology, 30(10), 2257-2262.
Biesinger, E., Kipman, U., Schätz, S., & Langguth, B. (2010). Qigong for
the treatment of tinnitus: A prospective randomized controlled study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 69 (3), 299-304.
Birdee, G. S., Wayne, P. M., Davis, R. B., Phillips, R. S., & Yeh, G. Y.
(2009). Tai chi and qigong for health: Patterns of use in the United States. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine,15(9), 969-73.
Blake, H., & Batson, M. (2009). Exercise intervention in brain injury: A
pilot randomized study of Tai Chi Qigong. Clinical Rehabilitation, 23(7), 589-598.
Brown, H., & Prescott, R. (2006). Applied mixed models in medicine (2nd
ed.). England: John Weily & Sons Ltd.
Chan, A. S., Cheung, M. C., Sze, S. L., Leung, W. W., & Shi, D. (2011).
Shaolin dan tian breathing fosters relaxed and attentive mind: A randomized controlled neuro-electrophysiological study. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2011, 1-11.
Chan, A.W. K., Lee , A., Suen, L. K. P., & Tam, W. W. S. (2010).
Effectiveness of a Tai chi Qigong program in promoting health-related quality of life and perceived social support in chronic obstructive. pulmonary disease clients. Quality of Life Research, 19(5), 653-664.
Chan, A.W. K., Lee , A., Suen, L. K. P., & Tam, W. W. S (2011). Tai chi
Qigong improves lung functions and activity tolerance in COPD clients: A single blind, randomized controlled trial. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 19 (1), 3-11.
Carper, B. (1978). Fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing. Advances in Nursing Science, 1(1), 13-23.
Chen, C. H., Booth-LaForceb, C., Parkc, H., & Wang, S. Y. (2010). A
comparative study of menopausal hot flashes and their psychosocial
correlates in Taiwan and the United States. Maturitas, 67(2), 171-177.
Chen, C. S., Tsang, H.Y., Chong, M. Y., & Tang, T. C. (2000). Validation
of Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ-12) in community elders. The Kaohsiung Journal of Medicine Science, 16(11), 595-565.
Chen, H. H., Yeh, M. L., & Lee, F. Y. (2006). The effects of Baduanjin
Qigong in the prevention of bone Loss for middle-aged women. The American Journal of Chinese medicine, 34(5), 741-747.
Chen, K. W., Comerford, A., Shinnick, P., & Ziedonis, D. M, (2010). Introducing Qigong meditation into residential addiction treatment: A pilot study where gender makes a difference. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary, 16(8), 875-882.
Chen, K. M., Lin, J. N., Lin, H. S., Wu, H. C., Chen, W. T., Li, C. H., & Lo,
S. K. (2008). The effects of a Simplified Tai-Chi Exercise Program (STEP) on the physical health of older adults living in long-term care
facilities: A single group design with multiple time points. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 45 (4), 501-507. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2006.11.008
Chen, Z., Meng, Z., Milbury, K., Bei, W., Zhang, Y., Thornton,B.,... Cohen, L. (2012). Qigong improves quality of life in women undergoing
radiotherapy for breast cancer. Cancer. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cncr.27904/pdf
doi: 10.1002/cncr.27904.
Cheng, T. A., & Williams, P. (1986). The design and development of a screening questionnaire (CHQ) for use in community studies of mental disorders in Taiwan. Psychological Medicine, 16(2), 415-422.
Cheng, T.A., Wu, J. T., Chong, M. Y., & Williams, P. (1990). Internal consistency and factor structure of the Chinese Health Questionnaire. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 82(4), 304-308.
Cheung, B. M.Y., Lo, J. L. F., Fong, D. Y. T., Chan, M. Y., Wong, S. H.
T., & Wong, V. C. W., et al. (2005). Randomised controlled trial of qigong in the treatment of mild essential hypertension. Journa lof Human Hypertension, 19, 697-704.
Chinn, P. L., & Kramer, M. K. (1991). Theory and nursing: A systematic approach (3rd.). St. Louis: Mosby.
Chodzko-Zajko, W. J., Proctor, D. N., Fiatarone Singh, M. A., Minson,
C. T., Nigg, C.R., & Salem, G. J., et al. (2009). Exercise and physical activity for older adults. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 41(7), 1510-1530.
Chong, M. Y., & Wilkison, G. (1989). Validation of 30- and 12-item
versions of the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ) in patients admitted for general health screening. Psychological Medicine, 19, 495-505
Chow, Y. W. Y., & Tsang, H. W. H. (2007). Biopsychosocial effects of
Qigong as a mindful exercise for people with anxiety disorders: A speculative review. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 13(8), 831-839.
Coleman, J. F. (2011). Spring Forest Qigong and chronic pain : Making a
difference. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 29(2), 118-128.
Craske, N. J., Turner, W., Zammit-Maempe, J., & Lee, M. S. (2009).
Qigong ameliorates symptoms of chronic fatigue: A pilot uncontrolled study. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 6(2), 265-270.
DiPietro, L. (2001). Physical activity in aging: Changes in patterns and
their relationship to health and function. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, 56A(11), 13-22.
Driver, H. S., &Taylor, S. R. (2000). Exercise and sleep. Sleep Medicine
Reviews, 4(4), 387–402.
Dugdill, L., Crone, D., & Murphy, R. (2009). Physical activity and health
promotion : Evidence-based approaches to practice. Iowa : Wiley-Blackwell.
Emberson, J. R., Shaper, A. G., Wannamethee, S. G., Morris, R. W., & Whincup, P. H. (2005). Alcohol intake in middle age and risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality: Accounting for intake variation over time. American Journal of Epidemiology, 16(9), 856-863. doiI: 10.1093/aje/kwi111
Frankel, J. E., Bean, J. F., & Frontera, W. R. (2006). Exercise in the
elderly : Research and clinical practice. Clinical Geriatric Medicine, 22(2), 239-256.
Franco, O. H., Laet, C. De., Peeters, A., Jonker, J., Mackenbach, J., &
Nusselder, W. (2005). Effects of physical activity on life expectancy with cardiovascular disease. Archives of Internal Medicine, 165(20), 2355-2360.
Gates, D. J., & Mick, D. (2010). Qigong: An innovative intervention for
rural women at risk for type 2 diabetes. Holistic Nursing Practice, 24 (6), 345-354.
Goldberg, D. (1972). The detection of psychiatric illness by
questionnaire. Lodon: Oxford Unviversity Press.
Guo, X., Zhou, B., Nishimura, T., Teramukai, S., & Fukushima, M.
(2008). Clinical effect of Qigong practice on essential hypertension:
A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 14(1), 27-37.
Hankey, A. (2006). Qigong: Life energy and a new science of life. The
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 12(9), 841-842.
Halverstadt, A. Phares, D. A., Wilund, K. R., Goldberg, A. P., & Hagberg, J.
M. (2007). Endurance exercise training raise high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lowers low-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein independent of body fat phenotypes in older men and women. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, 56(4), 444-450.
Ho, T. J., Christiani, D. C., Ma, T. C., Jang, T. R., Lieng, C. H., & Yeh,
Y. C., et al. (2011). Effect of Qigong on quality of life: A cross-sectional population-based comparison study in Taiwan. BMC Public Health, 11(1), 546-551.
Hui, P. N., Wan, M., Chan, W. K., & Yung, P. M. B. (2006). An
evaluation of two behavioral rehabilitation programs, qigong versus progressive relaxation, in improving the quality of life in cardiac patients. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 12(4), 373-378.
Iwao, M., Kajiyama, S., Mori,H., & Oogaki, K. (1999). Effects of
Qigong walking on diabetic patients: A pilot study. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary, 5(4), 353-358.
Jahnke, R. A., Larkey, L. K., & Rogers, C. (2010). Dissemination and
benefits of a replicable Tai Chi and Qigong program for older Adults. Geriatric Nursing, 31(4), 272-280.
James, T. W. (1999). The 30-second arm curl test as an indicator of
upper body strength in older adults. Unpublished master’s thesis, California State University, Fullerton.
Johansson, M., & Hassmén, P. (2008). Acute psychological responses to
Qigong exercise of varying durations. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 36(3), 449- 458.
Johansson, M., Hassme´n, P., & Jouper, J. (2008). Acute effects of
Qigong exercise on mood and anxiety. International Journal of Stress Management, 15( 2), 199-207.
Johnston, J. (1999). Validation of 2-minute step-in-place test relative to
treadmill performance in older adults. Unpublished master’s thesis, California State University, Fullerton.
Jones, B. M. (2001). Changes in cytokine production in healthy subjects
practicing Guolin Qigong : A pilot study. Retrieved August 3, 2011, from BMC Complementary And Alternative Medicine
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/1/8
Jones, C. J., & Rikli, R. E. (1999). Physical decline in older adults as a
function of age, gender, and physical activity level. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(5), S379.
Jones, C. J., Rikli, R. E., & Beam, W. C. (1999). A 30-s chair-stand test
as a measure of lower body strength in community-residing older adults. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 70(2), 113-119.
Jones, C. J.,Rikli, R. E., Max, J., & Noffal, G. (1998). The reliability and
validity of a chair sit-and-reach test as a measure of hamstring flexibility in older adults. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport,69( 4), 338-343.
Jones, J., & Rose, D. J. (2005). Physical activity instruction of older adults.
Auckland, New Zealand: Human Kinetics.
Jouper, J., & Hassmén, P. (2008). Intrinsically motivated Qigong
exercisers are more concentrated and less stressful. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 36(6), 1051-1060.
Jouper, J., Hassmén, P., & Johansson, M. (2006). Qigong exercise with
concentration predicts increased health. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 34( 6), 949-957.
Joyce, G. F., Keeler, E. B., Shang, B., & Goldman, D. P. (2005). The
lifetime burden of chronic disease among the elderly. Retrieved January 16, 2011, from
http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/early/2005/09/26/hlthaff.w5.r18
Kemp, C. A. (2004). Qigong as a therapeutic intervention with older
adults. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 22(4), 351-373.
King, I. M. (1990). Health as the Goal for Nursing. Nursing Science
Quarterly, 3(30), 123-128.
Kjos, V., & Etnier, J. L. (2006). Pilot study comparing physical and
psychological responses in medical qigong and walking.
Journal of Aging Physical Activity,14(3), 241-253.
Knafl, G. J., Beeber, L., & Schwartz, T. A. (2012). A strategy for selecting
among alternative models for continuous longitudinal data. Research in Nursing Health. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/nur.21508/abstract;jsessionid=FFF04B7956FBD4963DB2DAD5173D6877.d04t03?deniedAccessCustomisedMessage=&userIsAuthenticated=false
. doi:10.1002/nur.21508
Kondo, T., Kobayashi, I., & Murakami, M. (2006). Effect of exercise on
circulating adipokine levels in obese young women. Endocrine Journal, 53(2), 189-195.
Koenig, H. G. (2006). Religion, spirituality and aging. Aging & Mental
Health, 10(1), 1-3.
Kuan, S.C., Chen, K. M., & Wang, C. (2011). Effects of Qigong in
promoting health of the wheelchair-bound older adults in long-term care facilities. Retrieved August 31, 2011 from Biological Research for Nursing http://brn.sagepub.com/content/early/2011/03/07/1099800411399645
Lan, C., Chou, S. W., Chen, S. Y., Lai, J. S., & Wong, M. K. (2004). The
aerobic capacity and ventilatory efficiency during exercise in Qigong and Tai Chi Chuan practitioners. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 32(1), 141-150.
Lansinger, B., Larsson, E., Persson, L. C., & Carlsson, J. (2007). Qigong
and exercise therapy in patients with long-term neck pain: A prospective randomized trial. Spine, 32(22), 2415-2422.
Lee, H. J., Park, H. J., Chae, Y., Kim, S.Y., Kim, S. N., & Kim, S.T.
(2009). Tai Chi Qigong for the quality of life of patients with knee
osteoarthritis: A pilot, randomized, waiting list controlled trial. Clinical Rehabilitation, 23(6), 504-511.
Lee, M. S., Chen, K. W., Choi, T. Y., & Ernst, E. (2009). Qigong for type
2 diabetes care: A systematic review. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 17(4), 236-242.
Lee, M. S., Huh, H. J., Jeong, S. M., Jang, H. S., Ryu, H., & Park, J. H.,
et al. (2003a). Effects of Qigong on immune cells. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine,31(2), 327-335.
Lee, M. S., Jeong, S. M., Kim, Y. K., Park, K. W., Lee, M. S., & Ryu, H.,
et al. (2003b). Qi-training enhances respiratory burst function and adhesive capacity of neutrophils in young adults: A
preliminary study. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine,31(1), 141-148.
Lee, M. S., Huh, H. J., Kim, B. G., Ryu, H., Lee, H. S., & Kim, J. M., et
al. (2002). Effects of Qi-training on heart rate variability. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 30(4), 463-470.
Lee, M. S., Kang, C. W., Lim, H. J., & Lee, M. S. (2004). Effects of
qi-training on anxiety and plasma concentrations of cortisol, ACTH, and aldosterone: A randomized placebo-controlled pilot study. Stress
Health, 20(5), 243-248.
Lee, M. S., Kang, C. W., & Ryu, H. (2004). Effect of Qi training on
neutrophil function in young and elderly males. The Journal of Alternative Complementary Medicine, 10(4), 681-683.
Lee, M. S., Kang, C. W., Ryu, H., & Moon, S. R. (2004). Endocrine and
immune effects of Qi-training. International Journal of Neuroscience, 114(4), 529-537.
Lee, M. S., Kim, B. G., Huh, H. J., Ryu, H., Lee, H. S., & Chung, H. T.
(2000). Effects of Qigong on blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate. Clinical Physiology, 20(3), 173-176.
Lee, M. S., Kim, M. K.,& Ryu, H. (2005). Qi-training (Qigong) enhanced
immune functions: What is the underling mechanism. International Journal of Neuroscience, 115(8), 1099-1104.
Lee, M. S., Kim, M. K., Ryu, H., Shin, B. C., & Kim, Y. S. (2006).
Qi-training and immunological parameters: A cross-sectional study. International Journal of Neuroscience, 116(8), 921-926.
Lee, M. S., Lee, M. S., Choi, E. S., & Chung, H. T. (2003). Effects of
Qigong on blood pressure, blood pressure determinants and ventilatory function in middle-aged patients with essential hypertension. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 31(3), 489-497.
Lee, M. S., Lee, M. S., & Kim, H.J. (2003a). Qigong reduced blood
pressure and catecholamine levels of patients with essential hypertension. International Journal Neuroscience, 113(12), 1691-1701.
Lee, M. S., Lee, M. S., & Kim, H.J. (2003b). Effects of Qigong on
blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and other lipid levels in essential hypertension patients. International Journal of Neuroscience, 114(7), 777-786.
Lee, M. S., Lee, M. S., Coi, E. S., & Chung, H. T. (2003). Effects of
Qigong on blood pressure, blood pressure determinants and ventilatory function in middle-aged patients with essential hypertension. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 31(3), 489-497.
Lee, M. S., Lim, H. J., & Lee, M. S. (2004). Impact of Qigong exercise
on self-efficacy and other cognitive perceptual variables in patients in patients with essential hypertension. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary, 10(4), 675-680.
Lee, M. S., & Ryu, H. (2004). Qi-training enhances neutrophil function
by increasing growth hormone levels in elderly men. International Journal of Neuroscience, 114(10), 1313-1322.
Lee, M. S., Ryu, H., Song, H., & Moon, S. R. (2004). Effects of
Qi-training (Qigong) on forearm blood gas concentration. International Journal of Neuroscience, 114(11), 1503-1510.
Lee, T. I., Chen, H. H., & Yeh, M. L. (2006). Effects of Chan-Chuang
qigong on improving symptom and psychological distress in chemotherapy patients. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 34(1), 37-46.
Li, M., Chen, K., & Mo, Z. (2002). Use of qigong therapy in the
detoxification of heroin addicts. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 8(1), 50-54.
Li, Q. Z., Li, P., Garcia, G. E., Johnson, R. J., & Feng, L. (2005).
Genomic profiling of neutrophil transcript in Asian Qigong practioners: A polit study in gene regulation by mind-body interaction. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 11(1), 29-39.
Lim, Y.A., Boone, T., Flarity, J.R., & Thompson, W.R. (1993). Effects of
qigong on cardiorespiratory changes: A preliminary study. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 21(1), 1-6.
Lin, Z., Yu, L., Guo, Z., Shen, Z., Zhang, H., & Zhang, T. (2000).
Qigong: Chinese medicine or pseudoscience? New York: Prometheus Books.
Liu, X., Miller, Y. D., Burton, N. W., Chang, J., & Brown, W. J. (2011).
Qi-Gong mind-body therapy and diabetes control. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 41(2), 152-158.
Liu, Y., Mimura, K., Wang, L. & Ikuda, K. (2003). Physiological benefits of
24-style Taijiquan exercise in middle-aged women. Journal of
Physiological Anthropology Applied Human Science, 22 (5), 219-225.
Liu, X., Miller, Y. D., Burton, N. W., & Brown, W. J. (2010). A
preliminary study of the effects of Tai Chi and Qigong medical exercise on indicators of metabolic syndrome, glycaemic control, health-related quality of life, and psychological health in adults with elevated blood glucose. British Journal of Sports Medicine,44(10),704-709.
Liu, X., Miller, Y. D., Burton, N. W., Chang, J. H., &Brown, W. J.
(2011). Qi-gong mind-body therapy and diabetes control a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 41 (2), 152-8.
Lu, W. A., & Kuo, C. D. (2006). Comparison of the effects of Tai Chi
Chuan and Wai Tan Kung exercises on autonomic nervous system modulation and on hemodynamics in elder adults. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 34( 6), 959-968.
Mannerkorpi, K., & Arndorw, M. (2004). Efficacy and feasibility of a
combination of body awareness therapy and Qigong in patients with fibromyalgia: A pilot study. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 36, 279-281. doi: 10.1080/16501970410031912
Manzaneque, J.M., Vera, F. M., Rodriguez, F. M., Garcia, G. J., Leyva, L., & Blanca, M. J. (2009). Serum cytokines, mood and sleep after a qigong program: Is Qigong an effective psychobiological tool. Journal of Health Psychology, 14 (1), 60-67.
McCaffery, R., & Fowler, N. L. (2003). Qigong practice: A pathway
to health and healing. Holistic Nursing Practice, 17(2), 110-116.
Michigan, A., Johnson, T. V., & Master, V. J. (2011). Review of the
relationship between c-reactive protein and exercise. Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy, 15(5), 265-275.
doi: 10.2165/11593400-000000000-00000
Miotto, J. M., Chodzko-Zajiko, W. J., Reich, J. L. & Supler, M. M.
(1999). Reliability and validity of the Fullerton functional fitness test: An independent replication study. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 7(4), 7339-353.
Montero-Odasso, M., Schapira, M., Soriano, E. R., Varela, M., Kaplan,
R.,& Camera, L. A., et al. (2005). Gait velocity as a single predictor of adverse events in healthy seniors aged 75 years and older. The Journal of Gerontology, 60A(10), 1304-1309.
Muse, T. (2005). Motivation and adherence to exercise for older adults.
Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation, 20(2), 107-115.
Nelson, M.E., Rejeski, W.J., Blair, S.N., Duncan, P.W., Judge, J.O., &
King, A. C.et al. (2007). Physical activity and public health in older adults: Recommendation from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation,116(9), 1094-1106.
Ni, P. (1996). A Qigong interpretation of Confucianism. Journal of
Chinese Philosophy, 23(1), 79-97.
Ng, B. H. P., & Tsang, H. W. H. (2009). Psychophysiological outcomes
of health qigong for chronic conditions: A systematic review. Psychophysiology, 46(2), 257-269.
Ng , B. H. P.,Tsang, H. W. H., Jones, A. Y. M., So, C. T., & Thomas, Y.
W. (2011). Functional and psychosocial effects of health Qigong in patients with COPD: A randomized controlled trial. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 17(3), 243-251.
Nyunt, M. S. Z., Fones, C., Niti, M., & Ng, T. P. (2009). Criterion-based
validity and reliability of the Geriatric Depression Screening Scale (GDS-15) in a large validation sample of community-living Asian older adults. Aging & Mental Health, 13(3), 376-382.
Oh, B., Butow, P., &Mullan, B. (2008). Medical Qigong for cancer
patients: Pilot study of impact on quality of life, side effects of treatment and inflammation. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 36(3), 459- 472.
Oh, B., Butow, P.N., Mullan, B. A., Clarke, S. J., Beale, P. J., Pavlakis, N.,
…Vardy, J. (2012). Effect of medical Qigong on cognitive function, quality of life, and a biomarker of inflammation in cancer patients: A randomized controlled trial. Support Care Cancer, 20, 1235-1242. doi:10.1007/s00520-011-1209-6
Oldridge, N. B., Stump, T. E., Nothwehr, F. K., & Clark, D. O. (2001).
Prevalence and outcomes of comorbid metabolic and cardiovascular conditions in middle- and older-age adults. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 54(9), 928-934.
Park, H. A., Park, J. K., Park, S. A., & Lee, J. S. (2010). Age, menopause, and
cardiovascular risk factors among Korean middle-aged women: the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Journal of Women's Health (15409996), 19(5), 869-876.
Patsdaughter, C. (1989). The mother–daughter relationship in menopause
andthe aging process. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Seattle: University of Washington.
Pippa, L., Manzoli, L., Corti, I., Congedo,G., Romanazzi, L., & Parruti,
G. (2007). Functional capacity after traditional Chinese medicine (Qi Gong) training in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation: A randomized controlled trial. Preventive Cardiology, 10(1), 22-25.
Polit, D. F., & Hungler, B. P. (2003). Nursing research : Principles and
methods(7th ed.). Lippincott: Philadelphia
Rendant, D., Pach, D., Lüdtke, R., Reisshauer, A., Mietzner, A., &
Willich, S., et al. (2011). Qigong versus exercise versus no therapy for patients with chronic neck pain. Spine, 36(6), 419-427.
Reuther, I., & Aldridge, D. (1998). Qigong Yangsheng as a
complementary therapy in the management of Asthma: A single case appraisal. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 4(2), 173-183.
Ryu, H., Jun, C. D., Lee, B. S., Choi, B. M., Kim, H. M., & Chung, H. T.
(1995a). Effect of qigong training on proportions of T lymphocyte subsets in human peripheral blood. The Amercan Journal of Chinese Medicine, 23(1), 27-36.
Ryu, H., Mo, H. Y., Mo, G. D., Choi, B. M., Jun, C. D., & Seo, C. M., et
al. (1995b). Delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions in Qigong (chun do sun bup) trainees by multitest cell mediated immunity, The Amercan Journal of Chinese Medicine, 23(2),139-44.
Rikli, R. E., & Jones, C. J. (1999). Development and validation of a
functional fitness test for community-residing older adults. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 7(2), 127-159.
Rikli, R. E., & Jones, C. J. (2001). Senior fitness test manual. Champaign, IL : Human Kinetics.
Ritter, C., & Aldridge, D. (2001).Qigong Yangsheng as a therapeutic
approach for the treatment of essential hypertension in comparison
with a western muscle relaxation therapy: A randomised, controlled pilot. Chinesische Medizin,16, 48-63.
Robine, J. M., & Ritchie, K. (1991). Healthy life expectancy : Evaluation
of global indicator of change in population health. British Medical Journal, 302(23), 457-500.
Rogers, C. E., Larkey, L. K., & Keller, C. (2009). A review of clinical
trials of Tai Chi and Qigong in older adults. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 31( 2), 245-279.
Ross, S. M. (2009). Qigong: An ancient healing tradition. Holistic
Nursing Practice, 23(6):370–371.
Sabatine, M. S., Morrow, D. A., Jablonski, K. A., Rice, M. M., Warnica,
J. W., & Domanski, M. J., et al. (2007). Prognostic significance of the Centers for Disease Control/American Heart Association high-sensitivity c-reactive protein cut points for cardiovascular and other outcomes in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Circulation, 15(12), 1528-1536.
Sagardui-Villamor, J., Guallar-Castillo´n, P., Garcı´a-Ferruelo, M.,
Banegas, J. R., & Rodrı´guez-Artalejo, F. (2005). Trends in disability and disability-free life expectancy among elderly people in Spain: 1986–1999. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 60A(8), 1028-1034.
Sakata, T., Li, Q., Tanaka, M., & Tajima, F. (2008). Positive effects of a
qigong and aerobic exercise program on physical health in elderly Japanese women: An exploratory study. Environmental Health and Preventive,13(3), 162-168.
Sancier, K. M. (1996). Medical applications of Qigong. Alternative
Therapies, 2(1), 40-46.
Sancier, K. M., & Holman, D. (2004). Commentary: Multifaceted
health benefits of medical Qigong. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 10(1), 163-165.
Shek, D. T. L., & Ma, C. M. S. (2011). Longitudinal data analyses using
linear mixed models in SPSS: Concepts, procedures and illustrations. The Scientific World Journal,11, 42-76. doi: 10.1100/tsw.2011.2
Sheikh, J. I., & Yesavage, J. A. (1986). Geriatric Depression Scale:
Recent evidence and development of a shorter version. Clinical Gerontologist, 5(1-2), 165-173.
Schmitz-Hübsch, T., Pyfer, D., Kielwein, K., Fimmers, R., Klockgether,
T., Wüllner, U. (2006). Qigong exercise for the symptoms of Parkinson's disease: A randomized, controlled pilot study. Movement Disorders, 21(4), 543-548.
Shnauzer, M. (2006). Qigong: The art of self-healing. Perspectives in
Psychiatric Care, 42(1), 53-54.
Singh, M. A. F. (2001). Exercise comes of age: Rationale and recommendations a geriatric exercise prescription. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 57A(5), M262-M282.
Siu, J. Y., Sung, H. C., & Lee, W. L. (2007). Qigong practice among
chronically ill patients during the SARS outbreak. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 16( 4), 769-776.
Skoglund, L,. Josephson, M., Wahlstedt, K., Lampa, E., & Norbäck, D.
(2011). Qigong training and effects on stress, neck-shoulder pain and life quality in a computerised office environment. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 17 (1), 54-57.
Stenlund, T., Ahlgren, C., Lindahl, B., Burell, G., Steinholtz, K., Edlund,
C., & Nilsson, L., et al. (2009). Cognitively oriented behavioral rehabilitation in combination with Qigong for patients on long-term sick leave because of burnout: REST-A randomized clinical trial. International Journal of Behavior Medicine, 16(3), 294-303.
Stenlund, T., Birgander, L. S., Lindahl, B., Nilsson, L., & Ahlgren, C.
(2009). Effects of Qigong in patients with burnout: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 41(9), 761-767.
Sui, X., LaMonte, M.J., Laditka, J.N., Hardin, J.W., Chase, N., et al.
(2007). Cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity as mortality predictors in older adults. Journal of American Medical Association, 298(21), 2507-2516.
Suls, J., & Bunde, J. (2005). Anger, anxiety, and depression as risk
factors for cardiovascular disease: The problems and implications of overlapping affective dispositions. Psychological Bulletin, 131(2), 260-300.
Sun, G. C., Lovejoy, J. C., Gillham, S., Putiri, A., Sasagawa, M., &
Bradley, R. (2010). Effects of Qigong on glucose control in Type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 33(1), e8.
Tabata, K. (2005). Population aging, the costs of health care for the elderly and growth. Journal of Macroeconomics, 27(3), 472-493.
Taylor, W.A., & Johnson, M.T. (2007). Physiology of Exercise and Healthy Aging. Human Kinetics.
Tsai,Y. K., Chen, H. H., Lin, I. H., & Yeh, M. L. (2008). Qigong improving physical status in middle-aged women. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 30(8), 915-927.
Tsang, H. W. H. (2004). Qigong as a alternative therapy for depression
and anxiety disorders. International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, 11(6), 250.
Tsang, H. W. H., Cheung, L., & Lak, D. C. C. (2002). Qigong as a
psychosocial intervention for depressed elderly with chronic physical illness. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17(2), 1146-1154.
Tsang, H. W. H., Cheug, L., & Lak, D. C.C. (2007). A qualitative review
of the role of Qigong in the management of diabetes. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 13(4), 427-433.
Tsang, H. W. H., Fung, K. M. T., Chan, A. S. M., Lee, G., & Chan, F.
(2006). Effect of a qigong exercise programme on elderly with depression. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21(9), 890-897.
Tsang, H. W. H., Mok, C. K., Yeung, Y. T. A., & Chan, S. Y. C. (2003).
The effects of Qigong on general and psychological health of elderly with chronic physical illnesses: A randomized clinical trial. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 18(5), 441-449.
Thomas, C., F. (1999). A nurse led programme improved physical
function in older adults with chronic disease. Evidence-Based Nursing, 2(3), 86.
Vera, F. M., Manzaneque, J. M., Maldonado, E. F., Carranque, G. A.,
Cubero, V. M., & Blanca, M. J., et al. (2007). Biochemical changes after a qigong program: Lipids, serum enzymes, urea, and creatinine in healthy subjects. Medical Science Monitor, 13(12), CR560-566.
von Trott, P., Wiedemann, A. M., Lüdtke, R., Reihauer, A., Willich, S. N.,
& Witt, C. M. (2009). Qigong and exercise therapy for elderly patients with chronic neck pain (QIBANE): A randomized controlled study. The Journal of Pain, 10(5 ), 501-508.
Wang, J. J. (2001). Prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms in the elderly of rural communities in the southern Taiwan. Journal of Nursing Research, 9(3), 1-12.
Whaley, M. H., Brubaker, P. H., & Otto, R. M. (2006). ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription (7th.ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
William, M. A., Haskell, W. L., Ades, P. A., Amsterdam, E. A., Bittner, V., & Franklin, B. A. et al. (2007). Resistance exercise in individuals with and without cardiovascular disease: 2007 update: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association council on clinical cardiology and council on nutrition, physical activity, and metabolism. Circulation, 116(5), 572-584.
Wirth, D. P., Cram, J. R., &Chang, R. J. (1997). Multisite
electromyographic analysis of therapeutic touch and qigong therapy. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 3(2), 109-118.
World Health Organization. (2003, November). Gender, health and
ageing. Retrieved January 16, 2011, from http://www.who.int/gender/documents/en/Gender-Ageing
World Health Organization (WHO) (2013a). Health topic. Retrieved
March 13, 2013, from
http://www.who.int/topics/ageing/en/
World Health Organization (WHO) (2013b). World Health Statistics.
Retrieved March13, 2013, from http://www.who.int/whosis/whostat/EN_WHS10_Full.pdf
World Health Organization (WHO) (2013c). Life expectancy. Retrieved March 13, 2013, from http://www.who.int/topics/life_expectancy/en/
World Health Organization (WHO) (2013d). Active ageing makes the
difference. Retrieved March 13, 2013, from
http://www.who.int/ageing/publications/alc_embrace2001_en.pdf
World Health Organization (WHO) (2013e). What is "active ageing"?
Retrieved March 13,, 2013, from
http://www.who.int/ageing/active_ageing/en/index.html
Wu, W. H., Bandilla, E., Ciccone, D. S., Yang, J., Cheng, S.C., & Carner,
N., et al. (1999). Effects of qigong on late-stage complex regional pain syndrome. Alternative Therapies Health Medicine, 5(1), 45-54.
Wurm, S., Tesch-Romer,C., & Tomasik, M. J. (2007). Longitudinal
findings on aging-related cognitions, control beliefs, and health in later life. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 62B(3), 156-164.
Wurm, S., Tomasik, M. J., & Tesch-Römer, C. (2010). On the importance of a positive view on ageing for physical exercise among middle-aged and older adults: Cross-sectional and longitudinal findings. Psychology and Health, 25(1), 25-42. doi: 10.1080/08870440802311314
Xin, L., Miller, Y. D., & Brown, W. J. (2007). A qualitative review of the
role of Qigong in the management of diabetes. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 13(4), 427-433.
Yang, Y., Verkuilen, J., Rosengren, K.S., Mariani, R. A., Reed, M.,
Grubisich, S. A., & Grubisich, S. A., et al. (2007). Effects of a Taiji and Qigong intervention on the antibody response to influenza vaccine in older adults. The American Journal of Chinese medicine, 35(4), 597-607.
Yang, Y., Verkuilen, J. V., Grubisich, S. A., Reed, M. R., & Rosengren,
K. S. (2007). The effect of Taiji (T’ai Chi)/Qigong (Ch’i Kung) on balance in older adults. Carle Selected Papers,50 (2), 8-18.
Yeh, S. C., & Chang, M. Y. (2012). The effect of Qigong on menopausal symptoms and quality of sleep for perimenopausal women: A preliminary observational study. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 18(6), 567-575. doi:10.1089/acm.2011.0133.
Youn, C. S., Choi, S. P., Kim, S. H., Oh, S. H., Jeong, W. J., Kim, H. J., &
Park, K. N. (2012). Serum highly selective c-reactive protein concentration is associated with the volume of ischemic tissue in acute ischemic stroke. American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 30, 124-128. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2010.11.006
Yu, D. H., Wu, J. M., & Niu A.J. (2009). Health-promoting effect of LBP
and healthy Qigong exercise on physiological functions in old subjects. Carbohydrate Polymers, 75,312-316.
Zhang, W., Zheng, R., Zhang, B., Yu, W., & Shen, X. (1993). An
observation on flash evoked cortical potentials and Qigong meditation. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 21 (3-4), pp. 243-9.
Zhu, W., & Chodzko-Zajko, W. (2006). Measurement issues in aging and physical activity. Urbana-Champaign: Human Kinetics.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2018-07-31起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2018-07-31起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw